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Journal Article

Thermal Analysis of Traction Contact Area Using a Thin-film Temperature Sensor

2013-04-08
2013-01-0368
The purpose of this paper is to construct the thermal analysis model by measuring and estimating the temperature at the traction contact area. For measurement of temperature, we have used a thin-film temperature sensor. For estimation of temperature, we have composed the thermal analysis model. The thin-film temperature sensor was formed on the contact surface using a spattering device. The sensor is constituted of three layers (sensor layer, insulation layer and intermediate layer). Dimensions of the sensor were sufficiently smaller than the traction contact area. The sensor featured high specific pressure capacity and high speed responsiveness. The thermal analysis model was mainly composed of three equations: Carslaw & Jaeger equation, Rashid & Seireg equation and heat transfer equation of shear heating in oil film. The heat transfer equation involved two models (local shear heating model at middle plane, homogeneous shear heating model).
Technical Paper

Silicon Nitride Turbocharger Rotor for High Performance Automotive Engines

1990-02-01
900656
Toyota Motor Corporation has mass-produced turbochargers with silicon nitride ceramic rotors since October, 1989. Those turbochargers have been introduced into Celica and MR-2 which are Toyota sporty-type passenger cars. The designing of ceramic rotor was carried out in order to ensure the strength and durability of the component as well as to obtain the same aerodynamic characteristics as in the metal rotor. A moment of inertia was reduced by 60% using ceramic rotor which improved turbocharger response. The ceramic rotor was joined to metal shaft by new method which compensated problems in both shrink fitting and active brazing methods. High temperature strength of silicon nitride material was improved by controlling the amount of sintering additives and sintering conditions. The ceramic injection moulding was employed to mass-produce rotors with complicated shape, applying optimun binder compositions and moulding conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Induction System of an Internal Combustion Engine -Multi-Dimensional Calculation Using a New Method of Lines

1990-02-01
900255
Multi-dimensional code has been developed to simulate the effect of geometry on mass flow rate and flow pattern in the induction system of an internal combustion engine. The unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates are solved by a new method of lines. In the method of lines, the governing equations are spatially discretized by a finite difference approximation and the resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated. As a time integration scheme, we newly propose to use the rational Runge-Kutta scheme in order to efficiently simulate the flows in the induction system. The domain-decomposition technique is introduced so that body-fitted structured grid can be easily generated for such complex geometry as a real intake port shape. The present code is applied to 2 and 3 dimensional steady flows in intake port/cylinder assembly with a valve.
Technical Paper

New Frictional Testing Method for Stamping Formability - Development of Dr. STAMP (Direct & Rapid, Surface Tribology Analyzing Method for Press) Method -

2003-10-27
2003-01-2812
Galvannealed steel sheet (GA) is very extensively used for vehicle panels. However ζ-phase (FeZn13) in GA coat causes poor stamping formability. Previously, there were no easy methods to evaluate the influence of ζ-phase on the frictional characteristics other than the X-ray diffraction method. This study will discuss the development of a new testing method: Dr. STAMP Method that is both efficient and convenient with pin-on-disc tester.
Journal Article

Narrow-Band Omnidirectional Structural Color

2008-04-14
2008-01-1049
Automotive pigments consist of absorptive materials which absorb most of the wavelengths of light in the visible range (400-800 nm) except one particular range which gets reflected and seen as color. This coloring mechanism based on light absorption due to their molecular structure generally reflects a broader range of wavelength with a moderate reflectivity (50-60%). However in nature we find many magnificent colors in insects, butterflies, birds and fishes. These colors in nature are not based on the abortive pigments, but on the nanoscopic regular structures that interfere light reflected from those periodic sites. Since animals contain no solid metals, to produce metallic-like reflections they also rely on interference of light.[1] Most common and well-known form of animal reflector is the multilayer type where alternating high and low refractive index layers are formed. Such nanostructure assembly can reflect light up to 100%.
Technical Paper

Metallic Powder Coating for Aluminum Wheels

2004-03-08
2004-01-1671
From the viewpoint of measures for environmental issues, the amount of solvents in paint for aluminum wheels needs to be minimized. Environmentally friendly powder coatings have been used widely for primer coating and clear coating, but there is no precedent for its use for base coating. This time, we optimized the condition of surface treatment of pigment and hardening behavior of constituent resin in the melting process and succeeded in developing a metallic powder coating for aluminum wheels that fulfills the appearance and the quality requirements of aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Joining Technologies for Aluminum Body-Improvement of Self-piercing Riveting

2003-10-27
2003-01-2788
The experimental research vehicle ES3 body was realized by using various aluminum-joining technologies: MIG welding, laser welding, self-piercing riveting. These technologies were applied selectively to make full use of their individual characteristics, according to the body structure and joined materials. Of these technologies, self-piercing riveting is advantageous in several respects. Aiming to expand the application range of riveting technology, we developed a die that prevents cracks in joining aluminum casting, and a method to improve rivet driving in thick, multi-pile portion. We further studied the feasibility of aluminum rivets. This paper outlines the ES3 body structure and it's joining technologies used and introduces the further improvements we developed concerning self-piercing riveting.
Technical Paper

