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Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

2019-04-02
2019-01-1140
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs. The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RON on SI Engine Thermal Efficiency

2007-07-23
2007-01-2007
Recently, global warming and energy security have received significant attention. Thus an improvement of the vehicle fuel economy is strongly required. For engines, one effective way is to improve the engine thermal efficiency. Raising compression ratio [1] or turbo charging technologies have potential to achieve high thermal efficiency. However knock does not allow the high thermal efficiency. Knock depends on the fuel composition and the pressure and temperature history of unburnt end-gas [2-3]. For fuels, RON is well known for describing the anti knock quality. High RON fuels have high anti knock quality and result in higher thermal efficiency. This paper investigates the impact of high RON fuels on the thermal efficiency by using high compression ratio engine, turbo charged engine, and lean boosted engine [4]. Finally, it is shown that the high thermal efficiency can be approached with high RON gasoline and ethanol.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Ethanol Fuel on a Spark Ignition Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3380
Since ethanol is a renewable source of energy and it contributes to lower CO2 emissions, ethanol produced from biomass is expected to increase in use as an alternative fuel. It is recognized that for spark ignition (SI) engines ethanol has advantages of high octane number and high combustion speed and has a disadvantage of difficult startability at low temperature. This paper investigates the influence of ethanol fuel on SI engine performance, thermal efficiency, and emissions. The combustion characteristics under cold engine conditions are also examined. Ethanol has high anti-knock quality due to its high octane number, and high latent heat of evaporation, which decreases the compressed gas temperature during the compression stroke. In addition to the effect of latent heat of evaporation, the difference of combustion products compared with gasoline further decreases combustion temperature, thereby reducing cooling heat loss.
Technical Paper

Research on the Measures for Improving Cycle-to-Cycle Variations under High Tumble Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0694
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way for accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid and conventional vehicles in recent years. Toyota has been introducing these technologies as ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion). Improving cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion, in addition to fast combustion is essential for achieving high engine thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Octane Appetite Studies in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0244
The anti-knock or octane quality of a fuel depends on the fuel composition as well as on the engine design and operating conditions. The true octane quality of practical fuels is defined by the Octane Index, OI = (1-K)RON + KMON where K is a constant for a given operating condition and depends only on the pressure and temperature variation in the engine (it is not a property of the fuel). RON and MON are the Research and Motor Octane numbers respectively, of the fuel. OI is the octane number of the primary reference fuel (PRF) with the same knocking behaviour at the given condition. In this work a wide range of fuels of different RON and MON were tested in prototype direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines with compression ratios of 11 and 12.5 at different speeds up to 6000 RPM. Knock Limited Spark Advance (KLSA) was used to characterize the anti-knock quality of the fuel. Experiments were also done using two cars with DISI engines equipped with knock sensor systems.
Technical Paper

Engine Thermal Control for Improving the Engine Thermal Efficiency and Anti-Knocking Quality

2012-04-16
2012-01-0377
In recent years, improving the engine thermal efficiency is strongly required. To enhance the engine thermal efficiency, it is important to improve the engine anti-knock quality. Technologies for modifying engine cooling have been developed to improve anti-knocking quality of engines. However, excessive improvement of engine cooling leads to an increase in cooling heat loss. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the temperature of each part of the engine such as engine head-cylinder, cylinder-liner, and piston on knocking and cooling heat loss. In this paper, computer aided engineering (CAE) is used to predict the effects of each part of the engine on engine knocking and cooling heat loss. Firstly, the amount of heat energy that air-fuel mixture receives from engine cylinder-head, cylinder-liner, and piston is calculated during the intake stroke. The result shows that the cylinder-liner contributes largest heat energy to air-fuel mixture, especially the exhaust side.
Journal Article

Engine Technologies for Achieving 45% Thermal Efficiency of S.I. Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1896
To correspond to the social requirements such as energy security, and climate change, enhancing engine thermal efficiency is strongly required in these days. As for the specific engine technologies to improve engine thermal efficiency, Atkinson cycle, cooled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), and low friction technologies have been developed [1, 2, 3, 4]. As a result, the current maximum thermal efficiency comes close to 40%. However, since it is considered that much higher engine thermal efficiency is required in the future to meet more stringent social requirements, a new prototype L4 engine which features a long stroke design with a high tumble is investigated to clarify the future direction in this paper. In regard to combustion, the lean boosted concept with cooled EGR is examined. In consequence, it is shown that more than 45% engine thermal efficiency can be achieved. This paper describes the means to enhance engine thermal efficiency and a future possibility.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Components on Engine Abnormal Combustion

2012-04-16
2012-01-1276
These days, improving fuel economy is essential from the view point of energy security and global warming. Engine technologies, such as high compression engines and turbocharged engines, have already been introduced into the market. Furthermore new technologies like lean boosted engines are now being developed. However, these engines are susceptible to abnormal combustion like knocking, auto-ignition, and pre-ignition at low or high engine speeds, because these engines are run at higher combustion pressures and temperatures compared to naturally aspirated engines. It is well known that fuels have some affect on combustion characteristics. This paper examines the effects of fuel characteristics on various types of abnormal combustion. The results show that temperature and pressure have a direct impact on abnormal combustion.
Technical Paper

Development of High Tumble Intake-Port for High Thermal Efficiency Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0692
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society. An effective way of accomplishing this is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Mitigating knock and reducing engine heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. In EGR equipped engines, fast combustion is regarded as one of the most important technologies, since it realizes higher EGR ratio. To create fast combustion, generation of strong in-cylinder turbulence is necessary. Strong in-cylinder turbulence is achieved through swirl, squish, and tumble flows. Specifically high tumble flow has been adopted on a number of new engines because of the intense effect of promoting in-cylinder turbulence.
Journal Article

Combustion Development to Realize High Thermal Efficiency Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0693
Improving vehicle fuel economy is a central part of efforts toward achieving a sustainable society, and an effective way of accomplishing this aim is to enhance the engine thermal efficiency. Measures to mitigate knocking and reduce engine cooling heat loss are important aspects of enhancing the engine thermal efficiency. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is regarded as a key technology because it is capable of achieving both of these objectives. For this reason, it has been adopted in a wide range of both hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles in recent years. Cooled EGR has the potential to achieve further lower fuel consumption if the EGR ratio can be increased. Fast combustion is an important and effective way for expanding the EGR ratio. The engine combustion enhancement can be categorized into measures to improve ignition characteristics and methods to promote flame propagation.
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