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Toyota's Comprehensive Environmental Technology: Providing Choices for Sustainable Mobility

2011-11-04
In the pursuit of a sustainable transportation systems, Toyota is considering a comprehensive approach pursuing multiple advanced technologies to address three primary issues: GHG, Petroleum Use, and Air Quality. Vehicles must be ready for and affordable to the mass market to provide the customer choices to meet their transportation needs whether it is EV's, Hybrids, Plug-In Hybrids or Fuel Cell Hydrogen Hybrids. Our studies have shown that EVs have the potential to provide significant improvements in energy utilization especially combined with other advanced technologies. Toyota believes that a combination of these technolgies will provide complementary solution that enables a sustainable transportation system. Presenter Takehito Yokoo, Toyota Motor Corporation
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1025
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicles Part 2: Comparative Analysis of Economic, Environmental, and Usability Benefits

2016-04-05
2016-01-1286
Introducing effective technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector is a critical issue for automotive manufacturers to contribute to sustainable development. Unlike the plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), whose effectiveness is dependent on the carbon intensity of grid electricity, the solar hybrid vehicle (SHV) can be an alternative electric vehicle because of its off-grid, zero-emission electric technology. Its usability is also advantageous because it does not require manual charging by the users. This study aims at evaluating the economic, environmental, and usability benefits of SHV by comparing it with other types of vehicles including PEVs. By setting cost and energy efficiency on the basis of the assumed technology level in 2030, annual cost and annual CO2 emissions of each vehicle are calculated using the daily mileage pattern obtained from a user survey of 5,000 people in Japan and the daily radiation data for each corresponding user.
Journal Article

Technical Development of Electro Magnetic Compatibility for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle / Electric Vehicle Using Wireless Power Transfer System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1161
In 2007, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology successfully completed a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) experiment. Ever since, interest in WPT has been growing. At Toyota, we have been developing the underlying technology of a WPT system. Simultaneously we have been working with regulatory committees to create a standard for WPT. In particular, there are concerns that WPT’s radiated emissions could cause harm to humans and the neighboring electronic equipment. There are many challenges that need to be overcome, but a key concern is understanding WPT’s electromagnetic compatibility (EMI: Electro-Magnetic Interference and EMF: Electro-Magnetic Field). In this paper, we show the technical issues, the evaluation method, and the development status of EMI and EMF on PHVs/EVs when using WPT. For Electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance, we investigated both an open area test site and an electromagnetic anechoic chamber as evaluation environments.
Journal Article

Experimental Demonstration of Smart Charging and Vehicle-to-Home Technologies for Plugin Electric Vehicles Coordinated with Home Energy Management Systems for Automated Demand Response

2016-04-05
2016-01-0160
In this paper, we consider smart charging and vehicle-to-home (V2H) technologies for plugin electric vehicles coordinated with home energy management systems (HEMS) for automated demand response. In this system, plugin electric vehicles automatically react to demand response events with or without HEMS’s coordination, while vehicles are charged and discharged (i.e., V2H) in appropriate time slots by taking into account demand response events, time-ofuse rate information, and users’ vehicle usage plan. We introduce three approaches on home energy management: centralized energy control, distributed energy control, and coordinated energy control. We implemented smart charging and V2H systems by employing two sets of standardized communication protocols: one using OpenADR 2.0b, SEP 2.0, and SAE standards and the other using OpenADR 2.0b, ECHONET Lite, and ISO/IEC 15118.
Technical Paper

Experimental Demonstration of Smart Charging and Demand Response for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Based on SAE Standards

2015-04-14
2015-01-0301
In this paper, we present an implementation of smart charging systems for plug-in electric vehicles based on off-the-shelf communication protocols for smart grids including SAE J2836/2847/J2931 standards and SEP 2.0. In this system, the charging schedule is optimized so that it supplies sufficient electricity for the next trip and also minimizes the charging cost under given time-of-use rate structures while it follows demand response events requested by a utility. Also, users can control charging schedule and check the current status of charging through application software of tablet computers. To validate the effectiveness of the developed smart charging system, we conducted experimental demonstration in which a total of 10 customers of Duke Energy regularly used our developed system for approximately one year with simulated time-of-use rate structures and demand response events.
Technical Paper