Integrated Robot System Operation for Achieving High Productivity

2003-10-27
2003-01-2842
The integration of robot system operation is the most important and interesting issues for robot end users. Increasing robot operations by a growing variety of robots, applications, and models is a serious problem in maintaining high productivity and reducing maintenance cost. In the practical development of the Toyota global body assembly line (GBL), we designed a special robot operation and man-machine interface system based on the experience of robot operators. The Toyota Integrated Robot Operation System (IROS) offers remarkable advantages in the application of practical body assembly lines.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Self Piercing Rivets Considering Crack Propagation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0531
This paper describes the numerical prediction method for fatigue strength of Self Piercing Rivets (SPRs) using fracture mechanics. Recently, high strength steels and non-ferrous metals are adopted to the light weight automotive body. Many kinds of joining are proposed for the multi material bodies. It is important to predict fatigue lives of these joints using the numerical simulation. However, the fatigue strength of joints is related to sheet thickness, base materials, and loading conditions. Therefore, a large number of coupon tests are necessary to determine the S-N curve for the fatigue life prediction of joints in the automotive body. To reduce the amount of coupon tests, the numerical simulation will be efficient for obtaining the S-N curve of joints instead of coupon tests. The fatigue fracture process consists of two stages, the small crack initiation and the crack growth. There are many studies about the crack growth estimation method using stress intensity factor.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Laser Screw Welds in Automotive Structures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0394
This paper describes the development of a fatigue life prediction method for Laser Screw Welding (LSW). Fatigue life prediction is used to assess the durability of automotive structures in the early design stages in order to shorten the vehicle development time. The LSW technology is a spot-type joining method similar to resistance spot welding (RSW), and has been developed and applied to body-inwhite structures in recent years. LSW can join metal panels even when a clearance exists between the panels. However, as a result of this favorable clearance-allowance feature of LSW, a concave shape may occur at the nugget part of the joint. These LSW geometric features, the concavity of nuggets and the clearance between panels, are thought to affect the local stiffness behavior of the joint. Therefore, while assessing the fatigue life of LSW, it is essential to estimate the influence of these factors adequately for the representation of the local stiffness behavior of the joint.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Acoustic Coupling Vibration of Wheel and Suspension Vibration on Tire Cavity Resonance

2007-05-15
2007-01-2345
It is difficult to improve tire cavity noise since the pressure of cavity resonance acts as a compelling force, and its low damping and high gain characteristics dominate the vibration of both the suspension and body. For this reason, the analysis described in this article aimed to clarify the design factors involved and to improve this phenomenon at the source. This was accomplished by investigating the acoustic coupling vibration mode of the wheel, which is the component that transmits the pressure of cavity resonance at first. In addition, the vibration characteristic of suspension was investigated also. A speaker-equipped sound pressure generator inside the tire and wheel assembly was developed and used to infer that wheel vibration under cavity resonance is a forced vibration mode with respect to the cavity resonance pressure distribution, not an eigenvalue mode, and this phenomenon may therefore be improved by optimizing the out-of-plane torsional stiffness of the disk.
Technical Paper

Electronically-Scanning Millimeter-Wave RADAR for Forward Objects Detection

2004-03-08
2004-01-1122
Recently, the development of advanced automotive technology for excellent safety and convenience has become more active. Efforts have focused on the development of active safety technology. Pre-Crash Systems, such as passenger protection systems activated before a collision or collision speed reduction system, which are categorized between active safety systems and passive safety systems, have been a subject of focus. In such systems, surround sensing technology to predict a collision is the key issue. We developed an electronically scanning millimeter-wave (MMW) RADAR, which uses Digital Beam Forming (DBF) technology, as one of the first in the world for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Electromigration of Ni Plating/Sn-0.7Cu Based Joint System of Power Modules for Hybrid Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1239
Power modules are used to operate three-phase alternating current motors in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. Good fuel efficiency and high power density are required in the field of hybrid vehicles. To achieve this goal, the miniaturization of the power module will be necessary. This trend may make a current density, which is created by insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and free wheel diodes (FWDs), higher in power modules. Solder is often used as the joint material of power modules. It is known that a current density larger than 10 kA/cm2 causes solder electromigration. This phenomenon may cause delamination of the joint area. In addition, the ambient temperature has an influence on electromigration. The temperature of an engine compartment is high, so it is likely to cause electromigration. However, the current density of the double-sided cooling power modules in 2007 with solder joint is lower than 0.4 kA/cm2, and this value is lower than 10 kA/cm2.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Predict the Rupture of Spot Welds in Vehicle Crash Analysis

