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Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Technical Paper

Toyota's New Shift-by-Wire System for Hybrid Vehicles

In today's motorized society, various automotive technologies continue to evolve every day. Amid this trend, a new concept with respect to automatic transaxle gear-shifting has been developed. In order to materialize a new concept for shifting operation with a universal design in mind, a system has been developed: a shift-by-wire system developed specifically for hybrid vehicles. The greatest advantage of this new system is the lack of constraints associated with the conventional mechanical linkage to the transaxle. This allows freedom of design for the gear selection module. A revolutionary improvement in the ease of shifting has been realized by taking full advantage of this design freedom. In addition, this system contributes to an innovative design. For improved ease of operation, the operation force of the shift lever of this system has been dramatically reduced. For parking, the driver can engage the parking mechanism of the transaxle at the touch of a switch.
Journal Article

Toyota's Integrated Drive Power Control System for Downsized Turbocharged Engine

New engine controls have been developed for the turbocharged Lexus NX200t to improve driving power by reducing engine torque output lag. Drive power management functions have been centralized in an integrated drive power control system. The newly developed controls minimize the potential reduction in drivability associated with the adoption of a turbocharged engine while improving fuel efficiency. General driveability issues commonly associated with a turbocharged engine include sudden increases in drive power due to the response lag of the turbocharger, and higher shifting frequencies if this response lag triggers a disturbed accelerator operation pattern by the driver. The developed technologies detect and control sudden increases in drive power to create the optimum drive power map, and reduce unnecessary shifts even if the driver's accelerator operation is disturbed.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Technical Paper

Study of Large OSC Materials (Ln2O2SO4) on the Basis of Sulfur Redox Reaction

Three-way catalyst shows high performance under stoichiometric atmosphere. The CeO2-ZrO2 based materials (CZ) are added as a buffer of O2 concentration. To improve the catalyst performance the larger O2 storage capacity (OSC) are needed. Theoretically, the sulfur oxidation-reduction reaction moves oxygen 8 times larger than cerium. We focused on this phenomenon and synthesized Ln2O2SO4 as a new OSC material. The experimental result under model gas shows that the OSC of Ln2O2SO4 is 5 times lager than CZ.
Technical Paper

Spatio-Temporal Frequency Characteristics Measurement of Contrast Sensitivity for Smart Lighting

This study aims at the development of a projection pattern that is capable of shortening the time required by a driver to perceive a pedestrian at night when a vehicle’s high beams are utilized. Our approach is based on the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. Visual contrast sensitivity is dependent on spatiotemporal frequency, and maximum contrast sensitivity frequency varies depending on environmental luminance. Conventionally, there are several applications that utilize the spatio-temporal frequency characteristics of human vision. For example, the National Television System Committee (NTSC) television format takes into consideration low-sensitivity visual characteristics. In contrast, our approach utilizes high-sensitivity visual characteristics based on the assumption that the higher contrast sensitivity of spatio-temporal frequencies will correlate more effectively with shorter perception times.
Journal Article

Smart Lighting for Enhancing Perception of Pedestrians based on Visual Properties

We investigated a lighting method that supports pedestrian perception by vehicle drivers. This lighting method makes active use of visual characteristics such as the spatio-temporal frequency of contrast sensitivity. Using reasonable parameter values derived from preliminary experiments using a Campbell-Robson chart, we determined a suitable lighting pattern that improves the driver's pedestrian perception. In order to assess the influence of visual characteristics on a reaction-time-dependent task, such as pedestrian perception in nighttime, tests were performed in the target environment, the results of which validated the proposed method.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous PM and NOx Reduction System for Diesel Engines

A new after-treatment system called DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction System) has been developed for simultaneous and continuous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust gas. This system consists of both a new catalytic technology and a new diesel combustion technology which enables rich operating conditions in diesel engines. The catalytic converter for the DPNR has a newly developed porous ceramic structure coated with a NOx storage reduction catalyst. A fresh DPNR catalyst reduced more than 80 % of both PM and NOx. This paper describes the concept and performance of the system in detail. Especially, the details of the PM oxidation mechanism in DPNR are described.
Technical Paper