Electromigration of Ni Plating/Sn-0.7Cu Based Joint System of Power Modules for Hybrid Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1239
Power modules are used to operate three-phase alternating current motors in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. Good fuel efficiency and high power density are required in the field of hybrid vehicles. To achieve this goal, the miniaturization of the power module will be necessary. This trend may make a current density, which is created by insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and free wheel diodes (FWDs), higher in power modules. Solder is often used as the joint material of power modules. It is known that a current density larger than 10 kA/cm2 causes solder electromigration. This phenomenon may cause delamination of the joint area. In addition, the ambient temperature has an influence on electromigration. The temperature of an engine compartment is high, so it is likely to cause electromigration. However, the current density of the double-sided cooling power modules in 2007 with solder joint is lower than 0.4 kA/cm2, and this value is lower than 10 kA/cm2.
Technical Paper

Efficient Heat Pump System for PHEV/BEV

2017-03-28
2017-01-0188
As vehicle emission regulations become increasingly rigorous, the automotive industry is accelerating the development of electrified vehicle platforms such as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). Since the available waste heat from these vehicles is limited, additional heat sources such as electric heaters are needed for cabin heating operation. The use of a heat pump system is one of the solutions to improve EV driving range at cold ambient conditions. In this study, an efficient gas-injection heat pump system has been developed, which achieves high cabin heating performance at low ambient temperature and dehumidification operation without the assistance of electric heaters in ’17 model year Prius Prime.
Technical Paper

Efficient Direct Yaw Moment Control during Acceleration and Deceleration While Turning (Second Report)

2016-04-05
2016-01-1677
Electric vehicles (EVs) are attracting attention due to growing awareness of environmental issues such as fossil fuel depletion and global warming. In particular, a wide range of research has examined how direct yaw moment controls (DYCs) can enhance the handling performance of EVs equipped with multiple in-wheel motors (IWMs) or the like. Recently, this research has focused on reducing energy consumption through driving force distribution control. The first report proposed a method to minimize energy consumption through an efficient DYC for extending the cruising range of a vehicle installed with four IWMs, and described the vehicle behavior with this control. Since motors allow high design flexibility, EVs can be developed with a variety of drive systems. For this reason, various driving force distribution control methods can be considered based on the adopted system.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronically Controlled Brake System for Fuel-efficient Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1664
To solve various environmental problems, fuel-efficient vehicles that reduce CO2 emissions as well as exhaust gas emissions have been developed. In such vehicles, a regenerative brake is used to further reduce fuel consumption. Because the market size for such vehicles is expanding, a brake system is required that can be used in a wide range of vehicles extending from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to electric vehicles (EVs). In addition, issues such as deceleration fluctuation and brake pedal fluctuation arise because the regenerative brake force is dependent on the vehicle speed. This paper presents a brake system configuration and its element technologies that can replace existing brake systems in different vehicles ranging from ICEVs to EVs. The proposed system can realize a regenerative cooperative brake not only by replacing the brake booster unit but also without replacing the modulator.
Technical Paper

Development of ToyotaS Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

1998-10-19
98C053
Toyota has been developing various environmentally friendly vehicles to address global environmental concerns. In 1996, Toyota started to sell the battery powered "RAV4" electric vehicle, and introduced the "e-com" in 1997. Late last year, Toyota launched production of the world's first hybrid vehicle, the "PRIUS", doubling the fuel efficiency and drastically reducing the emission of carbon dioxide. Toyota is also conducting research in the area of fuel cell electric vehicles. This paper explains the electric systems of these vehicles, i.e., motor, inverter, Ni-MH battery and control. Some of the technical problems will also be discussed
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota Plug-In Hybrid System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0874
Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) as a countermeasure to concerns related to the automotive mobility like CO2 reduction, energy security, and emission reduction in urban areas. A next step towards an even more effective solution for these concerns is a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV). This vehicle combines the advantages of electric vehicles (EV), which can use clean electric energy, and HV with it's high environmental potential and user-friendliness comparable to conventional vehicles such as a long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an EV-range within usual trip length without sacrificing cabin space. The vehicle achieves a CO2 emission of 59g/km and meets the most stringent emission regulations in the world. The new PHV is a forerunner of the large-scale mass production PHV which will be introduced in two years.
Technical Paper

