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Journal Article

Vibration Torque Interception using Multi-Functional Electromagnetic Coupling in a HEV Drive Line

In the present paper, we introduce a drivetrain system using an electromagnetic coupling for hybrid electric vehicles, and propose a new control concept of vibration torque interception. The electromagnetic coupling is an electric machine that is composed of a pair of rotors, and electromagnetic torque acts mutually between the rotors. In the drivetrain system, the electromagnetic coupling works as a torque transmission device with a rotational-speed-converting function. We demonstrate that, by using this control, the electromagnetic coupling also works as a damping device that intercepts the vibration torque of the internal combustion engine, while transmitting the smooth torque to its drive line. Using a model of a two-inertia resonance system, a control system is designed such that a transfer function representing input-to-output torque is shaped in the frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Vibration Reduction Applying Skew Phenomena of Needle Roller Bearings in Brake Actuators

Generally, automobiles have many performance requirements for comfort, of which noise, vibration and harshness are very important. Toyota Motor Corporation equipped several 2003 models with the second-generation Electronically Controlled Brake system (ECB2). These ECB2 actuator units adopted a new structure that reduced pumping noise by controlling the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings. Normally, needle roller bearings are advantageous over other bearings in cases where a large force is loaded on bearings, because the contact areas can be made larger. However, a thrust force arises from skew phenomena because of minute clearances among the component parts of needle roller bearings. As a result, axial vibration of the bearing shaft sometimes occurs due to the thrust force. This paper explains how the thrust force generated from the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings occasionally affects the pumping vibration level of equipped machinery such as the brake actuator unit.
Technical Paper

Verification of High Frequency SiC On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger for PHV

This paper presents a new application of a vehicle on-board battery charger utilizing high frequency Silicon Carbide (SiC) power devices. SiC is one of the most promising alternatives to Silicon (Si) for power semiconductor devices due to its superior material characteristics such as lower on-state resistance, higher junction temperature, and higher switching frequency. An on-board charger prototype is developed demonstrating these advantages and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating with a switching frequency of 250 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.06 kW results in a gravimetric power density of 3.8 W/kg and a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L, which are about 10 times the densities compared with the current Prius Plug-In Si charger. SiC technology is indispensable to eco-friendly PHV/EV development.
Technical Paper

Verification of Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Application of Highly Effective Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor to HV Inverter

A prototype power control unit (PCU) was manufactured using silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors (diodes and transistors), which have low power loss when switching on and off. This PCU was installed in a hybrid vehicle (HV) and driven on a test course and chassis dynamometer. The test results confirmed a fuel efficiency improvement of about 5 percent.
Technical Paper

Verification Test Results of Wireless Charging System

Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) began a wireless charging field test in February 2014. A wireless charging system was installed at the residences of test subjects with the aim of identifying issues related to convenience and installation in daily usage. The test vehicle was fabricated by installing a wireless charging system into a Prius PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle). The installed system had the same charging power as the cable charging system used on the base vehicle, and had a charging time of 1.5 hours. A high-frequency 85 kHz power supply and primary coil were produced for the charging infrastructure. To identify differences in charging behavior, the test subjects were asked to use the cable charging system for the first month before changing to the wireless charging system for two months. Data acquisition was performed by an on-board data logger and through interviews with the test subjects.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control Software by Search-Based Testing Using Formal Methods

As vehicle control software becomes larger and more complex, it is increasingly important to improve the efficiency of the software development process. This study developed search-based testing technology to increase the efficiency of the validation process. Search-based testing can generate dynamic test data automatically, but it tends to overlook the generation of correct test data to detect problems when the software has many branches and paths. To resolve this problem, a method was devised that combines search-based testing [1] and formal methods such as model checking. This paper describes this method and shows application examples of engine control.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control Software Specification Using Design Interests Extraction and Model Checking

Automotive control systems such as powertrain control interact with the open physical environment, and from this nature, expensive prototyping is indispensable to capture a deep understanding of the system requirements and to develop the corresponding control software. Model-based development (MBD) has been promoted to improve productivity by virtual prototyping. Even with MBD, systematic validation of the software specification remains as a major challenge and it still depends heavily on individual engineers' skill and knowledge. Though the introduction of graphical software modeling improved the situation, it requires much time to identify the primal functions, so-called “design interests”, from a large complex model where irrelevant components are mixed with, and to validate it properly.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
Technical Paper