2006-04-03
2006-01-0533
This paper describes a new method to predict the rupture of spot welds, suitable for vehicle crash simulation. In a crash simulation used for vehicle development process, the calculation is performed assuming that the spot welds in the vehicle do not rupture. However, if some spot welds rupture in test of a prototype vehicle, the simulated deformation and test deformation may not match, resulting in inaccurate estimation of deformation from simulation. Therefore accuracy of predicting the rupture of spot welds is crucial in accurately estimating the deformation and improving reliability of vehicle crash simulation results. The new method to predict the rupture of spot welds which relates axial and shear forces and bending moment of spot weld to stress around nugget has been developed by authors. Based on developed method, the rupture risk of spot welds has been estimated. The new method was applied to estimate the spot weld rupture using three types of specimens.
Technical Paper

Development of Three-Way Catalysts Enhanced NOx Purifying Activity

2018-04-03
2018-01-0942
Growing concerns about the depletion of raw materials as vehicle ownership continues to increase is prompting automakers to look for ways of decreasing the use of platinum-group metals (PGMs) in the exhaust systems. This research has developed a new catalyst with strong robustness against fluctuations in the exhaust gas and excellent nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion performance. One of the key technologies is a new OSC material that has low surface area (SA) and high OSC performance. We enhanced the pyrochlore- ceria/zirconia (CZ) which has a very small SA. In order to enhance the heat resistance and promote the OSC reaction, we selected and optimized the additive element. This material showed high OSC performance especially in the temperature range of 400 degrees or less. Another key technology is washcoat structure that has high gas diffusivity by making connected pore in the washcoat (New pore forming technology).
Technical Paper

Development of TLP-AI Technology to realize high temperature operation of power module

2019-04-02
2019-01-0607
SiC power devices are promising components for the power module assembled in the automobile power control unit due to their low-power loss operation. Also they have high thermostable characteristics which are expected to tolerate high temperature operation, widening the range that the conventional Si device has limited. While, the packaging technology is also needed to improve the thermo-stability to derive the full potential of SiC power device, especially the device bonding which is directly related to the device thermally and physically. TLP bonding is one of the promising technologies for the high temperature operation because its bonding layer has high melting point. But there is a problem that characteristic of TLP bonding layer causes the damage to the power device.
Technical Paper

Development of Strength Distributed Hot Stamp Parts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0522
Structural parts, such as the center pillar, are a multiple structure, consisted by layers of the high-strength panels and the high-toughness panels, to control the deformation mode during a crash. If we are able to make this multi-layered structure into one panel, which has different hardness within it, we will be able to make a lightweight panel. In this study, we have developed the method to fabricate a ‘lightweight center pillar’ with the following processes. First, the whole surface of the panel is hardened by quenching in the hot stamp process. Next, certain areas of the panel are softened by the partial tempering. We have found that the temperature zone for softening is between A1 and A3 transformation temperature, and it is easy to perform a rapid and accurate tempering by utilizing the property of Induction Heating around the Curie temperature between A1 and A3 transformation temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of Sealing Material Used in the Body Welding Shop

2007-04-16
2007-01-0418
1 The principal characteristics required of sealing materials used in the body shop have focused on their adhesion to oily steel sheets and quick curing performance. Means for attaining these characteristics have been narrowed down to a basic resin system and a curing system. Various techniques have been studied to ensure proper anti-corrosion performance at the sealer application boundaries and thin application areas. They include the addition of anti-corrosion fillers, the provision of conductivity (through electro-deposition), and the application of a micro foam film over the application boundaries. Thus, prospects for attaining the same level of anti-corrosion performance as existing materials have been achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of Robot Control Method for Curved Seal Extrusion

1998-09-29
982366
The glass-integrated Curved Seal Extrusion (hereafter called “CSE”) is a new technology for manufacturing automobile-window mole. This technology is to extrude and stick mole directly on 3-D shaped window-glass by using the combination of a multi-axes robot and an extruding machine. This process could not be realized through the previous robot technology whose primary purpose was transporting goods, which did not necessitate real-time speed control. This time, we adopted a robot for the purpose of processing plasticity molding. For the purpose of improving formability, productivity, and appearance quality, we optimized the robot's movements and devised a method to vary the molding speed of the extruding machine. Furthermore, we have established a mass production technology by developing the optimum robot control method.
Journal Article

Development of Paint Booth: “New Paint Mist Collection Method”

2016-04-05
2016-01-1258
1 Inside a paint booth to spray paint on vehicle bodies, bumpers, and other parts (hereinafter referred to as “works”), air whose temperature and humidity are controlled by air-conditioner is supplied by blower fans through filters. Dust-eliminated and regulated air flow is sent downward from top to bottom (hereinafter referred to as “downflow”) in the painting booth. Conventionally, paint which does not adhere to work in spraying (hereinafter referred to as “paint mist”) is collected while flowing at a high speed through a slit opening called venturi scrubber in a mixture of air and water. However, this mist collecting system using venturi scrubber requires a large space with a large amount of pressure loss while consuming substantial energy. By radically changing the mist collecting principle, we developed a new compact system with less pressure loss aiming to reduce energy consumption by 40% in a half-size booth.
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