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Technical Paper

The Advanced Sensor Fusion Algorithm for Pre-Crash Safety System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0402
An obstacle recognition algorithm for the Pre-Crash Safety system has been newly developed with a stereo vision system and a millimeter wave radar with additional functions. This algorithm uses the merits of both the millimeter wave radar and the stereo vision system, and has two main features. One feature utilizes the merits of the stereo vision system detection with the detection results from the millimeter wave radar allowing for a more detailed horizontal position and width of the obstacle. This enables the equipment to operate at an earlier stage according to how well the relationship between the vehicle and the obstacle is understood. Another feature fuses detection from the millimeter wave radar and the stereo vision system. This system has succeeded in enhancing the detection performance of pedestrians who have been more difficult to detect than reflective objects such as cars.
Technical Paper

Pre-Collision System for Toyota Safety Sense

2016-04-05
2016-01-1458
Toyota Safety Sense is a safety system package developed to help drivers avoid accident types with a high frequency of occurrence. This paper deals with pre-collision system which forms the core of Toyota Safety Sense, especially Toyota Safety Sense P which uses a combined sensor configuration consisting of a monocular camera paired with millimeter wave radar, in order to achieve both high recognition performance and reliability. The use of a wide-angle monocular camera, millimeter wave radar integrated in the front grill emblem, and a collision determination algorithm for pedestrian targets enabled the development of a pre-collision system comprising detection capability of crossing pedestrians. Toyota has developed warning and pre-collision brake assist for driver to assist in avoiding a collision effectively; In addition, Pre-collision brake has achieved high level of performance for the drivers who cannot avoid a collision.
Journal Article

Pedestrian/Bicyclist Limb Motion Analysis from 110-Car TASI Video Data for Autonomous Emergency Braking Testing Surrogate Development

2016-04-05
2016-01-1456
Many vehicles are currently equipped with active safety systems that can detect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists, to mitigate associated conflicts with vehicles. With the advancements in technologies and algorithms, detailed motions of these targets, especially the limb motions, are being considered for improving the efficiency and reliability of object detection. Thus, it becomes important to understand these limb motions to support the design and evaluation of many vehicular safety systems. However in current literature, there is no agreement being reached on whether or not and how often these limbs move, especially at the most critical moments for potential crashes. In this study, a total of 832 pedestrian walking or cyclist biking cases were randomly selected from one large-scale naturalistic driving database containing 480,000 video segments with a total size of 94TB, and then the 832 video clips were analyzed focusing on their limb motions.
Journal Article

Development of a Parameter Identification Method for MF-Tyre/MF-Swift Applied to Parking and Low Speed Manoeuvres

2016-04-05
2016-01-1645
A vehicle parking manoeuvre is characterized by low or zero speed, small turning radius and large yaw velocity of the steered wheels. To predict the forces and moments generated by a wheel under these conditions, the Pacejka Magic Formula model has been extended to incorporate the effect of spin (turn slip model) in the past years. The extensions have been further developed and incorporated in the MFTyre/MF-Swift 6.2 model. This paper describes the development of a method for the identification of the turn slip parameters. Based on the operating conditions of a typical parking manoeuvre, the dominant parameters of the turn slip model are firstly defined. At an indoor test facility, the response of a tyre under the identified operating conditions is measured. An algorithm is developed to identify the dominant turn slip parameters from the measured responses.
Technical Paper

Development of Lane Recognition Algorithm for Steering Assistance System

2005-04-11
2005-01-1606
This paper gives an outline of the steering assistance system (hereinafter, SAS) and a description of its key technology: the lane recognition algorithm. To accommodate a variety of driving styles, the SAS is equipped with a lane keeping assistance mode (LKA mode) and a lane departure warning mode (LDW mode) that can be selectively set by the driver. The former mode works in combination with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and carries the advantage of relieving the driving load that is placed on the driver. The latter mode has the benefit of reducing the danger of lane departure accidents caused by the driver dozing off and taking his eyes off the road. The newly developed lane recognition ECU has a simple hardware set-up of two 32-bit microcomputers. The lane recognition algorithm was constructed on the basis of a logic process that analyzes pattern edge points and selects a set of edge points that most closely resemble lanemarks.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid Model for Powerplant Vibration

1999-05-17
1999-01-1656
This paper covers the application of hybrid vibro-acoustic simulation methods to shorten the design cycle of power-plant components. A comparison is made between Frequency Response Function based and Modal based algorithms for the generation of a predictive powerplant assembly model. The effectiveness of design modifications is evaluated by loading the original and modified predictive models with experimentally identified excitation forces. The procedure is validated by correlation with experimental data.
Journal Article

