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Technical Paper

Verification of High Frequency SiC On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger for PHV

This paper presents a new application of a vehicle on-board battery charger utilizing high frequency Silicon Carbide (SiC) power devices. SiC is one of the most promising alternatives to Silicon (Si) for power semiconductor devices due to its superior material characteristics such as lower on-state resistance, higher junction temperature, and higher switching frequency. An on-board charger prototype is developed demonstrating these advantages and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating with a switching frequency of 250 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.06 kW results in a gravimetric power density of 3.8 W/kg and a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L, which are about 10 times the densities compared with the current Prius Plug-In Si charger. SiC technology is indispensable to eco-friendly PHV/EV development.
Technical Paper

Verification of Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Application of Highly Effective Silicon Carbide Power Semiconductor to HV Inverter

A prototype power control unit (PCU) was manufactured using silicon carbide (SiC) power semiconductors (diodes and transistors), which have low power loss when switching on and off. This PCU was installed in a hybrid vehicle (HV) and driven on a test course and chassis dynamometer. The test results confirmed a fuel efficiency improvement of about 5 percent.
Technical Paper

The Advanced Sensor Fusion Algorithm for Pre-Crash Safety System

An obstacle recognition algorithm for the Pre-Crash Safety system has been newly developed with a stereo vision system and a millimeter wave radar with additional functions. This algorithm uses the merits of both the millimeter wave radar and the stereo vision system, and has two main features. One feature utilizes the merits of the stereo vision system detection with the detection results from the millimeter wave radar allowing for a more detailed horizontal position and width of the obstacle. This enables the equipment to operate at an earlier stage according to how well the relationship between the vehicle and the obstacle is understood. Another feature fuses detection from the millimeter wave radar and the stereo vision system. This system has succeeded in enhancing the detection performance of pedestrians who have been more difficult to detect than reflective objects such as cars.
Journal Article

Technical Development of Electro Magnetic Compatibility for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle / Electric Vehicle Using Wireless Power Transfer System

In 2007, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology successfully completed a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) experiment. Ever since, interest in WPT has been growing. At Toyota, we have been developing the underlying technology of a WPT system. Simultaneously we have been working with regulatory committees to create a standard for WPT. In particular, there are concerns that WPT’s radiated emissions could cause harm to humans and the neighboring electronic equipment. There are many challenges that need to be overcome, but a key concern is understanding WPT’s electromagnetic compatibility (EMI: Electro-Magnetic Interference and EMF: Electro-Magnetic Field). In this paper, we show the technical issues, the evaluation method, and the development status of EMI and EMF on PHVs/EVs when using WPT. For Electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance, we investigated both an open area test site and an electromagnetic anechoic chamber as evaluation environments.
Technical Paper

Stereo Vision System for Advanced Vehicle Safety System

In this paper, we will introduce a stereo vision system developed as a sensor for a vehicle's front monitor. This system consists of three parts; namely, a stereo camera that collects video images of the forward view of the vehicle, a stereo ECU that processes its output image, and a near-infrared floodlight for illuminating the front at night. We were able to develop an obstacle detection function for the Pre-Crash Safety System and also a traffic lane detection function for a Lane-Keeping Assist System. Especially in regard to the obstacle detection function, we were able to achieve real-time processing of the disparity image calculations that had formerly required long processing times by using two types of recently developed LSIs.
Technical Paper

Pre-Collision System for Toyota Safety Sense

Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
Technical Paper

Obstacle Detection Systems for Vehicle Safety

The increase in automobile accidents has heightened the awareness of safety in the general public, and serious safety measures have been pushed forward in various countries. Although those efforts have achieved a certain level of success, more effective methods are needed to cope with further increases of automobile ownership.Besides the collision safety, measures that prevent accidents or reduce the possibility of accidents will now be necessary to reduce the number of injuries.Here, we will present the current development status and issues for an obstacle recognition system that reduces the likelihood of accidents by utilizing radars and image sensors.
Technical Paper

IGBT Gate Control Methods to Reduce Electrical Power Losses of Hybrid Vehicles

Reducing the loss of the power control unit (PCU) in a hybrid vehicle (HV) is an important part of improving HV fuel efficiency. Furthermore the loss of power devices (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and diodes) used in the PCU must be reduced since this amounts to approximately 20% of the total electrical loss in an HV. One of the issues for reducing loss is the trade-off relationship with reducing voltage surge. To restrict voltage surge, it is necessary to slow down the switching speed of the IGBT. In contrast, the loss reduction requires the high speed switching. One widely known method to improve this trade-off relationship is to increase the gate voltage in two stages. However, accurate and high-speed operation of the IGBT gate control circuit is difficult to accomplish. This research clarifies a better condition of the two-stage control and designed a circuit that improves this trade-off relationship by increasing the speed of feedback control.
Technical Paper