Development of New Plug-In Hybrid Transaxle for Compact-Class Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1151
To help respond to growing customer demand for environmentally friendly vehicles, a new transaxle for plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) has been developed that achieves excellent fuel economy and ensures high performance when the PHV operates in electric vehicle (EV) mode. Under the basic concept of sharing a large number of parts with the transaxle in the all new Prius, the newly designed PHV transaxle was developed with the aim of enhancing EV power and range. To achieve our goal, the new transaxle uses a Dual Motor Drive System that operates the generator as a motor to supplement the existing motor. It also features an electrical oil pump (EOP) that improves cooling performance in EV mode. The developed transaxle helps to advance the PHV as a key next-generation environmentally friendly vehicle by maximizing the performance of the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) and achieving even better dynamic EV mode performance than the new Prius HV.
Journal Article

Development of New Electronically Controlled Hydraulic Unit for Various Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1660
The use of hybrid, fuel cell electric, and pure electric vehicles is on the increase as part of measures to help reduce exhaust gas emissions and to help resolve energy issues. These vehicles use regenerative-friction brake coordination technology, which requires a braking system that can accurately control the hydraulic brakes in response to small changes in regenerative braking. At the same time, the spread of collision avoidance support technology is progressing at a rapid pace along with a growing awareness of vehicle safety. This technology requires braking systems that can apply a large braking force in a short time. Although brake systems that have both accurate hydraulic control and large braking force have been developed in the past, simplification is required to promote further adoption.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Vehicle System for City Commuter Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1447
Recently, automakers have launched various types of electric vehicles (EVs) to help reduce global CO₂ emissions and reduce dependency on fossil fuel energy. Because the lithium-ion batteries that are currently under development are restricted by energy density, the physical size and mass of the battery must be significantly increased to extend the cruising range of the EV. Furthermore, dedicated charging infrastructure is required to charge the battery in a short time. At SAE in 2012, Toyota Motor Corporation proposed a concept that described the EV as suitable mainly for short-distance transportation now and in the near future. Later in the same year, Toyota launched a new EV that embodies this concept in the American and Japanese markets. This new EV is light-weight and has a compact body size, and its battery capacity is designed to sufficiently cover distances traveled in daily life. Charging is assumed to take place mainly at home.
Journal Article

A Study on Optimal Powertrain Sizing of Plugin Hybrid Vehicles for Minimizing Criteria Emissions Associated with Cold Starts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0406
Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have several attractive features in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles (CVs) that only have an internal combustion engine (ICE), PHEVs have better energy efficiency like regular hybrids (HEVs), allow for electrifying an appreciable portion of traveled miles, and have no range anxiety issues like battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). However, in terms of criteria emissions (e.g., NOx, NMOG, HC), it is unclear if PHEVs are any better than HEVs or CVs. Unlike GHG emissions, criteria emissions are not continuously emitted in proportional quantities to fossil fuel consumption. Rather, the amount and type of criteria emissions is a rather complex function of many factors, including type of fuel, ICE temperature, speed and torque, catalyst temperature, as well as the ICE controls (e.g., fuel-to-air ratio, valve and ignition timing).
Technical Paper

A Java Implementation of Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) Fuel Economy Simulation Code Modules

2018-04-03
2018-01-0412
Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a free and open-source tool developed by National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). Among the attractive capabilities of the FASTSim is that it can perform computationally efficient fuel economy simulations of automotive vehicles with reasonable accuracy for standard or arbitrary drive cycles. The modeling capability includes vehicles with various types of powertrains such as: conventional vehicles (CVs), hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). The public version of FASTSim available from NREL is implemented in Excel, which achieves the goal of good accessibility to a broad audience, but has some limitations, including: i) bottleneck in computations when importing arbitrary drive cycles, ii) slower computations in general than other scripting or programming languages, and iii) less portable to integration with other applications and/or other platforms.
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