Development of Hardening Depth Evaluation Technique using Eddy Current – Establishment and Introduction of In-line Hardening Depth Inspection System –

2009-04-20
2009-01-0867
A hardening depth evaluation technique using eddy current has been developed, which can be applied to a mass production line for destructive (cutting) inspections. Using this technique, changes in the hardness of the induction-hardened structure can be detected based on the changes in magnetic permeability. This technique reduces the thermal effect and improves measurement accuracy through a multi-frequency exciting method and a difference method algorithm.
Technical Paper

Development of Crawl Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-1227
Toyota Motor Corporation has already designed and developed vehicle brake control systems for relatively low speed off-road driving, such as Downhill Assist Control, Hill-start Assist Control and Active Traction Control. Though off-road utility is improved by virtue of these systems, in specific situations actual performance still depends on driving technique since the driver is required to control the accelerator pedal. Toyota has integrated these existing systems, and developed a new driving technology for off-road driving called “Crawl Control.” Crawl Control automatically modulates brake torque and drive torque to help keep the vehicle speed constant and slow. Unskilled drivers can thereby attain improved capabilities in places where high-level driving techniques are required. This system also reduces the effort required to control the accelerator and the brake pedal. This paper presents a new control algorithm for the realization of this Crawl Control system.
Journal Article

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Using the Transient Adjoint Method and Its Application to Engine In-Cylinder Flow

2016-04-05
2016-01-0607
Conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology that uses parametric shape modification and optimal solutions searching algorithms has the two problems: (1) outcome of optimized shapes depend on the selection of design parameters made by the designer, and (2) high computational costs. To resolve those problems, two innovative inverse analysis technologies based on the Adjoint Method were developed in previous study: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape for maximizing the cost function in the constrained design space. However, these technologies are only applicable to steady flows. Since most flows in a vehicle (such as engine in-cylinder flow) are transient, a practical technology for surface geometry sensitivity analysis has been developed based on the Transient Adjoint Method.
Journal Article

Application of Reference Governor Using Soft Constraints and Steepest Descent Method to Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Temperature Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0350
This paper considers an application of reference governor (RG) to automotive diesel aftertreatment temperature control. Recently, regulations on vehicle emissions have become more stringent, and engine hardware and software are expected to be more complicated. It is getting more difficult to guarantee constraints in control systems as well as good control performance. Among model-based control methods that can directly treat constraints, this paper focuses on the RG, which has recently attracted a lot of attention as one method of model prediction-based control. In the RG, references in tracking control are modified based on future prediction so that the predicted outputs in a closed-loop system satisfy the constraints. This paper proposes an online RG algorithm, taking account of the real-time implementation on engine embedded controllers.
Journal Article

An Application of a Model-Prediction-Based Reference Modification Algorithm to Engine Air Path Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0586
In real-world automotive control, there are many constraints to be considered. In order to explicitly treat the constraints, we introduce a model-prediction-based algorithm called a reference governor (RG). The RG generates modified references so that predicted future variables in a closed-loop system satisfy their constraints. One merit of introducing the RG is that effort required in control development and calibration would be reduced. In the preceding research work by Nakada et al., only a single reference case was considered. However, it is difficult to extend the previous work to more complicated systems with multiple references such as the air path control of a diesel engine due to interference between the boosting and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. Moreover, in the air path control, multiple constraints need to be considered to ensure hardware limits. Hence, it is quite beneficial to cultivate RG methodologies to deal with multiple references and constraints.
Technical Paper

A SEA-Based Optimizing Approach for Sound Package Design

2003-05-05
2003-01-1556
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a promising tool for developing an efficient sound package design for reducing airborne interior noise at high frequencies. The optimal sound package, however, is not directly predicted by using the SEA vehicle model alone and therefore requires parametric studies of sound package configurations. This paper describes an effective method for using SEA modeling to achieve the desired interior noise level targets. A mathematical model, expressed by one equation, is derived on the assumption that the directions of the power flows are known in the SEA model. This equation describes the relationship between sound package properties and the resulting interior noise level. Using the relationship between weight and performance of sound package, an efficient configuration can be determined. The predicted sound pressure level of the vehicle interior with the optimized sound package correlated well to the experimental data for the case presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Robustness-Focused Shape Optimization Method for Intake Ports

2009-06-15
2009-01-1777
Merging a CAE shape optimization system and a concept Taguchi method SN-ratio index, a robustness-focused automated shape optimization method has been developed. Applying this method to diesel intake ports, with mold position tolerance set as the error factor, SN-ratio was defined for swirl stability. As a result of the optimization provided by a multi-objective genetic algorithm, simultaneous improvement of flux, swirl rotation and SN ratio was achieved.
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