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Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms of Steel Under Boundary Lubrication in Presence of Carbon Black and Graphite Nano-onions Particles

Both carbon blacks and carbon nano-onions nanoparticles have a spheroidal shape and a nested structure. They can be used to simulate the presence of soots in used engine oils. When added to fully formulated fresh engines oils, these two kinds of particles behave very differently. Carbon black particles are highly abrasive causing a lot of wear of steel surfaces and friction increases. At the opposite, the addition of carbon onions in lubricant leads to a reduction of both friction and wear compared to pure base oil. This shows that there is an opportunity to control wear in engines by changing the structure of soots during the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Water Jacket Spacer for Improvement of Cylinder Bore Temperature Distribution

For reduction of fuel consumption, a new device “Water Jacket Spacer” which improves temperature distribution of a cylinder block bore wall was developed. In the case of a conventional cylinder block, coolant flow concentrates at the bottom and middle region of the water jacket. While temperature of the upper bore wall is high (due to high-temperature combustion gas) the temperature of the lower bore wall is low, since its only function is to support the piston. When the developed spacer is inserted into a water jacket, the coolant flow concentrates at the upper part of the jacket. As a result, cooling ability to the upper bore wall was improved and temperature of lower bore wall was increased, thereby reducing fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Vibration Torque Interception using Multi-Functional Electromagnetic Coupling in a HEV Drive Line

In the present paper, we introduce a drivetrain system using an electromagnetic coupling for hybrid electric vehicles, and propose a new control concept of vibration torque interception. The electromagnetic coupling is an electric machine that is composed of a pair of rotors, and electromagnetic torque acts mutually between the rotors. In the drivetrain system, the electromagnetic coupling works as a torque transmission device with a rotational-speed-converting function. We demonstrate that, by using this control, the electromagnetic coupling also works as a damping device that intercepts the vibration torque of the internal combustion engine, while transmitting the smooth torque to its drive line. Using a model of a two-inertia resonance system, a control system is designed such that a transfer function representing input-to-output torque is shaped in the frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Vibration Reduction Applying Skew Phenomena of Needle Roller Bearings in Brake Actuators

Generally, automobiles have many performance requirements for comfort, of which noise, vibration and harshness are very important. Toyota Motor Corporation equipped several 2003 models with the second-generation Electronically Controlled Brake system (ECB2). These ECB2 actuator units adopted a new structure that reduced pumping noise by controlling the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings. Normally, needle roller bearings are advantageous over other bearings in cases where a large force is loaded on bearings, because the contact areas can be made larger. However, a thrust force arises from skew phenomena because of minute clearances among the component parts of needle roller bearings. As a result, axial vibration of the bearing shaft sometimes occurs due to the thrust force. This paper explains how the thrust force generated from the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings occasionally affects the pumping vibration level of equipped machinery such as the brake actuator unit.
Technical Paper

Verification of High Frequency SiC On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger for PHV

This paper presents a new application of a vehicle on-board battery charger utilizing high frequency Silicon Carbide (SiC) power devices. SiC is one of the most promising alternatives to Silicon (Si) for power semiconductor devices due to its superior material characteristics such as lower on-state resistance, higher junction temperature, and higher switching frequency. An on-board charger prototype is developed demonstrating these advantages and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating with a switching frequency of 250 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.06 kW results in a gravimetric power density of 3.8 W/kg and a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L, which are about 10 times the densities compared with the current Prius Plug-In Si charger. SiC technology is indispensable to eco-friendly PHV/EV development.
Technical Paper

Verification of Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Application of Highly Effective Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor to HV Inverter

A prototype power control unit (PCU) was manufactured using silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors (diodes and transistors), which have low power loss when switching on and off. This PCU was installed in a hybrid vehicle (HV) and driven on a test course and chassis dynamometer. The test results confirmed a fuel efficiency improvement of about 5 percent.
Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Technical Paper

