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Technical Paper

Reduction of Friction Losses in Crankcase at High Engine Speeds

Recently, engines achieving high power levels are becoming increasingly common. The trend is toward increasing the inflow of lubricating oil into the crankcase through several factors (for example, increasing the flow rate of the cooling oil jets in order to reduce the thermal load of the pistons). In addition, the mechanical losses induced by the motion of the crankshaft and connecting rods through the additional oil are intensified due to the higher engine speeds at maximum power. In this article, we confirmed a method of separating the pumping loss and the agitation loss by measuring the pressure in the crankcase and an empirical formula was found for predicting pumping loss from displacement and ventilating area. We also investigated the effect of reducing the lubrication oil flow rate, as well as other factors affecting the oil flow, on the mechanical loss at high engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Reducing the Amount of Lubricating Engine Oil by Using a New Crankshaft Bearing with Eccentric Oil Groove

Oil pump down sizing is one of the effective method to improve engine friction loss. Reducing the required amount of lubricating engine oil can be achieved by the application of a new crankshaft bearing with an eccentric oil groove. By adopting a bearing with an eccentric groove, we found the well balanced specification which can keep the necessary amount of oil to the crankshaft pin and reduce leaking oil from crankshaft main journal. Measuring oil amount distribution in engine running condition simultaneously and checking capability of eliminating contamination analytically have achieved.
Technical Paper

Method for Prediction of Engine Oil Aeration Rate

Due to the advancement of engine performance, large volumes of oil circulate within a narrow internal space of passenger car engines. This phenomenon often leads to oil foaming and aeration problems. In this study, we developed a method for predicting the rate of engine oil aeration from specific engine parameters and running conditions. Engine tests show that the rate of oil aeration is stable throughout the process between bubble release from the oil surface and aeration. Additionally, bubble size affects its release rate from the oil surface. Utilizing both of these assumptions, our prediction method calculates aeration rate by evaluating bubble number and size.
Journal Article

Measurement of Oil Film Pressure in the Main Bearings of an Operating Engine Using Thin-Film Sensors

We developed a technique to measure oil film pressure distribution in engine main bearings using thin-film pressure sensors. The sensor is 7μm in thickness, and is processed on the surface of an aluminum alloy bearing. In order to increase the durability of the sensor, a layer of MoS2 and polyamide-imide was coated on thin-film sensors. This technique was applied to a 1.4L common-rail diesel engine operated at a maximum speed of 4,500r/min with a 100Nm full load, and the oil film pressure was monitored while the engine was operating. The measured pressure was compared with calculations based on hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) theory.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 2.0-Liter Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engine

Toyota Motor Corporation aims to develop vehicles that are both fun to drive and fuel efficient, using highly reliable, low cost, and fundamental technology. This approach focuses on the accumulation of incremental improvements to combustion characteristics and friction, making the best use of the maximum potential of the displacement of a new 2.0-liter fuel-efficient diesel engine. This new engine has been launched in several markets around the world for the Avensis, the Auris, the RAV4, and the Verso since November of 2011. This paper presents an outline of this new engine and its technology.