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Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
Technical Paper

Study on the Potential Benefits of Plug-in Hybrid Systems

There is ever increasing interest in the issues of fossil fuel depletion, global warming, due to increased atmospheric CO2, and air pollution, all of which are due in some extent to transportation, including automobiles. Hybrid Vehicles (HVs), whose performance and usage are equivalent to existing conventional vehicles, attract lots of attention and have started to come into wider use. Meanwhile, EVs have been considered by many as the best solution for the issues mentioned above. But the technical difficulty of battery energy density is an obstruction to successful implementation. Currently the Plug-in HV (PHEV), which combines the advantages of HV and EV, is being considered as one promising solution. PHEVs can be categorized into two types, according to operating modes. The first uses battery stored energy initially, only stating the internal combustion engine when the battery is depleted. This we call the All Electric Range (AER) system.
Technical Paper

Stereo Vision System for Advanced Vehicle Safety System

In this paper, we will introduce a stereo vision system developed as a sensor for a vehicle's front monitor. This system consists of three parts; namely, a stereo camera that collects video images of the forward view of the vehicle, a stereo ECU that processes its output image, and a near-infrared floodlight for illuminating the front at night. We were able to develop an obstacle detection function for the Pre-Crash Safety System and also a traffic lane detection function for a Lane-Keeping Assist System. Especially in regard to the obstacle detection function, we were able to achieve real-time processing of the disparity image calculations that had formerly required long processing times by using two types of recently developed LSIs.
Journal Article

Multiplex Communication Protocol for Switch/Sensor/Actuator Network: “CXPI”

The growing functionality and complexity of recent vehicle electronic systems have made inter-device communication (on-board LAN) technology vital to vehicle design. By field of application, the LAN (Local Area Network) systems currently in use are LIN (Local Interconnect Network) used for body systems, CAN (Controller Area Network) used for control systems, and MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport ) used for multimedia and camera systems, and work to standardize the next-generation communication technology for each of those fields is underway. This paper provides a technical overview of the CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) communication protocol, which satisfies the body system requirements (rapid response, system extensibility, high reliability, and low cost). It also presents the progress made on standardization at SAE and other organizations.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid/Battery ECU for the Toyota Hybrid System

For energy saving and global warming prevention, Toyota has developed Toyota Hybrid System (THS) for mass-produced passenger cars, which achieves drastic improvement in fuel efficiency and reduction in exhaust emissions compared to conventional gasoline engine cars. The THS has two motive power sources which engage depending on driving conditions. It's power is supplied either from an engine (controlled by the engine ECU) or an electric motor (controlled by the motor ECU) which is powered by a high-voltage battery (monitored by the battery ECU). These ECUs are controlled by a hybrid ECU. Each ECU has been developed with a fail-safe system in mind, to ensure driver safety in case of vehicle breakdowns. Among these ECUs, this paper reports particularly on the newly introduced ECUs: hybrid ECU and battery ECU. In the development of these ECUs, special attention was focused on fail-safe performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Scanning Laser Radar for ACC

This paper introduces the cruise control system with distance control function, that is called Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), that uses a scanning laser radar as a sensor to detect preceding vehicles. With the goal of increasing the driving convenience and comfort when compared to the conventional cruise control, lots of ACC systems have been proposed and developed. This paper presents ACC system using the scanning laser radar which was developed by Toyota, and describes the adaptation of the system specifications. This ACC system was able to greatly reduce the driver's work load, and increased the driver's convenience and comfort when operating the cruise controls system. In addition, we were able to design this system to be highly dependable and inexpensive and supply it to the market as a result of incorporating various ideas for improvements.
Technical Paper

Development of TLP-AI Technology to realize high temperature operation of power module

