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Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Technical Paper

The application of the damage & fracture material model to crashworthiness evaluations for Aluminum cars.

In an evaluation of crashworthiness for the cars made of aluminum alloys, the evaluation considering fracture phenomenon comes to be needed because conventional aluminum alloys have low fracture strain (10-20%). In case of the development of a B-Pillar made by die cast, if crack occurrence, furthermore, separation of a part can be estimated by using CAE in crashworthiness evaluations, we can reduce the number of prototype makings and the cost of development using expensive dies. Therefore, we performed crashworthiness evaluations by CAE using some sort of a damage & fracture material model. It is known as “Orthotropic damage & fracture model”.
Technical Paper

The Establishment of Laboratory Test Method for Gelation of Engine Oil Containing Magnesium Detergents

It has been reported that engine oils containing magnesium detergents gel under special conditions. The authors have previously reported on the mechanism by which magnesium detergents form needle crystals, which is the main cause of the gelation[1]. For this article, the authors conducted tests in actual vehicles using several types of engine oils containing magnesium detergents, including oils for which gelation problems have been reported in the market. The gelation was reproduced, and the test oils were ranked by their propensity to gel. In addition, a laboratory test method was used in which water and CO2 were mixed into engine oil under controlled conditions, then left stored in a bottle for twenty days, after which the kinematic viscosity and the quantity of insolubles of the mixture were measured. The study demonstrated the correlation between the laboratory test method and the actual vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Study of Plastic Plating Using Highly Concentrated Ozonized Water Pretreatment

In order to achieve good adhesive properties, typical decorative plastic plating technology uses a chromic acid process that creates an anchor effect. Due to environmental concerns with hexavalent chromium, there is a need to find alternative processes. Pretreatment using highly concentrated ozonized water was investigated as a novel approach to achieving this goal. In the conventional chromic acid process, strong adhesion between plating membranes is achieved by roughing the ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) resin surface by approximately 1 um. On the other hand, the highly concentrated ozonized water process achieves good adhesion with a smooth resin by changing the resin from ABS to ASA (acrylate-styrene-acrylonitrile). It was discovered that the difference in this strength of adhesion was the difference in resin surface strength (existence of deterioration or otherwise).
Technical Paper

Study of Large OSC Materials (Ln2O2SO4) on the Basis of Sulfur Redox Reaction

Three-way catalyst shows high performance under stoichiometric atmosphere. The CeO2-ZrO2 based materials (CZ) are added as a buffer of O2 concentration. To improve the catalyst performance the larger O2 storage capacity (OSC) are needed. Theoretically, the sulfur oxidation-reduction reaction moves oxygen 8 times larger than cerium. We focused on this phenomenon and synthesized Ln2O2SO4 as a new OSC material. The experimental result under model gas shows that the OSC of Ln2O2SO4 is 5 times lager than CZ.
Journal Article

Study of Alternative Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst for Pt Based on Transition Metal Chalcogenides

The development of an alternative oxygen reduction electrocatalyst to platinum based electrocatalysts is critical for practical use of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Transition metal sulfide chalcogenides have recently been reported as a possible candidate for Pt replacement. Our work focused on chalcogenides composed of ruthenium, molybdenum, and sulfur (RuMoS). We elucidate the factors affecting electrocatalytic activity of carbon supported RuXMoY SZ catalyst. This was demonstrated through a correlation of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of the catalysts with structural changes resulting from designed changes in sulfur composition in the catalysts.
Technical Paper

Solar Module Laminated Constitution for Automobiles

Replacing the metal car roof with conventional solar modules results in the increase of total car weight and change of center of mass, which is not preferable for car designing. Therefore, weight reduction is required for solar modules to be equipped on vehicles. Exchanging glass to plastic for the cover plate of solar module is one of the major approaches to reduce weight; however, load bearing property, impact resistance, thermal deformation, and weatherability become new challenges. In this paper a new solar module structure that weighs as light as conventional steel car roofs, resolving these challenges is proposed.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous PM and NOx Reduction System for Diesel Engines

A new after-treatment system called DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction System) has been developed for simultaneous and continuous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust gas. This system consists of both a new catalytic technology and a new diesel combustion technology which enables rich operating conditions in diesel engines. The catalytic converter for the DPNR has a newly developed porous ceramic structure coated with a NOx storage reduction catalyst. A fresh DPNR catalyst reduced more than 80 % of both PM and NOx. This paper describes the concept and performance of the system in detail. Especially, the details of the PM oxidation mechanism in DPNR are described.
Technical Paper

Research in Aluminum Matrix Composites for Improvement in Damping Capacity

We have tried to improve damping capacity of an aluminum alloy by means of dispersing ceramic particles (low damping SiC and high damping NdNbO4) of different sizes and volume fractions in the aluminum alloy by powder metallurgy. It is shown that the damping capacity is increased in every case accompanying an increase of Young's modulus. It is also shown that the intrinsic damping capacity of dispersed particles does not play a role in improving the damping capacity. The increase of the damping capacity seems to be attributed to dislocations breakaway, interaction of fine particles and dislocations, and relaxation of interface between ceramic particles and aluminum matrix.
Journal Article

Reaction Mechanism Analysis of Di-Air-Contributions of Hydrocarbons and Intermediates

The details of Di-Air, a new NOx reduction system using continuous short pulse injections of hydrocarbons (HC) in front of a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst, have already been reported. This paper describes further studies into the deNOx mechanism, mainly from the standpoint of the contribution of HC and intermediates. In the process of a preliminary survey regarding HC oxidation behavior at the moment of injection, it was found that HC have unique advantages as a reductant. The addition of HC lead to the reduction or metallization of platinum group metals (PGM) while keeping the overall gas atmosphere in a lean state due to adsorbed HC. This causes local O₂ inhibition and generates reductive intermediate species such as R-NCO. Therefore, the specific benefits of HC were analyzed from the viewpoints of 1) the impact on the PGM state, 2) the characterization of intermediate species, and 3) Di-Air performance compared to other reductants.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Transmission Loss for Lightweight Body Structures

