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Technical Paper

Water Jacket Spacer for Improvement of Cylinder Bore Temperature Distribution

2005-04-11
2005-01-1156
For reduction of fuel consumption, a new device “Water Jacket Spacer” which improves temperature distribution of a cylinder block bore wall was developed. In the case of a conventional cylinder block, coolant flow concentrates at the bottom and middle region of the water jacket. While temperature of the upper bore wall is high (due to high-temperature combustion gas) the temperature of the lower bore wall is low, since its only function is to support the piston. When the developed spacer is inserted into a water jacket, the coolant flow concentrates at the upper part of the jacket. As a result, cooling ability to the upper bore wall was improved and temperature of lower bore wall was increased, thereby reducing fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of Bead-Stiffened Flat Panels: FEA, SEA, and Experimental Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1698
Vibration and sound radiation characteristics of bead-stiffened panels are investigated. Rectangular panels with different bead configurations are considered. The attention is focused on various design parameters, such as orientation, depth, and periodicity, and their effects on equivalent bending stiffness, modal density, radiation efficiency and sound transmission. A combined FEA-SEA approach is used to determine the response characteristics of panels across a broad frequency range. The details of the beads are represented in fine-meshed FEA models. Based on predicted surface velocities, Rayleigh integral is evaluated numerically to calculate the sound pressure, sound power and then the radiation efficiency of beaded panels. Analytical results are confirmed by comparing them with experimental measurements. In the experiments, the modal densities of the panels are inferred from averaged mechanical conductance.
Journal Article

Vibration Torque Interception using Multi-Functional Electromagnetic Coupling in a HEV Drive Line

2016-04-05
2016-01-1181
Abstract In the present paper, we introduce a drivetrain system using an electromagnetic coupling for hybrid electric vehicles, and propose a new control concept of vibration torque interception. The electromagnetic coupling is an electric machine that is composed of a pair of rotors, and electromagnetic torque acts mutually between the rotors. In the drivetrain system, the electromagnetic coupling works as a torque transmission device with a rotational-speed-converting function. We demonstrate that, by using this control, the electromagnetic coupling also works as a damping device that intercepts the vibration torque of the internal combustion engine, while transmitting the smooth torque to its drive line. Using a model of a two-inertia resonance system, a control system is designed such that a transfer function representing input-to-output torque is shaped in the frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Vibration Reduction Applying Skew Phenomena of Needle Roller Bearings in Brake Actuators

2006-04-03
2006-01-0881
Generally, automobiles have many performance requirements for comfort, of which noise, vibration and harshness are very important. Toyota Motor Corporation equipped several 2003 models with the second-generation Electronically Controlled Brake system (ECB2). These ECB2 actuator units adopted a new structure that reduced pumping noise by controlling the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings. Normally, needle roller bearings are advantageous over other bearings in cases where a large force is loaded on bearings, because the contact areas can be made larger. However, a thrust force arises from skew phenomena because of minute clearances among the component parts of needle roller bearings. As a result, axial vibration of the bearing shaft sometimes occurs due to the thrust force. This paper explains how the thrust force generated from the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings occasionally affects the pumping vibration level of equipped machinery such as the brake actuator unit.
Technical Paper

Versatile Occupant Analysis Model (V.O.A.M) for Frontal Impacts Using LS-DYNA and MADYMO

2005-04-11
2005-01-1000
Regulations implemented by safety commissions throughout the world have resulted in extensive physical testing to protect the occupants during frontal impact events. Significant prototype and test costs aimed at optimizing structure and restraint systems are associated with meeting these regulations. To help reduce development costs, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is often applied. LS-DYNA [1] coupled with MADYMO [2] is widely used in crash and occupant safety simulation. An analysis technique which utilized a single model to design and optimize interiors (instrument panel, seats, visor, steering wheel, steering column) and restraints (airbag, seatbelts, retractor, pre-tensioner) was developed. The single model concept captures the global structural kinematics through minimal vehicle representation. Global vehicle modes such as pitch and roll can be represented by applying prescribed motion boundary conditions extracted from full vehicle models.
Technical Paper

Verification of High Frequency SiC On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger for PHV

2016-04-05
2016-01-1210
Abstract This paper presents a new application of a vehicle on-board battery charger utilizing high frequency Silicon Carbide (SiC) power devices. SiC is one of the most promising alternatives to Silicon (Si) for power semiconductor devices due to its superior material characteristics such as lower on-state resistance, higher junction temperature, and higher switching frequency. An on-board charger prototype is developed demonstrating these advantages and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating with a switching frequency of 250 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.06 kW results in a gravimetric power density of 3.8 W/kg and a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L, which are about 10 times the densities compared with the current Prius Plug-In Si charger. SiC technology is indispensable to eco-friendly PHV/EV development.
Technical Paper

