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Technical Paper

Vibration Reduction Applying Skew Phenomena of Needle Roller Bearings in Brake Actuators

2006-04-03
2006-01-0881
Generally, automobiles have many performance requirements for comfort, of which noise, vibration and harshness are very important. Toyota Motor Corporation equipped several 2003 models with the second-generation Electronically Controlled Brake system (ECB2). These ECB2 actuator units adopted a new structure that reduced pumping noise by controlling the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings. Normally, needle roller bearings are advantageous over other bearings in cases where a large force is loaded on bearings, because the contact areas can be made larger. However, a thrust force arises from skew phenomena because of minute clearances among the component parts of needle roller bearings. As a result, axial vibration of the bearing shaft sometimes occurs due to the thrust force. This paper explains how the thrust force generated from the skew phenomena of needle roller bearings occasionally affects the pumping vibration level of equipped machinery such as the brake actuator unit.
Journal Article

Verification of ASSTREET Driver-Agent Model by Collaborating with the Driving Simulator

2012-04-16
2012-01-1161
This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
Technical Paper

Verification Test Results of Wireless Charging System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1155
Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) began a wireless charging field test in February 2014. A wireless charging system was installed at the residences of test subjects with the aim of identifying issues related to convenience and installation in daily usage. The test vehicle was fabricated by installing a wireless charging system into a Prius PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle). The installed system had the same charging power as the cable charging system used on the base vehicle, and had a charging time of 1.5 hours. A high-frequency 85 kHz power supply and primary coil were produced for the charging infrastructure. To identify differences in charging behavior, the test subjects were asked to use the cable charging system for the first month before changing to the wireless charging system for two months. Data acquisition was performed by an on-board data logger and through interviews with the test subjects.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior Noise and Vibration Reduction Method Using Transfer Function of Body Structure

2011-05-17
2011-01-1692
To reduce interior noise effectively in the vehicle body structure development process, noise and vibration engineers have to first identify the portions of the body that have high sensitivity. Second, the necessary vibration characteristics of each portion must be determined, and third, the appropriate body structure for achieving the target performance of the vehicle must be realized within a short development timeframe. This paper proposes a new method based on the substructure synthesis method which is effective up to 200Hz. This method primarily utilizes equations expressing the relationship between driving point inertance change at arbitrary body portions and the corresponding sound pressure level (SPL) variation at the occupant's ear positions under external force. A modified system equation was derived from the body transfer functions and equation of motion by adding a virtual dynamic stiffness expression into the dynamic stiffness matrix of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Variation in Corrosion Resistance of Trivalent Chromate Coating Depending on Type of Zinc Plating Bath

2006-04-03
2006-01-1671
Trivalent chromate coating is replacing the conventional hexavalent chromate coating applied on zinc plating. Zinc plating uses one of three types of plating baths (zincate, cyanide and chloride) according to the characteristics required of subject parts. It has been recognized that trivalent chromate coating provides different corrosion resistance depending on the type of zinc plating bath used. Zinc plating with chromate coating were analyzed to clarify the cause of the corrosion resistance variation with the type of zinc plating bath. It has been revealed that the chromate coating thickness and the condition of top SiO2 layer vary with the type of zinc plating bath, resulting in corrosion resistance variation.
Technical Paper

Valve Train Dynamic Analysis and Validation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1457
In order to reduce engine development timing and cost, a numerical calculation has been developed by Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Technical Center to evaluate valve train systems. The goal is to predict valve_bounce speed, valve displacement, hydraulic lash adjuster motion and strain in the rocker arm. The numerical procedure combines finite element model and multi-body dynamic analysis. Normally, strain calculation is a two-step process. In the first step, engineers obtain the excitation from the dynamic analysis. In the second step, engineers use the forcing function from dynamic analysis to calculate strain and stress. The new approach in this paper, using ADAMS, calculates dynamic load and recover strain simultaneously. As the flexibility of the moving part (for example rocker arm) is taken into account in the equations of motion, ADAMS will calculate the modal strain. Based on the modal strain, the strain or stress at any given node(s) can be recovered.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control Software Specification Using Design Interests Extraction and Model Checking