In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
Technical Paper

New Frictional Testing Method for Stamping Formability - Development of Dr. STAMP (Direct & Rapid, Surface Tribology Analyzing Method for Press) Method -

Galvannealed steel sheet (GA) is very extensively used for vehicle panels. However ζ-phase (FeZn13) in GA coat causes poor stamping formability. Previously, there were no easy methods to evaluate the influence of ζ-phase on the frictional characteristics other than the X-ray diffraction method. This study will discuss the development of a new testing method: Dr. STAMP Method that is both efficient and convenient with pin-on-disc tester.
Technical Paper

New Drivetrain for Toyota's Flagship Lexus LFA Sports Car

Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new drivetrain for their flagship Lexus LFA sports car. Passionate driving experience was pursued at the forefront of development. Superior vehicle performance, handling, and responsiveness that seem to anticipate the driver's intentions are achieved. Special vehicle packaging and component placement are adopted in the LFA in order to realize such performance. The engine, clutch, and front counter gear are positioned at the front of the vehicle, and the transaxle at the rear. The engine and transaxle are connected by a rigid torque tube. The transaxle is an automated manual transmission equipped with an electrohydraulic actuator for controlling both the shift and clutch operations. This actuator enables accurate control of the transmission and extremely quick response to shift paddle operation by the driver. This paper describes a general outline of the drivetrain and each component that has significantly contributed to LFA product appeal.
Technical Paper

New Conceptual Lead Free Overlays Consisted of Solid Lubricant for Internal Combustion Engine Bearings

Two types of new conceptual lead free overlays are developed for automotive internal combustion(IC) engine bearings. The overlays are consisted of molybdenum disulfide(MoS2) and polyamideimide(PAI) resin for binding. One of the overlays is suitable for diesel engines with higher unit load and the other overlay is suitable for gasoline engines with higher sliding velocity. Both overlays indicate good corrosion resistance and wear resistance comparing with conventional lead base overlay. Moreover, higher fatigue resistance is obtained in combination with high performance lead free bearing alloy. These new bearings have the potential to become alternative materials to conventional copper lead bearings with lead base overlay.
Journal Article

Narrow-Band Omnidirectional Structural Color

Automotive pigments consist of absorptive materials which absorb most of the wavelengths of light in the visible range (400-800 nm) except one particular range which gets reflected and seen as color. This coloring mechanism based on light absorption due to their molecular structure generally reflects a broader range of wavelength with a moderate reflectivity (50-60%). However in nature we find many magnificent colors in insects, butterflies, birds and fishes. These colors in nature are not based on the abortive pigments, but on the nanoscopic regular structures that interfere light reflected from those periodic sites. Since animals contain no solid metals, to produce metallic-like reflections they also rely on interference of light.[1] Most common and well-known form of animal reflector is the multilayer type where alternating high and low refractive index layers are formed. Such nanostructure assembly can reflect light up to 100%.
Technical Paper

Method of Improving Side Impact Protection Performance by Induction Hardening of Body Reinforcement Compatibility Between Safety and Weight Reduction in Body Engineering

A technique for induction-hardening local portions of vehicle body reinforcements press-formed of thin sheet steel has been developed, with the aim of ensuring occupant safety in a side collision. This technique for increasing the tensile strength of sheet steel was practically applied to the front floor cross member and center pillar reinforcement. Owing to this method, the weight of body reinforcements can be decreased. New induction-hardening systems have also been developed for the present technique. One is an apparatus which allows induction-hardening a part with a three-dimensionally curved surface. Another is a straightening quench technique used to retain the same dimensional accuracy as the original press-formed part.
Technical Paper

Metallic Powder Coating for Aluminum Wheels

From the viewpoint of measures for environmental issues, the amount of solvents in paint for aluminum wheels needs to be minimized. Environmentally friendly powder coatings have been used widely for primer coating and clear coating, but there is no precedent for its use for base coating. This time, we optimized the condition of surface treatment of pigment and hardening behavior of constituent resin in the melting process and succeeded in developing a metallic powder coating for aluminum wheels that fulfills the appearance and the quality requirements of aluminum wheels.
Journal Article

Measurement of Oil Film Pressure in the Main Bearings of an Operating Engine Using Thin-Film Sensors

We developed a technique to measure oil film pressure distribution in engine main bearings using thin-film pressure sensors. The sensor is 7μm in thickness, and is processed on the surface of an aluminum alloy bearing. In order to increase the durability of the sensor, a layer of MoS2 and polyamide-imide was coated on thin-film sensors. This technique was applied to a 1.4L common-rail diesel engine operated at a maximum speed of 4,500r/min with a 100Nm full load, and the oil film pressure was monitored while the engine was operating. The measured pressure was compared with calculations based on hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) theory.
Technical Paper

Joining Technologies for Aluminum Body-Improvement of Self-piercing Riveting

The experimental research vehicle ES3 body was realized by using various aluminum-joining technologies: MIG welding, laser welding, self-piercing riveting. These technologies were applied selectively to make full use of their individual characteristics, according to the body structure and joined materials. Of these technologies, self-piercing riveting is advantageous in several respects. Aiming to expand the application range of riveting technology, we developed a die that prevents cracks in joining aluminum casting, and a method to improve rivet driving in thick, multi-pile portion. We further studied the feasibility of aluminum rivets. This paper outlines the ES3 body structure and it's joining technologies used and introduces the further improvements we developed concerning self-piercing riveting.