Electronically-Scanning Millimeter-Wave RADAR for Forward Objects Detection

Recently, the development of advanced automotive technology for excellent safety and convenience has become more active. Efforts have focused on the development of active safety technology. Pre-Crash Systems, such as passenger protection systems activated before a collision or collision speed reduction system, which are categorized between active safety systems and passive safety systems, have been a subject of focus. In such systems, surround sensing technology to predict a collision is the key issue. We developed an electronically scanning millimeter-wave (MMW) RADAR, which uses Digital Beam Forming (DBF) technology, as one of the first in the world for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Development of an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for the High-power Hybrid System

The GS450h requires higher system voltage to increase the motor output. For the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) that serves as the built-in switching device in the intelligent power module (IPM), higher voltage means greater loss and a larger device surface area, and it can also reduce the vehicle's fuel economy performance and increase its cost. To solve these issues, IGBT losses were reduced by (1) using a trench structure to make the IGBT more compact and (2) using a new structure in which the concentration of impurities in the drift layer is optimized. As a result, the device surface area was reduced by 10%, losses were reduced by 14%, and improved vehicle performance was achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of a Scanning Laser Radar for ACC

This paper introduces the cruise control system with distance control function, that is called Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), that uses a scanning laser radar as a sensor to detect preceding vehicles. With the goal of increasing the driving convenience and comfort when compared to the conventional cruise control, lots of ACC systems have been proposed and developed. This paper presents ACC system using the scanning laser radar which was developed by Toyota, and describes the adaptation of the system specifications. This ACC system was able to greatly reduce the driver's work load, and increased the driver's convenience and comfort when operating the cruise controls system. In addition, we were able to design this system to be highly dependable and inexpensive and supply it to the market as a result of incorporating various ideas for improvements.
Technical Paper

Development of Printed-on Quarter Glass TV Antenna

This paper describes the development of printed-on quarter glass TV antenna using the improved simulation method. This method was based on the Wire-Grid Moment Method and have been newly improved to analyze the characteristics of printed-on glass antenna with making experimental and theoretical studies on the following RF characteristics of vehicular sheet glasses; (1) Relative dielectric constant, (2) Transmissivity, (3) Wave length reduction. Using this new method, the numerical solution of basic printed-on quarter glass TV antenna characteristics was closely agreed with measurement results. So that this new method has been put to useful one in analyzing and constructing the design concept of the newly developed printed-on glass TV antenna.
Technical Paper

Development of Pre-Crash Safety System for Heavy Duty Trucks

In fatal accidents due to heavy duty trucks, the fatalities of occupants in passenger cars in which rear-end collision occur account for the largest percent. Collisions to the vehicles in traffic jams and collision to other accidents scenes on express ways can result in serious repercussions. Therefore the system which reduces the damage of collisions has long been demanded and here the world-first Pre-crash Safety (PCS) System for heavy duty trucks was developed. This system gives warning to the driver in case there is a possibility of collision with preceding vehicles, and activates the brakes to mitigate damage in case there is a higher possibility of collision. In order to get the maximum effect on the express ways where the trucks are in high speed, it is necessary to give warning and activate the brakes with relatively early timing.
Technical Paper

Development of Automatic Braking System to Help Reduce Rear Impacts

A Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system has been developed that uses radar sensors to detect vehicles approaching from the right or left at the rear of the driver’s vehicle, and then performs braking control if the system judges that a collision may occur. This system predicts the intersecting course of approaching vehicles and uses the calculated time-to-collision (TTC) to control the timing of automatic braking with the aim of helping prevent unnecessary operation while ensuring system performance.
Technical Paper

Animal-Vehicle Encounter Naturalistic Driving Data Collection and Photogrammetric Analysis

Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. As part of a larger study, naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS). Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Friction Coefficient Variation with Moisture between Friction Surfaces

If a vehicle is left in a humid environment, the coefficient of friction between the brake pads and discs increases, generating a discomforting noise during braking called brake squeal. It is assumed that this increase in the coefficient of friction in a humid environment is the effect of moisture penetrating between the brake friction surfaces. Therefore, this paper analyzes the factors causing coefficient of friction variation with moisture between the friction surfaces by dynamic observation of these surfaces. The observation was achieved by changing the disc materials from cast iron to borosilicate glass. One side of the glass brake disc was pushed onto the brake pad and the sliding surface was observed from the opposite side by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. First, a preliminary test was carried out in a dry state using two pad materials with different wear properties to select the appropriate pad for observing the friction surfaces.