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Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

2012-04-16
2012-01-1161
This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior Noise and Vibration Reduction Method Using Transfer Function of Body Structure

2011-05-17
2011-01-1692
To reduce interior noise effectively in the vehicle body structure development process, noise and vibration engineers have to first identify the portions of the body that have high sensitivity. Second, the necessary vibration characteristics of each portion must be determined, and third, the appropriate body structure for achieving the target performance of the vehicle must be realized within a short development timeframe. This paper proposes a new method based on the substructure synthesis method which is effective up to 200Hz. This method primarily utilizes equations expressing the relationship between driving point inertance change at arbitrary body portions and the corresponding sound pressure level (SPL) variation at the occupant's ear positions under external force. A modified system equation was derived from the body transfer functions and equation of motion by adding a virtual dynamic stiffness expression into the dynamic stiffness matrix of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control Software Specification Using Design Interests Extraction and Model Checking

2012-04-16
2012-01-0960
Automotive control systems such as powertrain control interact with the open physical environment, and from this nature, expensive prototyping is indispensable to capture a deep understanding of the system requirements and to develop the corresponding control software. Model-based development (MBD) has been promoted to improve productivity by virtual prototyping. Even with MBD, systematic validation of the software specification remains as a major challenge and it still depends heavily on individual engineers' skill and knowledge. Though the introduction of graphical software modeling improved the situation, it requires much time to identify the primal functions, so-called “design interests”, from a large complex model where irrelevant components are mixed with, and to validate it properly.
Technical Paper

V6-SUV Engine Sound Development

2009-05-19
2009-01-2177
This paper describes the development and achievement of a target engine sound for a V6 SUV in consideration of the sound quality preferences of customers in the U.S. First, a simple definition for engine sound under acceleration was found using order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. These elements are the product of commonly used characteristics in conventional development and can be applied simply when setting component targets. The development focused on order arrangement as the most important of these elements, and sounds with and without integer orders were selected as target candidates. Next, subjective auditory evaluations were performed in the U.S. using digitally processed sounds and an evaluation panel comprising roughly 40 subjects. The target sound was determined after classifying the results of this evaluation using cluster analysis.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

2007-10-29
2007-01-4082
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES): 1st Report: Phenomenological Multi-Zone PDF Model for Predicting the Transient Behavior of Diesel Engine Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-0843
We have developed a novel engine cycle simulation program (UniDES: universal diesel engine simulator) to reproduce the diesel combustion process over a wide range of engine operating parameters, such as the amount of injected fuel, the injection timing, and the EGR ratio. The approach described in this paper employs a zoning model, where the in-cylinder region is divided into up to five zones. We also applied a probability density function (PDF) concept to each zone to consider the effect of spatial non-homogeneities, such as local equivalence ratios and temperature, on the combustion characteristics. We linked this program to the commonly used commercial GT-Power® software (UniDES+GT). As a result, we were able to reproduce transient engine behavior very accurately.
Technical Paper

Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0881
The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
Journal Article

Typical Velocity Fields and Vortical Structures around a Formula One Car, based on Experimental Investigations using Particle Image Velocimetry

2016-04-05
2016-01-1611
This paper presents typical flow structures around a 60%-scale wind-tunnel model of a Formula One (F1) car, using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). The customized PIV system is permanently installed in a wind tunnel to help aerodynamicists in the development loop. The PIV results enhance the understanding of the mean velocity field in the two-dimensional plane in some important areas of the car, such as the front-wheel wake and the underfloor flow. These real phenomena obtained in the wind tunnel also help maintain the accuracy of simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by allowing regular checking of the correlation with the real-world counterpart. This paper first surveys recent literature on unique flow structures around the rotating exposed wheel, mostly that on the isolated wheel, and then gives the background to F1 aerodynamics in the late 2000s.
Technical Paper

Trends of Future Powertrain Development and the Evolution of Powertrain Control Systems

2004-10-18
2004-21-0063
High fuel efficiency and low emission technologies, such as Direct Injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines and hybrid powertrains, have been developed to resolve environmental and energy resource issues. The hybrid powertrain system has achieved superior power performance as well as higher system efficiency and is expected to be a core powertrain technology because it is compatible with various power sources including fuel cells. It becomes important to control complicated hybrid systems that consist of not only a powertrain but also vehicle systems such as regenerative braking. Model-based control and calibration enables both control strategy optimization and control system development efficiency improvement.
Journal Article

Toyota's Integrated Drive Power Control System for Downsized Turbocharged Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1636
New engine controls have been developed for the turbocharged Lexus NX200t to improve driving power by reducing engine torque output lag. Drive power management functions have been centralized in an integrated drive power control system. The newly developed controls minimize the potential reduction in drivability associated with the adoption of a turbocharged engine while improving fuel efficiency. General driveability issues commonly associated with a turbocharged engine include sudden increases in drive power due to the response lag of the turbocharger, and higher shifting frequencies if this response lag triggers a disturbed accelerator operation pattern by the driver. The developed technologies detect and control sudden increases in drive power to create the optimum drive power map, and reduce unnecessary shifts even if the driver's accelerator operation is disturbed.
Technical Paper

Toyota “ECT-i” a New Automatic Transmission with Intelligent Electronic Control System

