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Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Diesel Piston Bowl Using Phosphor Thermometry

Phosphor thermometry was used during fuel injection in an optical engine with the glass piston of reentrant type. SiO2 coated phosphor particle was used for the gas-phase temperature measurements, which gave much less background signal. The measurements were performed in motored mode, in combustion mode with injection of n-heptane and in non-combustion mode with injection of iso-octane. In the beginning of injection period, the mean temperature of each injection cases was lower than that of the motored case, and temperature of iso-octane injection cases was even lower than that of n-heptane injection cases. This indicates, even if vaporization effect seemed to be the same at both injection cases, the effect of temperature decrease changed due to the chemical reaction effect for the n-heptane cases. Chemical reaction seems to be initiated outside of the fuel liquid spray and the position was moving towards the fuel rich area as the time proceeds.
Journal Article

Theoretical Study on Spray Design for Small-Bore Diesel Engine (Second Report)

Generally, soot emissions increase in diesel engines with smaller bore sizes due to larger spray impingement on the cavity wall at a constant specific output power. The objective of this study is to clarify the constraints for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes. The first report applied the geometrical similarity concept to two engines with different bore sizes and similar piston cavity shapes. The smaller engine emitted more smoke because air entrainment decreases due to the narrower spray angle. A new spray design method called spray characteristics similarity was proposed to suppress soot emissions. However, a smaller nozzle diameter and a larger number of nozzle holes are required to maintain the same spray characteristics (such as specific air-entrainment and penetration) when the bore size decreases.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Clarification of Determination Factors of Diesel Exhaust Emission Using a Single Cylinder Engine and Model Fuels - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part I

Single cylinder engine testing was carried out to clearly understand the test results of multi-cylinder engines reported by the Diesel WG in JCAP (Japan Clean Air Program) (1), (2), (3) and (4). In this tests, engine specifications such as fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, turbo-charging pressure, EGR rate, and fuel properties such as 1-, 2-, 3-ring aromatics content, n-,i-paraffins content, and T90 were parametrically changed and their influence on the emissions were studied. PM emission generally increased in each engine condition with increased aromatic contents and T90. In particular, multi ring aromatics brought about large increases in PM regardless of the engine conditions. The influence of fuel properties on NOx emission is smaller than the influence on PM emission. Some other fuels that have various side chain structures of 1-ring aromatics, normal paraffins only and various naphthene contents were also investigated.
Journal Article

Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on SIDI Efficiency and Emissions

Spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engines have the potential to realize significant thermal efficiency improvements compared to conventional port fuel injection engines. The effects of fuel properties on efficiency and emissions have been investigated in a prototype of an Avensis Wagon equipped with a 2.0 liter, 4 cylinder spark ignition, direct injection (SIDI) engine designed to meet US 2000 emission standards. The vehicle employed a close coupled three-way catalyst and a NOx storage and reduction catalyst. Seven matrix fuels were blended to the same RON with varying levels of aromatics, olefins, ethanol, and volatility. Relative thermal efficiency, fuel economy, and tailpipe emissions were measured for the matrix fuels and a base fuel under the FTP LA4 driving cycle. The engine was operated in a lean burn mode in light load condition for approximately half of the driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Development of a New V-6 High Performance Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

A new V-6 stoichiometric gasoline direct injection engine was developed for high performance FR (Front Engine Rear Drive) vehicles. High power performance, low fuel consumption and low exhaust emissions were achieved by employing a stoichiometric direct injection system that uses Toyota's unique slit nozzle injector that generates a fan-shaped fuel spray and variable intake and exhaust valve timing systems. Focusing on the power performance, maximum power of 183kW (61kW/L) is achieved at 6200rpm and maximum torque is 312Nm at 3600rpm. This power performance is among the top production 3.0 L gasoline engines in the world. This paper outlines the features of this engine and some special technologies contributing to the achievement of the above-mentioned high performance. Optimizing the intake-port design was done to improve power performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Mechanical Pilot Injection Device for Automotive Diesel Engines

It is well known that pilot injection is an effective method of reducing diesel knock noise during idling, but no actual system has as yet been commercially produced. With the objective of developing a practicable pilot injection device, simulations were conducted of various simple mechanisms in order to determine the best specifications and analyze the fuel injection characteristics. Based on these results, a chamber expansion type pilot injection device, which enables the injection pump pressure chamber volume to be increased at a given moment during the fuel compression stroke, has been developed and has been found to remarkably decrease knock noise during cold idling. An investigation into the effects of this device on output power, exhaust emissions, cold startability and durability revealed that it is eminently suitable for practical application.
Technical Paper