Research of Occupant kinematics and Injury values of Hybrid III, THOR, and human FE model in Oblique Frontal Impact

This paper describes impact kinematics and injury values of Hybrid III AM50, THOR AM50 and THUMS AM50 in simulated oblique frontal impact conditions. A comparison was made among them in driver and passenger seat positions of a midsize sedan car finite element (FE) model. The simulation results indicated that the impact kinematics of THOR was close to that of THUMS compared to that of the Hybrid III. Both THOR and THUMS showed z-axis rotation of the rib cage, while Hybrid III did not. It was considered that the rib cage rotation was due primarily to the oblique impact but was allowed by flexibility of the lumbar spine in THOR and THUMS. Lateral head displacement observed in both THOR and THUMS was mostly induced by that rotation in both driver seat and passenger seat positions. The BrIC, thorax and abdominal injury values were close to each other between THOR and THUMS, while HIC15 and Acetabulum force values were different.
Journal Article

Reaction Mechanism Analysis of Di-Air-Contributions of Hydrocarbons and Intermediates

The details of Di-Air, a new NOx reduction system using continuous short pulse injections of hydrocarbons (HC) in front of a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst, have already been reported. This paper describes further studies into the deNOx mechanism, mainly from the standpoint of the contribution of HC and intermediates. In the process of a preliminary survey regarding HC oxidation behavior at the moment of injection, it was found that HC have unique advantages as a reductant. The addition of HC lead to the reduction or metallization of platinum group metals (PGM) while keeping the overall gas atmosphere in a lean state due to adsorbed HC. This causes local O₂ inhibition and generates reductive intermediate species such as R-NCO. Therefore, the specific benefits of HC were analyzed from the viewpoints of 1) the impact on the PGM state, 2) the characterization of intermediate species, and 3) Di-Air performance compared to other reductants.
Technical Paper

Pre-Collision System for Toyota Safety Sense

Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
Technical Paper

Occupant Kinematics and Estimated Effectiveness of Side Airbags in Pole Side Impacts Using a Human FE Model with Internal Organs

When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models.
Technical Paper

New Drivetrain for Toyota's Flagship Lexus LFA Sports Car

Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new drivetrain for their flagship Lexus LFA sports car. Passionate driving experience was pursued at the forefront of development. Superior vehicle performance, handling, and responsiveness that seem to anticipate the driver's intentions are achieved. Special vehicle packaging and component placement are adopted in the LFA in order to realize such performance. The engine, clutch, and front counter gear are positioned at the front of the vehicle, and the transaxle at the rear. The engine and transaxle are connected by a rigid torque tube. The transaxle is an automated manual transmission equipped with an electrohydraulic actuator for controlling both the shift and clutch operations. This actuator enables accurate control of the transmission and extremely quick response to shift paddle operation by the driver. This paper describes a general outline of the drivetrain and each component that has significantly contributed to LFA product appeal.
Technical Paper

Method of Improving Side Impact Protection Performance by Induction Hardening of Body Reinforcement Compatibility Between Safety and Weight Reduction in Body Engineering

A technique for induction-hardening local portions of vehicle body reinforcements press-formed of thin sheet steel has been developed, with the aim of ensuring occupant safety in a side collision. This technique for increasing the tensile strength of sheet steel was practically applied to the front floor cross member and center pillar reinforcement. Owing to this method, the weight of body reinforcements can be decreased. New induction-hardening systems have also been developed for the present technique. One is an apparatus which allows induction-hardening a part with a three-dimensionally curved surface. Another is a straightening quench technique used to retain the same dimensional accuracy as the original press-formed part.
Technical Paper

Injury Estimation in Frontal Collisions for Automobiles Equipped with Event Data Recorders (EDRs)