Trends of Future Powertrain Development and the Evolution of Powertrain Control Systems

High fuel efficiency and low emission technologies, such as Direct Injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines and hybrid powertrains, have been developed to resolve environmental and energy resource issues. The hybrid powertrain system has achieved superior power performance as well as higher system efficiency and is expected to be a core powertrain technology because it is compatible with various power sources including fuel cells. It becomes important to control complicated hybrid systems that consist of not only a powertrain but also vehicle systems such as regenerative braking. Model-based control and calibration enables both control strategy optimization and control system development efficiency improvement.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Shift-by-Wire System for Hybrid Vehicles

In today's motorized society, various automotive technologies continue to evolve every day. Amid this trend, a new concept with respect to automatic transaxle gear-shifting has been developed. In order to materialize a new concept for shifting operation with a universal design in mind, a system has been developed: a shift-by-wire system developed specifically for hybrid vehicles. The greatest advantage of this new system is the lack of constraints associated with the conventional mechanical linkage to the transaxle. This allows freedom of design for the gear selection module. A revolutionary improvement in the ease of shifting has been realized by taking full advantage of this design freedom. In addition, this system contributes to an innovative design. For improved ease of operation, the operation force of the shift lever of this system has been dramatically reduced. For parking, the driver can engage the parking mechanism of the transaxle at the touch of a switch.
Journal Article

Toyota's Integrated Drive Power Control System for Downsized Turbocharged Engine

New engine controls have been developed for the turbocharged Lexus NX200t to improve driving power by reducing engine torque output lag. Drive power management functions have been centralized in an integrated drive power control system. The newly developed controls minimize the potential reduction in drivability associated with the adoption of a turbocharged engine while improving fuel efficiency. General driveability issues commonly associated with a turbocharged engine include sudden increases in drive power due to the response lag of the turbocharger, and higher shifting frequencies if this response lag triggers a disturbed accelerator operation pattern by the driver. The developed technologies detect and control sudden increases in drive power to create the optimum drive power map, and reduce unnecessary shifts even if the driver's accelerator operation is disturbed.
Technical Paper

Toyota “ECT-i” a New Automatic Transmission with Intelligent Electronic Control System

TOYOTA has developed a new automatic transmission, called the A341E. This transmission employs a unique engine and transmission integrated intelligent control system named “ECT-i”, and a high performance “Super Flow” Torque Converter. This control system is capable of total control of engine torque and clutch hydraulic pressure during shifting, which has resulted in very smooth shift without changes over the life of the transmission. The “Super Flow” Torque Converter has a modified geometry optimized by the analysis of internal flow by means of computer simulations, attaining the highest efficiecy in the world. With the use of such systems, this new automatic transmission has improved total performance of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Toyota Newly Developed 2VZ-FE Type Engine

Newly developed 2VZ-FE engine for CAMRY is a 2.5-liter water cooled and V-type 6-cylinder engine exported from TOYOTA for the first time. This engine has the TOYOTA original 4-valve DOHC system. That is, exhaust camshafts driven by intake camshafts using scissors gears. By its compact configuration with the gear driven camshafts, this V-type 6-cylinder engine is mounted on a front-wheel-drive vehicle which originally had an in-line 4-cylinder engine. By increasing IVZ-FE engine displacement (for domestic), compact pentroof-type combustion chambers, optimum air-fuel ratio and ignition timing by TCCS (TOYOTA Computer Controlled System) and other technologies, a high performance 153HP/5600rpm and a large torque 155ft·lbs/4400rpm have been achieved with a low fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Thermal Analysis of Traction Contact Area Using a Thin-film Temperature Sensor

The purpose of this paper is to construct the thermal analysis model by measuring and estimating the temperature at the traction contact area. For measurement of temperature, we have used a thin-film temperature sensor. For estimation of temperature, we have composed the thermal analysis model. The thin-film temperature sensor was formed on the contact surface using a spattering device. The sensor is constituted of three layers (sensor layer, insulation layer and intermediate layer). Dimensions of the sensor were sufficiently smaller than the traction contact area. The sensor featured high specific pressure capacity and high speed responsiveness. The thermal analysis model was mainly composed of three equations: Carslaw & Jaeger equation, Rashid & Seireg equation and heat transfer equation of shear heating in oil film. The heat transfer equation involved two models (local shear heating model at middle plane, homogeneous shear heating model).
Technical Paper