Verification Test Results of Wireless Charging System

Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) began a wireless charging field test in February 2014. A wireless charging system was installed at the residences of test subjects with the aim of identifying issues related to convenience and installation in daily usage. The test vehicle was fabricated by installing a wireless charging system into a Prius PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle). The installed system had the same charging power as the cable charging system used on the base vehicle, and had a charging time of 1.5 hours. A high-frequency 85 kHz power supply and primary coil were produced for the charging infrastructure. To identify differences in charging behavior, the test subjects were asked to use the cable charging system for the first month before changing to the wireless charging system for two months. Data acquisition was performed by an on-board data logger and through interviews with the test subjects.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior Noise and Vibration Reduction Method Using Transfer Function of Body Structure

To reduce interior noise effectively in the vehicle body structure development process, noise and vibration engineers have to first identify the portions of the body that have high sensitivity. Second, the necessary vibration characteristics of each portion must be determined, and third, the appropriate body structure for achieving the target performance of the vehicle must be realized within a short development timeframe. This paper proposes a new method based on the substructure synthesis method which is effective up to 200Hz. This method primarily utilizes equations expressing the relationship between driving point inertance change at arbitrary body portions and the corresponding sound pressure level (SPL) variation at the occupant's ear positions under external force. A modified system equation was derived from the body transfer functions and equation of motion by adding a virtual dynamic stiffness expression into the dynamic stiffness matrix of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vegetable Oil Hydrogenating Process for Automotive Fuel

From the viewpoint of primary energy diversification and CO2 reduction, interests of using Biomass Fuel are rising. Some kinds of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester), which are obtained from oil fats like vegetable oil using transesterification reaction with methanol, are getting Palm Oilpular for bio-diesel recently. In this study, we have conducted many experiments of palm oil hydrogenations using our pilot plants, and checked the reactivity and the pattern of product yields. As a result, we figured out that the hydrocarbon oil equivalent to the conventional diesel fuel can be obtained from vegetable oils in good yield under mild hydrogenation conditions. Moreover, as a result of various evaluations for the hydrogenated palm oil (oxidation stability, lowtemperature flow property, LCA, etc.), we found that the hydrogenated palm oil by our technology has performances almost equivalent to conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Variation in Corrosion Resistance of Trivalent Chromate Coating Depending on Type of Zinc Plating Bath

Trivalent chromate coating is replacing the conventional hexavalent chromate coating applied on zinc plating. Zinc plating uses one of three types of plating baths (zincate, cyanide and chloride) according to the characteristics required of subject parts. It has been recognized that trivalent chromate coating provides different corrosion resistance depending on the type of zinc plating bath used. Zinc plating with chromate coating were analyzed to clarify the cause of the corrosion resistance variation with the type of zinc plating bath. It has been revealed that the chromate coating thickness and the condition of top SiO2 layer vary with the type of zinc plating bath, resulting in corrosion resistance variation.
Technical Paper

Valve Train Dynamic Analysis and Validation

In order to reduce engine development timing and cost, a numerical calculation has been developed by Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Technical Center to evaluate valve train systems. The goal is to predict valve_bounce speed, valve displacement, hydraulic lash adjuster motion and strain in the rocker arm. The numerical procedure combines finite element model and multi-body dynamic analysis. Normally, strain calculation is a two-step process. In the first step, engineers obtain the excitation from the dynamic analysis. In the second step, engineers use the forcing function from dynamic analysis to calculate strain and stress. The new approach in this paper, using ADAMS, calculates dynamic load and recover strain simultaneously. As the flexibility of the moving part (for example rocker arm) is taken into account in the equations of motion, ADAMS will calculate the modal strain. Based on the modal strain, the strain or stress at any given node(s) can be recovered.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control Software by Search-Based Testing Using Formal Methods