Event Data Recorders (EDRs) record valuable data in estimating the occupant injury severity after a crash. Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) with the use of EDR data will determine the potential extent of injuries to those involved in motor vehicle accidents. In order to obtain basic information in injury estimation using EDR data, frontal collisions for 29 vehicles equipped with EDRs were analyzed as a pilot study by retrieving the EDR data from the accident vehicles and collecting the occupant injury data from the database of an insurance company. As a result, the severity of occupant injury was closely related to the Delta V recorded on an EDR. However, there were several cases in which the predicted injury level was overestimated or underestimated by the Delta V. Therefore, caution is required when predicting the level of injury in frontal collisions based upon the Delta V alone.
Technical Paper

Indoor Pass-by Noise Evaluation System Capable of Reproducing ISO Actual Road Surface Tire Noise

Generally, pass-by noise levels measured outdoors vary according to the influence of weather conditions, background noise and the driver’s skill. Manufactures, therefore, are trying to reproduce proving ground driving conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The tire noise that occurs on actual road surfaces, however, is difficult to reproduce in indoor tests. In 2016, new pass-by noise regulations (UN R51-03) will take effect in Europe, Japan and other countries. Furthermore, stricter regulations (2dB) will take effect in 2020. In addition to the acceleration runs required under current regulations, UN R51-03 will require constant speed runs. Therefore, an efficient measurement methods are necessary for vehicle development. To solve the above mentioned issues, an indoor evaluation system capable of reproducing the tire noise that occurs on road surfaces has been developed.
Journal Article

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Unsprung Negative Skyhook Damper Control Using In-Wheel Motors

Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors (IWMs) are capable of independent control of the driving force at each wheel. These vehicles can also control the motion of the sprung mass by driving force distribution using the suspension reaction force generated by IWM drive. However, one disadvantage of IWMs is an increase in unsprung mass. This has the effect of increasing vibrations in the 4 to 8 Hz range, which is reported to be uncomfortable to vehicle occupants, thereby reducing ride comfort. This research aimed to improve ride comfort through driving force control. Skyhook damper control is a typical ride comfort control method. Although this control is generally capable of reducing vibration around the resonance frequency of the sprung mass, it also has the trade-off effect of worsening vibration in the targeted mid-frequency 4 to 8 Hz range. This research aimed to improve mid-frequency vibration by identifying the cause of this adverse effect through the equations of motion.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst

In order to enhance the catalytic performance of the NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst (NSR Catalyst), the sulfur tolerance of the NSR catalyst was improved by developing new support and NOx storage materials. The support material was developed by nano-particle mixing of ZrO2-TiO2 and Al2O3 in order to increase the Al2O3-TiO2 interface and to prevent the ZrO2-TiO2 phase from sintering. A Ba-Ti oxide composite material was also developed as a new NOx storage material containing highly dispersed Ba. It was confirmed that the sulfur tolerance and activity of the developed NSR catalyst are superior to that of the conventional one.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Heat Resistance for Bioplastics

We studied the adoption of plastics derived from plants (bioplastics) such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for automotive parts in order to contribute to suppressing the increase in CO, emissions. For this application. major improvements of heat and impact resistance are needed. As a method to improve heat resistance, we developed PLA combined with clay of high heat resistance. As a result. we succeeded in synthesizing a PLA-clay nanocomposite using 18(OH)2-Mont. In-mold crystallization of PLA-clay nanocomposite lead to the great suppression of storage modulus decrease at high temperature. which in turn improved the heat resistance of PLA.
Journal Article

Improvement in Vehicle Motion Performance by Suppression of Aerodynamic Load Fluctuations

This study focuses on fluctuations in the aerodynamic load acting on a hatchback car model under steady-state conditions, which can lead to degeneration of vehicle motion performance due to excitation of vehicle vibrations. Large eddy simulations were first conducted on a vehicle model based on a production hatchback car with and without additional aerodynamic devices that had received good subjective assessments by drivers. The numerical results showed that the magnitudes of the lateral load fluctuations were larger without the devices at Strouhal numbers less than approximately 0.1, where surface pressure fluctuations indicated a negative correlation between the two sides of the rear end, which could give rise to yawing and rolling vibrations. Based on the numerical results, wind-tunnel tests were performed with a 28%-scale hatchback car model.