The Motor Control Technologies for High-Power Hybrid System

The Rx400h, which was put on the market in 2005, realized overwhelming power performance with the adoption of a high-voltage system, high-power output motor, and 3-motor type 4WD. Toyota has been working on a solution to increase the output power of the motor, i.e., the development of system stabilization technology. This paper introduces high-speed power balance control, which keeps the balance of power constant regardless of rapid changes in the number of motor rotations resulting from slipping tires or other factors, along with sensor error compensation control, which suppresses cyclic power fluctuation resulting from errors in the position sensor of the motor.
Technical Paper

The Advanced Sensor Fusion Algorithm for Pre-Crash Safety System

An obstacle recognition algorithm for the Pre-Crash Safety system has been newly developed with a stereo vision system and a millimeter wave radar with additional functions. This algorithm uses the merits of both the millimeter wave radar and the stereo vision system, and has two main features. One feature utilizes the merits of the stereo vision system detection with the detection results from the millimeter wave radar allowing for a more detailed horizontal position and width of the obstacle. This enables the equipment to operate at an earlier stage according to how well the relationship between the vehicle and the obstacle is understood. Another feature fuses detection from the millimeter wave radar and the stereo vision system. This system has succeeded in enhancing the detection performance of pedestrians who have been more difficult to detect than reflective objects such as cars.
Technical Paper

Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicles Part 2: Comparative Analysis of Economic, Environmental, and Usability Benefits

Introducing effective technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector is a critical issue for automotive manufacturers to contribute to sustainable development. Unlike the plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), whose effectiveness is dependent on the carbon intensity of grid electricity, the solar hybrid vehicle (SHV) can be an alternative electric vehicle because of its off-grid, zero-emission electric technology. Its usability is also advantageous because it does not require manual charging by the users. This study aims at evaluating the economic, environmental, and usability benefits of SHV by comparing it with other types of vehicles including PEVs. By setting cost and energy efficiency on the basis of the assumed technology level in 2030, annual cost and annual CO2 emissions of each vehicle are calculated using the daily mileage pattern obtained from a user survey of 5,000 people in Japan and the daily radiation data for each corresponding user.
Technical Paper

Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicles Part 1: Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicle Potential Considering Well-to-Wheel GHG Emissions

In recent years, automakers have been developing various types of environmentally friendly vehicles such as hybrid (HV), plug-in hybrid (PHV), electric (EV), and fuel cell (FCV) vehicles to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there are few commercial solar vehicles on the market. One of the reasons why automakers have not focused attention on this area is because the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles under real conditions are unclear. There are two difficulties in measuring the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles: (1) vehicles travel under various conditions of sunlight exposure and (2) sunlight exposure conditions differ in each region. To address these problems, an analysis was performed based on an internet survey of 5,000 people and publically available meteorological data from 48 observation stations in Japan.
Journal Article

Technical Development of Electro Magnetic Compatibility for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle / Electric Vehicle Using Wireless Power Transfer System

In 2007, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology successfully completed a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) experiment. Ever since, interest in WPT has been growing. At Toyota, we have been developing the underlying technology of a WPT system. Simultaneously we have been working with regulatory committees to create a standard for WPT. In particular, there are concerns that WPT’s radiated emissions could cause harm to humans and the neighboring electronic equipment. There are many challenges that need to be overcome, but a key concern is understanding WPT’s electromagnetic compatibility (EMI: Electro-Magnetic Interference and EMF: Electro-Magnetic Field). In this paper, we show the technical issues, the evaluation method, and the development status of EMI and EMF on PHVs/EVs when using WPT. For Electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance, we investigated both an open area test site and an electromagnetic anechoic chamber as evaluation environments.
Technical Paper

Study on the Potential Benefits of Plug-in Hybrid Systems

There is ever increasing interest in the issues of fossil fuel depletion, global warming, due to increased atmospheric CO2, and air pollution, all of which are due in some extent to transportation, including automobiles. Hybrid Vehicles (HVs), whose performance and usage are equivalent to existing conventional vehicles, attract lots of attention and have started to come into wider use. Meanwhile, EVs have been considered by many as the best solution for the issues mentioned above. But the technical difficulty of battery energy density is an obstruction to successful implementation. Currently the Plug-in HV (PHEV), which combines the advantages of HV and EV, is being considered as one promising solution. PHEVs can be categorized into two types, according to operating modes. The first uses battery stored energy initially, only stating the internal combustion engine when the battery is depleted. This we call the All Electric Range (AER) system.