Verification of Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Application of Highly Effective Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor to HV Inverter

2016-04-05
2016-01-1230
Abstract A prototype power control unit (PCU) was manufactured using silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors (diodes and transistors), which have low power loss when switching on and off. This PCU was installed in a hybrid vehicle (HV) and driven on a test course and chassis dynamometer. The test results confirmed a fuel efficiency improvement of about 5 percent.
Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

2012-04-16
2012-01-1161
This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Technical Paper

Verification Test Results of Wireless Charging System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1155
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) began a wireless charging field test in February 2014. A wireless charging system was installed at the residences of test subjects with the aim of identifying issues related to convenience and installation in daily usage. The test vehicle was fabricated by installing a wireless charging system into a Prius PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle). The installed system had the same charging power as the cable charging system used on the base vehicle, and had a charging time of 1.5 hours. A high-frequency 85 kHz power supply and primary coil were produced for the charging infrastructure. To identify differences in charging behavior, the test subjects were asked to use the cable charging system for the first month before changing to the wireless charging system for two months. Data acquisition was performed by an on-board data logger and through interviews with the test subjects.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Speed Prediction for Driver Assistance Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0170
A predictive automatic gear shift system is currently under development. The system optimizes the gear shift process, taking the conditions of the road ahead into account, such that the fuel consumption is minimized. An essential part of the system is a module that predicts the vehicle speed dynamics: This calculates a speed trajectory, i.e. the most probable vehicle speed the driver will desire for the upcoming section of the route. In the paper the theoretical background for predicting the vehicle speed, and simulation results of the predictive shift algorithm are presented.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Pulse Shape Optimization to Improve Occupant Response in Front Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-1625
This paper presents a new approach to improve occupant response in a front impact event. Instead of designing a vehicle structure for maximum structural efficiency and safety and then engineer a restraint system for the vehicle, this paper proposes to use a systems approach. In this approach, the vehicle structural response during impact (i.e., pulse) and the restraint system are considered together in the optimization process. In this paper, the 35 mph front impact into a rigid barrier with belted occupants, which is the NHTSA NCAP test, will be used to demonstrate the proposed new approach.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Mass and Stiffness: Search for a Relationship

2004-03-08
2004-01-1168
The effects of vehicle “stiffness” and mass on the occupant response during a crash may be determined by evaluation of accident data. However, “stiffness” and mass may be correlated, making it difficult to separate their effects. In addition, a single-valued “stiffness”, although well defined for linear case, is not well defined for non-linear systems, such as in vehicle crash, making the separation task even more difficult. One approach to addressing the lack of a clear definition of stiffness is to use multiple definitions. Each stiffness definition can then be correlated with mass to look for trends. In this study, such an approach was taken, and the different stiffness definitions were given and their values were obtained from rigid barrier crash test data. No clear relationship between mass and stiffness appears to exist. All the stiffness measures reviewed show, at best, only a weak correlation with mass. A stiffness analysis among different vehicle types was also carried out.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior Noise and Vibration Reduction Method Using Transfer Function of Body Structure

2011-05-17
2011-01-1692
To reduce interior noise effectively in the vehicle body structure development process, noise and vibration engineers have to first identify the portions of the body that have high sensitivity. Second, the necessary vibration characteristics of each portion must be determined, and third, the appropriate body structure for achieving the target performance of the vehicle must be realized within a short development timeframe. This paper proposes a new method based on the substructure synthesis method which is effective up to 200Hz. This method primarily utilizes equations expressing the relationship between driving point inertance change at arbitrary body portions and the corresponding sound pressure level (SPL) variation at the occupant's ear positions under external force. A modified system equation was derived from the body transfer functions and equation of motion by adding a virtual dynamic stiffness expression into the dynamic stiffness matrix of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Simulator- A Quality Control Tool to evaluate the Performance of Low Level Emission Sampling and Analytical Systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-0391
As the standards for exhaust emissions have become more stringent, the quality control tools used to evaluate the performance of low level samplers and analyzers has become more important. The Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Simulator (VEES) was developed to evaluate the performance of vehicle or engine exhaust emissions sampling and analytical systems. The simulator emulates emissions from low-emitting gasoline vehicles by producing a simulated exhaust stream containing emission constituents (HC, CO, CO2, and NOx) injected via Mass Flow Controllers (MFCs). This paper discusses various applications of the VEES as a quality control tool for ULEV and SULEV testing. A comparison is made between the injected amount of exhaust species by the VEES and the amounts recovered by the different sampling systems. Different root cause scenarios are discussed as to the source of discrepancies between the results on the CVS and BMD for different driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Vehicle E/E System Integrity From Concept to Customer

