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Journal Article

Reaction Mechanism Analysis of Di-Air-Contributions of Hydrocarbons and Intermediates

The details of Di-Air, a new NOx reduction system using continuous short pulse injections of hydrocarbons (HC) in front of a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst, have already been reported. This paper describes further studies into the deNOx mechanism, mainly from the standpoint of the contribution of HC and intermediates. In the process of a preliminary survey regarding HC oxidation behavior at the moment of injection, it was found that HC have unique advantages as a reductant. The addition of HC lead to the reduction or metallization of platinum group metals (PGM) while keeping the overall gas atmosphere in a lean state due to adsorbed HC. This causes local O₂ inhibition and generates reductive intermediate species such as R-NCO. Therefore, the specific benefits of HC were analyzed from the viewpoints of 1) the impact on the PGM state, 2) the characterization of intermediate species, and 3) Di-Air performance compared to other reductants.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Catalyst for Low CO2 Emission Diesel Engine Using NOx Adsorption at Low Temperatures

In this study, instead of investigating NOx storage reaction improvements, the NOx adsorption phenomenon was focused on and analyzed to improve NOx trapping performance at lower temperatures. As a NOx adsorbing material, "Ag" was expected to enhance NOx adsorption and reduce the sulfur regeneration temperature due to the abundance of adsorbed oxygen and moderate basicity. However, when using this material in an actual system, we had to reduce the sulfur regeneration temperature, increase NOx adsorption capacity and improve NOx desorption further. Addition of TiO₂, working as an acidic material, was found to decrease sulfur regeneration temperature. Additionally, it increased the NOx adsorption capacity through improved Ag dispersion which plays an important role in NOx adsorbing. Consequently, a greater NOx trapping performance than NSR catalyst was achieved at lower temperatures.
Technical Paper

Development of High Performance Three-Way-Catalyst Technology to Lower NOx Emission

One primary result of the reduction of platinum group metals (PGM) within a catalytic converter is the decline in NOx conversion efficiency. This paper hypothesizes that the primary factor of this decline to be hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning. To maintain high NOx conversion efficiency as the PGM reduces, Rh activation improvement becomes significant to overcome the HC poisoning. Analysis of the Rh deterioration mechanism found that it is effective to separately arrange Rh and CeO2 on the converter, avoiding the Rh deactivation. By this improvement, we improved the catalyst activity at less than 25% of the original Rh loading.