2012-04-16
2012-01-0960
Automotive control systems such as powertrain control interact with the open physical environment, and from this nature, expensive prototyping is indispensable to capture a deep understanding of the system requirements and to develop the corresponding control software. Model-based development (MBD) has been promoted to improve productivity by virtual prototyping. Even with MBD, systematic validation of the software specification remains as a major challenge and it still depends heavily on individual engineers' skill and knowledge. Though the introduction of graphical software modeling improved the situation, it requires much time to identify the primal functions, so-called “design interests”, from a large complex model where irrelevant components are mixed with, and to validate it properly.
Technical Paper

V6-SUV Engine Sound Development

2009-05-19
2009-01-2177
This paper describes the development and achievement of a target engine sound for a V6 SUV in consideration of the sound quality preferences of customers in the U.S. First, a simple definition for engine sound under acceleration was found using order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. These elements are the product of commonly used characteristics in conventional development and can be applied simply when setting component targets. The development focused on order arrangement as the most important of these elements, and sounds with and without integer orders were selected as target candidates. Next, subjective auditory evaluations were performed in the U.S. using digitally processed sounds and an evaluation panel comprising roughly 40 subjects. The target sound was determined after classifying the results of this evaluation using cluster analysis.
Journal Article

Typical Velocity Fields and Vortical Structures around a Formula One Car, based on Experimental Investigations using Particle Image Velocimetry

2016-04-05
2016-01-1611
This paper presents typical flow structures around a 60%-scale wind-tunnel model of a Formula One (F1) car, using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). The customized PIV system is permanently installed in a wind tunnel to help aerodynamicists in the development loop. The PIV results enhance the understanding of the mean velocity field in the two-dimensional plane in some important areas of the car, such as the front-wheel wake and the underfloor flow. These real phenomena obtained in the wind tunnel also help maintain the accuracy of simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by allowing regular checking of the correlation with the real-world counterpart. This paper first surveys recent literature on unique flow structures around the rotating exposed wheel, mostly that on the isolated wheel, and then gives the background to F1 aerodynamics in the late 2000s.
Technical Paper

Toyota’s New Driveline for FR Passenger Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1130
The renewed platform of the upcoming flagship front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) vehicles demands high levels of driving performance, fuel efficiency and noise-vibration performance. The newly developed driveline system must balance these conflicting performance attributes by adopting new technologies. This article focuses on several technologies that were needed in order to meet the demand for noise-vibration performance and fuel efficiency. For noise-vibration performance, this article will focus on propeller shaft low frequency noise (booming noise). This noise level is determined by the propeller shaft’s excitation force and the sensitivity of differential mounting system. In regards to the propeller shaft’s excitation force, the contribution of the axial excitation force was clarified. This excitation force was decreased by adopting a double offset joint (DOJ) as the propeller shaft’s second joint and low stiffness rubber couplings as the first and third joints.
Journal Article

Toyota's Integrated Drive Power Control System for Downsized Turbocharged Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1636
New engine controls have been developed for the turbocharged Lexus NX200t to improve driving power by reducing engine torque output lag. Drive power management functions have been centralized in an integrated drive power control system. The newly developed controls minimize the potential reduction in drivability associated with the adoption of a turbocharged engine while improving fuel efficiency. General driveability issues commonly associated with a turbocharged engine include sudden increases in drive power due to the response lag of the turbocharger, and higher shifting frequencies if this response lag triggers a disturbed accelerator operation pattern by the driver. The developed technologies detect and control sudden increases in drive power to create the optimum drive power map, and reduce unnecessary shifts even if the driver's accelerator operation is disturbed.
Technical Paper

Toyota “ECT-i” a New Automatic Transmission with Intelligent Electronic Control System

1990-02-01
900550
TOYOTA has developed a new automatic transmission, called the A341E. This transmission employs a unique engine and transmission integrated intelligent control system named “ECT-i”, and a high performance “Super Flow” Torque Converter. This control system is capable of total control of engine torque and clutch hydraulic pressure during shifting, which has resulted in very smooth shift without changes over the life of the transmission. The “Super Flow” Torque Converter has a modified geometry optimized by the analysis of internal flow by means of computer simulations, attaining the highest efficiecy in the world. With the use of such systems, this new automatic transmission has improved total performance of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Toyota Newly Developed 2VZ-FE Type Engine

