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Technical Paper

Three-Dimension Deposited Soot Distribution Measurement in Silicon Carbide Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

Exhaust emissions are well known to have adverse impacts on human health. Studies have demonstrated that there is an association between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and various harmful cardiopulmonary conditions. Soot exhaust from diesel engines can be a significant contributor to airborne pollutants. A key component in PM level control for a diesel engine is a diesel particulate filter (DPF). This device traps soot while allowing other exhaust gases to pass unhindered. However, the performance of diesel particulate filters can change with increasing soot loadings and thus may require regeneration or replacement. Improved understanding of diesel particulate filters is dependent upon the knowledge of the actual soot loading and the soot distribution within the DPF. Neutron radiography (NR) has been identified as an effective means of non-destructively identifying hydrogen or carbon adsorbed in PM.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst

In order to enhance the catalytic performance of the NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst (NSR Catalyst), the sulfur tolerance of the NSR catalyst was improved by developing new support and NOx storage materials. The support material was developed by nano-particle mixing of ZrO2-TiO2 and Al2O3 in order to increase the Al2O3-TiO2 interface and to prevent the ZrO2-TiO2 phase from sintering. A Ba-Ti oxide composite material was also developed as a new NOx storage material containing highly dispersed Ba. It was confirmed that the sulfur tolerance and activity of the developed NSR catalyst are superior to that of the conventional one.
Technical Paper

Development of Next-Generation NOx Reduction System for Diesel Exhaust Emission

Diesel particulate and NOx reduction system (DPNR) is an effective technology for the diesel after-treatment system, which can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) simultaneously. The DPNR has been developed under the Toyota D-CAT (Diesel Clean Advanced Technology) concept. Further improvement of the DPNR is hoped for cleaner air in the future. This paper reviews the results of our study to improve the NOx purification performance on the DPNR. The NOx reduction performance of the catalysts deteriorates due to thermal deterioration and sulfur poisoning. In order to improve the thermal resistance of the catalysts, the suppression of precious metal sintering in the catalyst has been studied. As a result, higher catalytic activity after aging especially under lower temperature conditions was obtained. On the other hands, improvement of desulfurization performance is one of the key technologies in order to keep the high NOx reduction capability of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Simplification of Thermal Endurance Tests of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts

Our two types of NOx storage-reduction (NSR) catalyst have been tested under various conditions of thermal endurance; the performance of these catalysts have been regressed to give the formulas that enable to estimate the performance after thermal endurance; and we have found the method to simplify (shorten the duration of) the thermal endurance tests and that the thermal deterioration of NSR catalysts is controlled by the worst condition of endurance (at least approximately). The regression formula for the amount of potassium that contributes to the catalyst performance (active K) after the endurance has also been obtained. These formulas predict that the amount of active K is the least for the worst condition of endurance and suggest a difference in deterioration mechanism that reflects the performance between low and high temperatures and the portion of worse deterioration (front or rear).