1990-02-01
900550
TOYOTA has developed a new automatic transmission, called the A341E. This transmission employs a unique engine and transmission integrated intelligent control system named “ECT-i”, and a high performance “Super Flow” Torque Converter. This control system is capable of total control of engine torque and clutch hydraulic pressure during shifting, which has resulted in very smooth shift without changes over the life of the transmission. The “Super Flow” Torque Converter has a modified geometry optimized by the analysis of internal flow by means of computer simulations, attaining the highest efficiecy in the world. With the use of such systems, this new automatic transmission has improved total performance of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1093
The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Journal Article

Tire and Road Input Modeling for Low-Frequency Road Noise Prediction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1690
This paper presents a modeling method for prediction of low-frequency road noise in a steady-state condition where rotating tires are excited by actual road profile undulation input. The proposed finite element (FE) tire model contains not only additional geometric stiffness related to inflation pressure and axle load but also Coriolis force and centrifugal force effects caused by tire rotation for precise road noise simulation. Road inputs act on the nodes of each rib in the contact patch of the stationary tire model and move along them at the driving velocity. The nodes are enforced to displace in frequency domain based on the measured road profile. Tire model accuracy was confirmed by the spindle forces on the rotating chassis drum up to 100Hz where Coriolis force effect should be considered. Full vehicle simulation results showed good agreement with the vibration measurement of front/rear suspension at two driving velocities.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement With High-Energy X-Ray CT-Scan

2003-03-03
2003-01-1033
Digital engineering has been utilized in product development to improve the quality. The actual object was measured and digitized into the three-dimensional (3-D) data, and the requirement of evaluating and analyzing the CAD data has been increased in these activities. So, we developed the technology that measures the actual object and obtains the 3-D model data for general automotive parts. The features of this new system are high-speed and high-accuracy by using high energy X-ray CT technology and 3-D model data technology. 3-D model data can be obtained for about 5 hours in case of the engine block and the error is 0.1mm or less. We also show the examples of the new automotive parts development using this technology.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimension Deposited Soot Distribution Measurement in Silicon Carbide Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

2011-04-12
2011-01-0599
Exhaust emissions are well known to have adverse impacts on human health. Studies have demonstrated that there is an association between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and various harmful cardiopulmonary conditions. Soot exhaust from diesel engines can be a significant contributor to airborne pollutants. A key component in PM level control for a diesel engine is a diesel particulate filter (DPF). This device traps soot while allowing other exhaust gases to pass unhindered. However, the performance of diesel particulate filters can change with increasing soot loadings and thus may require regeneration or replacement. Improved understanding of diesel particulate filters is dependent upon the knowledge of the actual soot loading and the soot distribution within the DPF. Neutron radiography (NR) has been identified as an effective means of non-destructively identifying hydrogen or carbon adsorbed in PM.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) by using a heat pump system in cold weather. The advantage of an HV is a high efficiency of the vehicle system since an electric motor and an engine are coupled and optimally controlled. However, in the conventional HV, we see the fuel economy degradation in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin by using an engine results in a low efficiency of the vehicle system. To improve the fuel economy degradation, in this study, a heat pump is used and combined with an engine for the thermal management. The heat pump with an electrically driven compressor pumps heat from ambient into a water-cooled condenser. The heat which is generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce the emission and the cabin needs heat for thermal comfort.
Journal Article

Theoretical Study on Spray Design for Small-Bore Diesel Engine (Second Report)

2017-03-28
2017-01-0704
Generally, soot emissions increase in diesel engines with smaller bore sizes due to larger spray impingement on the cavity wall at a constant specific output power. The objective of this study is to clarify the constraints for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes. The first report applied the geometrical similarity concept to two engines with different bore sizes and similar piston cavity shapes. The smaller engine emitted more smoke because air entrainment decreases due to the narrower spray angle. A new spray design method called spray characteristics similarity was proposed to suppress soot emissions. However, a smaller nozzle diameter and a larger number of nozzle holes are required to maintain the same spray characteristics (such as specific air-entrainment and penetration) when the bore size decreases.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Study on Spray Design for Small-Bore Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0740
1 Recently, demand for small-bore compact vehicle engines has been increasing from the standpoint of further reducing CO2 emissions. The generalization and formulation of combustion processes, including those related to emissions formation, based on a certain similarity of physical phenomena regardless of engine size, would be extremely beneficial for the unification of development processes for various sizes of engines. The objective of this study is to clarify what constraints are necessary for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes.
Technical Paper

The application of the damage & fracture material model to crashworthiness evaluations for Aluminum cars.

2003-10-27
2003-01-2776
In an evaluation of crashworthiness for the cars made of aluminum alloys, the evaluation considering fracture phenomenon comes to be needed because conventional aluminum alloys have low fracture strain (10-20%). In case of the development of a B-Pillar made by die cast, if crack occurrence, furthermore, separation of a part can be estimated by using CAE in crashworthiness evaluations, we can reduce the number of prototype makings and the cost of development using expensive dies. Therefore, we performed crashworthiness evaluations by CAE using some sort of a damage & fracture material model. It is known as “Orthotropic damage & fracture model”.
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1025
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
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