2002-10-21
2002-21-0018
The goal of an OEM electrical/electronics (E/E) platform organization is to release reliable E/E systems that achieve high levels of customer satisfaction with minimum investment and system cost. Achieving this goal is made more challenging by rapid advances in E/E technology and features which impact the vehicle development business environment. This paper discusses the evolution of an OEM platform organization striving to achieve E/E system integrity in an ever-changing world and eventually achieved the world class electrical quality as measured by J. D. Power. The organizational evolution progresses through a series of philosophies and methodologies, adapting new initiatives and enablers seeking continuous improvement. The result is an OEM organization with: knowledge based on lessons learned, an understanding of E/E system architecture, and enabled by models and tools to provide high levels of customer satisfaction.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cradle Durability Design Development

2005-04-11
2005-01-1003
In this paper, cradle design functional objectives are briefly reviewed and a durability development process is proposed focusing on the cradle loads, stress, strain, and fatigue life analysis. Based upon the proposed design process, sample isolated and non-isolated cradle finite element (FE) models for a uni-body sport utility vehicle (SUV) under different design phases are solved and correlated with laboratory bench and proving ground tests. The correlation results show that the applied cradle models can be used to accurately predict the critical stress spots and fatigue life under various loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Vegetable Oil Hydrogenating Process for Automotive Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2030
From the viewpoint of primary energy diversification and CO2 reduction, interests of using Biomass Fuel are rising. Some kinds of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester), which are obtained from oil fats like vegetable oil using transesterification reaction with methanol, are getting Palm Oilpular for bio-diesel recently. In this study, we have conducted many experiments of palm oil hydrogenations using our pilot plants, and checked the reactivity and the pattern of product yields. As a result, we figured out that the hydrocarbon oil equivalent to the conventional diesel fuel can be obtained from vegetable oils in good yield under mild hydrogenation conditions. Moreover, as a result of various evaluations for the hydrogenated palm oil (oxidation stability, lowtemperature flow property, LCA, etc.), we found that the hydrogenated palm oil by our technology has performances almost equivalent to conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Variation in Corrosion Resistance of Trivalent Chromate Coating Depending on Type of Zinc Plating Bath

2006-04-03
2006-01-1671
Trivalent chromate coating is replacing the conventional hexavalent chromate coating applied on zinc plating. Zinc plating uses one of three types of plating baths (zincate, cyanide and chloride) according to the characteristics required of subject parts. It has been recognized that trivalent chromate coating provides different corrosion resistance depending on the type of zinc plating bath used. Zinc plating with chromate coating were analyzed to clarify the cause of the corrosion resistance variation with the type of zinc plating bath. It has been revealed that the chromate coating thickness and the condition of top SiO2 layer vary with the type of zinc plating bath, resulting in corrosion resistance variation.
Technical Paper

Valve Train Dynamic Analysis and Validation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1457
In order to reduce engine development timing and cost, a numerical calculation has been developed by Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Technical Center to evaluate valve train systems. The goal is to predict valve_bounce speed, valve displacement, hydraulic lash adjuster motion and strain in the rocker arm. The numerical procedure combines finite element model and multi-body dynamic analysis. Normally, strain calculation is a two-step process. In the first step, engineers obtain the excitation from the dynamic analysis. In the second step, engineers use the forcing function from dynamic analysis to calculate strain and stress. The new approach in this paper, using ADAMS, calculates dynamic load and recover strain simultaneously. As the flexibility of the moving part (for example rocker arm) is taken into account in the equations of motion, ADAMS will calculate the modal strain. Based on the modal strain, the strain or stress at any given node(s) can be recovered.
Technical Paper

Validation of Vehicle NVH Performance using Experimental Modal Testing and In-Vehicle Dynamic Measurements

2007-05-15
2007-01-2320
NVH targets for future vehicles are often defined by utilizing a competitive benchmarking vehicle in conjunction with an existing production and/or reference vehicle. Mode management of full vehicle modes is one of the most effective and significant NVH strategies to achieve such targets. NVH dynamic characteristics of a full vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of global body mode resonance frequency, damping property, and mode shape. Major body modes identified from full vehicle modal testing are primarily dominated by the vehicle's body-in-white structure. Therefore, an estimate of BIW modes from full vehicle modes becomes essential, when only full vehicle modes from experimental modal testing exist. Establishing BIW targets for future vehicles confines the fundamental NVH behavior of the full vehicle.
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