SiC power devices are promising components for the power module assembled in the automobile power control unit due to their low-power loss operation. Also they have high thermostable characteristics which are expected to tolerate high temperature operation, widening the range that the conventional Si device has limited. While, the packaging technology is also needed to improve the thermo-stability to derive the full potential of SiC power device, especially the device bonding which is directly related to the device thermally and physically. TLP bonding is one of the promising technologies for the high temperature operation because its bonding layer has high melting point. But there is a problem that characteristic of TLP bonding layer causes the damage to the power device.
Technical Paper

Development of Next Generation Fuel-Cell Hybrid System - Consideration of High Voltage System -

Toyota Motor Corporation began leasing a new generation fuel cell vehicle the FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) in December 2002. That vehicle includes a new variable voltage power electronics system and uses the Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery system from the Prius hybrid gasoline electric vehicle. This paper describes on-going efforts to model optimum secondary storage systems for future vehicles. Efficiency modeling is presented for the base Ni-MH storage system, an ultra capacitor system and a Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery system. The Li-ion system in combination with a new high efficiency converter shows a 4% improvement in fuel economy relative to the base system. The ultra capacitor system is not as efficient as the base system.
Technical Paper

Development of New Electronic Control System for a Diesel Engine

An unique diesel engine electronic control system has been developed, which contains two distinctive features. Firstly, the delivery type fuel injection pump has an electro-magnetic valve to control the quantity of fuel injected. This valve is then acutuated to ensure that the timing of the high pressure fuel flow out stops the fuel injection. In the previous diesel electronic control system, the fuel quantity control was effected via the position control of a mechanical spill ring. Since timing control is more suitable than position control for handling by a microcomputer, the electro-magnetic valve is able to control the quantity of fuel injected more precisely, whilst consisting of a simpler structure. Secondly, an optical combustion timing sensor is able to detect initial combustion timing by sensing the light of the combustion flame in the combustion chamber. Using the signal from the sensor, the microcomputer then exerts a compensating control over the fuel injection timing.
Technical Paper

Development of Lane Recognition Algorithm for Steering Assistance System

This paper gives an outline of the steering assistance system (hereinafter, SAS) and a description of its key technology: the lane recognition algorithm. To accommodate a variety of driving styles, the SAS is equipped with a lane keeping assistance mode (LKA mode) and a lane departure warning mode (LDW mode) that can be selectively set by the driver. The former mode works in combination with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and carries the advantage of relieving the driving load that is placed on the driver. The latter mode has the benefit of reducing the danger of lane departure accidents caused by the driver dozing off and taking his eyes off the road. The newly developed lane recognition ECU has a simple hardware set-up of two 32-bit microcomputers. The lane recognition algorithm was constructed on the basis of a logic process that analyzes pattern edge points and selects a set of edge points that most closely resemble lanemarks.
Technical Paper

Design Tool and Software Platform for Time-Triggered Network Systems

This paper describes a design tool and a software platform for FlexRay systems that are investigated in Nagoya University and are proposed to JasPar. The design tool reads the specification of a system as a task graph that consists of a set of tasks and messages among them. The design tool, then, allocates the tasks to ECUs and schedules the messages on a FlexRay network. The software platform consists of a middleware called time-trigger module (TTM) which dispatches time-triggered tasks, a communication middleware for a time-triggered network (TT-COM), a network management middleware for FlexRay (FlexRay-NM), and a device driver for FlexRay controller.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

A Study of Evaluating the Real-time Property for Engine Control Software

Recently, the role of ECU(Electronic Control Unit) on vehicles has been becoming more important year by year in order to meet the requirements for safety and the environmental matters. Particularly, the ECU of Engine Management Systems has been becoming indispensable in order to realize high performance, low fuel consumption and low exhaust emission. Therefore, the size of software has also been increasing, and been becoming more complex and complicated. As the ECU software size becomes large and complex, the verification and validation of the software by using the current development method has been becoming more difficult. Especially it has been becoming more difficult to validate the Real-time property of the software. The Real-time property means whether the execution of the software is in time for the deadline which is decided on the software design.