Development of TOYOTA Reflex Burn (TRB) System in DI Diesel

In order to optimize air-fuel mixture formation in a small DI diesel engine, studies were conducted into the effects of combustion chamber shape and fuel spray impingement. Based on the findings of these studies, the shape of the combustion chamber was modified to induce complex air motion with high turbulence and fuel injection was carefully controlled to achieve optimum impingement intensity. As a result, the mixture formation process was greatly improved with a consequent gain in terms of engine performance. To clarify the reasons for this improvement in combustion, a three-dimensional calculation of the in-cylinder air motion was made. The behaviour of the spray and flame was observed using an endoscope. The new combustion system, named TOYOTA Reflex Burn system (TRB) thus developed has been adopted in production engines since August 1988.
Technical Paper

Development of New Electronic Control System for a Diesel Engine

An unique diesel engine electronic control system has been developed, which contains two distinctive features. Firstly, the delivery type fuel injection pump has an electro-magnetic valve to control the quantity of fuel injected. This valve is then acutuated to ensure that the timing of the high pressure fuel flow out stops the fuel injection. In the previous diesel electronic control system, the fuel quantity control was effected via the position control of a mechanical spill ring. Since timing control is more suitable than position control for handling by a microcomputer, the electro-magnetic valve is able to control the quantity of fuel injected more precisely, whilst consisting of a simpler structure. Secondly, an optical combustion timing sensor is able to detect initial combustion timing by sensing the light of the combustion flame in the combustion chamber. Using the signal from the sensor, the microcomputer then exerts a compensating control over the fuel injection timing.
Technical Paper

Development of Gasoline Injector Cleaner for Port Fuel Injection and Direct Injection

Port fuel injection (PFI) injector and direct fuel injection (DI) injector clogging from deposits caused by poor fuel quality, is a concern in emerging countries. Then DI injector deposits are sometimes cleaned by injector cleaners in such situation. However deposit cleaners for PFI injectors have not been developed, because of the lack of research of PFI injector deposits. Through chemical analysis, this study showed them to be water-soluble deposits. Subsequently success was achieved in developing a new gasoline injector cleaner applicable to injector deposits in both types of injectors, through optimization of a surface active agent.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Injection Conditions and Compression Ratio

This research investigates the influences of the injection timing, injection pressure, and compression ratio on the combustion and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder 1.0 L DI diesel engine operating with ultra-high EGR. Longer ignition delays due to either advancing or retarding the injection timing reduced the smoke emissions, but advancing the injection timing has the advantages of maintaining the thermal efficiency and preventing misfiring. Smokeless combustion is realized with an intake oxygen content of only 9-10% regardless of the injection pressure. Reduction in the compression ratio is effective to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and increase the ignition delay as well as to expand the smokeless combustion range in terms of EGR and IMEP. However, the thermal efficiency deteriorates with excessively low compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Stability and its Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment

The effects of biodiesel oxidation stability on diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) behavior were investigated using newly developed test rig and methodology. On the test rig, biodiesel blend fuels were circulated through a fuel tank and a common rail injection system. Fuel injected from typical diesel injectors was returned into the fuel tank to enhance the speed of fuel degradation. The results showed that injector deposits could be reproduced on a test rig. It was observed that injector body temperature increase accelerates the degradation of fuel and therefore gives earlier FIE failure. Fuel renewal could partially restore the injection quantity after complete failure at low injection pressure, thus showing a potential cleaning effect on injector deposits when refueling a car.
Journal Article

An Investigation of High Load (Compression Ignition) Operation of the “Naphtha Engine” - a Combustion Strategy for Low Well-to-Wheel CO2 Emissions

A computational and experimental study has been carried out to assess the high load efficiency and emissions potential of a combustion system designed to operate on low octane gasoline (or naphtha). The “naphtha engine” concept utilizes spark ignition at low load, HCCI at intermediate load, and compression ignition at high load; this paper focuses on high load (compression ignition) operation. Experiments were carried out in a single cylinder diesel engine with compression ratio of 16 and a common rail injector/fuel delivery system. Three fuels were examined: a light naphtha (RON∼59, CN∼34), heavy naphtha (RON∼66, CN∼31), and heavy naphtha additized with cetane improver (CN∼40). With single fuel injection near top dead center (TDC) (diesel-like combustion), excessive combustion noise is generated as the load increases. This noise limits the maximum power, in agreement with the CFD predictions. The noise-limited maximum power increases somewhat with the use of single pilot injection.
Journal Article

An Application of Model Based Combustion Control to Transient Cycle-by-Cycle Diesel Combustion

From the viewpoint of the global warming restraint, reduction of exhaust emissions from diesel engine is urgent demand. However, it needs further development in combustion control besides after treatment system. Larger amount of EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) is effective to reduce NOx emission. On the other hand, in-cylinder physical conditions greatly influence on self-ignition and combustion process, especially low O2 fraction charged gas owing to excessive EGR causes misfire. A drastic solution for this problem, fuel injection timing should be optimally manipulated based on predicted ignition delay period before actual injection. For this purpose, Toyota has developed a model based diesel combustion control concept to avoid the misfire and to keep low emission combustion includes in transient condition.