1988-11-01
881775
Newly developed 2VZ-FE engine for CAMRY is a 2.5-liter water cooled and V-type 6-cylinder engine exported from TOYOTA for the first time. This engine has the TOYOTA original 4-valve DOHC system. That is, exhaust camshafts driven by intake camshafts using scissors gears. By its compact configuration with the gear driven camshafts, this V-type 6-cylinder engine is mounted on a front-wheel-drive vehicle which originally had an in-line 4-cylinder engine. By increasing IVZ-FE engine displacement (for domestic), compact pentroof-type combustion chambers, optimum air-fuel ratio and ignition timing by TCCS (TOYOTA Computer Controlled System) and other technologies, a high performance 153HP/5600rpm and a large torque 155ft·lbs/4400rpm have been achieved with a low fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1093
The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Journal Article

Tire and Road Input Modeling for Low-Frequency Road Noise Prediction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1690
This paper presents a modeling method for prediction of low-frequency road noise in a steady-state condition where rotating tires are excited by actual road profile undulation input. The proposed finite element (FE) tire model contains not only additional geometric stiffness related to inflation pressure and axle load but also Coriolis force and centrifugal force effects caused by tire rotation for precise road noise simulation. Road inputs act on the nodes of each rib in the contact patch of the stationary tire model and move along them at the driving velocity. The nodes are enforced to displace in frequency domain based on the measured road profile. Tire model accuracy was confirmed by the spindle forces on the rotating chassis drum up to 100Hz where Coriolis force effect should be considered. Full vehicle simulation results showed good agreement with the vibration measurement of front/rear suspension at two driving velocities.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement With High-Energy X-Ray CT-Scan

2003-03-03
2003-01-1033
Digital engineering has been utilized in product development to improve the quality. The actual object was measured and digitized into the three-dimensional (3-D) data, and the requirement of evaluating and analyzing the CAD data has been increased in these activities. So, we developed the technology that measures the actual object and obtains the 3-D model data for general automotive parts. The features of this new system are high-speed and high-accuracy by using high energy X-ray CT technology and 3-D model data technology. 3-D model data can be obtained for about 5 hours in case of the engine block and the error is 0.1mm or less. We also show the examples of the new automotive parts development using this technology.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) by using a heat pump system in cold weather. The advantage of an HV is a high efficiency of the vehicle system since an electric motor and an engine are coupled and optimally controlled. However, in the conventional HV, we see the fuel economy degradation in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin by using an engine results in a low efficiency of the vehicle system. To improve the fuel economy degradation, in this study, a heat pump is used and combined with an engine for the thermal management. The heat pump with an electrically driven compressor pumps heat from ambient into a water-cooled condenser. The heat which is generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce the emission and the cabin needs heat for thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Study on Spray Design for Small-Bore Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0740
1 Recently, demand for small-bore compact vehicle engines has been increasing from the standpoint of further reducing CO2 emissions. The generalization and formulation of combustion processes, including those related to emissions formation, based on a certain similarity of physical phenomena regardless of engine size, would be extremely beneficial for the unification of development processes for various sizes of engines. The objective of this study is to clarify what constraints are necessary for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes.
Technical Paper

The application of the damage & fracture material model to crashworthiness evaluations for Aluminum cars.

2003-10-27
2003-01-2776
In an evaluation of crashworthiness for the cars made of aluminum alloys, the evaluation considering fracture phenomenon comes to be needed because conventional aluminum alloys have low fracture strain (10-20%). In case of the development of a B-Pillar made by die cast, if crack occurrence, furthermore, separation of a part can be estimated by using CAE in crashworthiness evaluations, we can reduce the number of prototype makings and the cost of development using expensive dies. Therefore, we performed crashworthiness evaluations by CAE using some sort of a damage & fracture material model. It is known as “Orthotropic damage & fracture model”.
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-1025
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
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