Abstract As vehicle control software becomes larger and more complex, it is increasingly important to improve the efficiency of the software development process. This study developed search-based testing technology to increase the efficiency of the validation process. Search-based testing can generate dynamic test data automatically, but it tends to overlook the generation of correct test data to detect problems when the software has many branches and paths. To resolve this problem, a method was devised that combines search-based testing [1] and formal methods such as model checking. This paper describes this method and shows application examples of engine control.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control Software Specification Using Design Interests Extraction and Model Checking

Automotive control systems such as powertrain control interact with the open physical environment, and from this nature, expensive prototyping is indispensable to capture a deep understanding of the system requirements and to develop the corresponding control software. Model-based development (MBD) has been promoted to improve productivity by virtual prototyping. Even with MBD, systematic validation of the software specification remains as a major challenge and it still depends heavily on individual engineers' skill and knowledge. Though the introduction of graphical software modeling improved the situation, it requires much time to identify the primal functions, so-called “design interests”, from a large complex model where irrelevant components are mixed with, and to validate it properly.
Technical Paper

V6-SUV Engine Sound Development

This paper describes the development and achievement of a target engine sound for a V6 SUV in consideration of the sound quality preferences of customers in the U.S. First, a simple definition for engine sound under acceleration was found using order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. These elements are the product of commonly used characteristics in conventional development and can be applied simply when setting component targets. The development focused on order arrangement as the most important of these elements, and sounds with and without integer orders were selected as target candidates. Next, subjective auditory evaluations were performed in the U.S. using digitally processed sounds and an evaluation panel comprising roughly 40 subjects. The target sound was determined after classifying the results of this evaluation using cluster analysis.
Technical Paper

Update of the WorldSID 50th Male Pelvic Injury Criterion and Risk Curve

Abstract Petit et al. 2015 and Lebarbé et al. 2016 reported on two studies where the injury mechanism and threshold of the sacroiliac joint were investigated in two slightly oblique crash test conditions from 18 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) tests. They concluded that the sacroiliac joint fractures were associated with pubic rami fractures. These latter being reported to occur first in the time history. Therefore it was recommended not to define a criterion specific for the sacroiliac joint. In 2012, injury risk curves were published for the WorldSID dummy by Petitjean et al. For the pelvis, dummy and PMHS paired tests from six configurations were used (n = 55). All of these configurations were pure lateral impacts. In addition, the sacroiliac joint and femur neck loads were not recorded, and the dummy used was the first production version (WorldSID revision 1). Since that time, the WorldSID was updated several times, including changes in the pelvis area.
Journal Article

Unsteady Aerodynamic Response of a Vehicle by Natural Wind Generator of a Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

In recent years, the automotive manufacturers have been working to reduce fuel consumption in order to cut down on CO2 emissions, promoting weight reduction as one of the fuel saving countermeasures. On the other hand, this trend of weight reduction is well known to reduce vehicle stability in response to disturbances. Thus, automotive aerodynamic development is required not only to reduce aerodynamic drag, which contributes directly to lower fuel consumption, but also to develop technology for controlling unstable vehicle behavior caused by natural wind. In order to control the unstable vehicle motion changed by external contour modification, it is necessary to understand unsteady aerodynamic forces that fluctuating natural wind in real-world environments exerts on vehicles. In the past, some studies have reported the characteristics of unsteady aerodynamic forces induced by natural winds, comparing to steady aerodynamic forces obtained from conventional wind tunnel tests.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES): 1st Report: Phenomenological Multi-Zone PDF Model for Predicting the Transient Behavior of Diesel Engine Combustion

We have developed a novel engine cycle simulation program (UniDES: universal diesel engine simulator) to reproduce the diesel combustion process over a wide range of engine operating parameters, such as the amount of injected fuel, the injection timing, and the EGR ratio. The approach described in this paper employs a zoning model, where the in-cylinder region is divided into up to five zones. We also applied a probability density function (PDF) concept to each zone to consider the effect of spatial non-homogeneities, such as local equivalence ratios and temperature, on the combustion characteristics. We linked this program to the commonly used commercial GT-Power® software (UniDES+GT). As a result, we were able to reproduce transient engine behavior very accurately.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.