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Journal Article

Typical Velocity Fields and Vortical Structures around a Formula One Car, based on Experimental Investigations using Particle Image Velocimetry

This paper presents typical flow structures around a 60%-scale wind-tunnel model of a Formula One (F1) car, using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). The customized PIV system is permanently installed in a wind tunnel to help aerodynamicists in the development loop. The PIV results enhance the understanding of the mean velocity field in the two-dimensional plane in some important areas of the car, such as the front-wheel wake and the underfloor flow. These real phenomena obtained in the wind tunnel also help maintain the accuracy of simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by allowing regular checking of the correlation with the real-world counterpart. This paper first surveys recent literature on unique flow structures around the rotating exposed wheel, mostly that on the isolated wheel, and then gives the background to F1 aerodynamics in the late 2000s.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Diesel Piston Bowl Using Phosphor Thermometry

Phosphor thermometry was used during fuel injection in an optical engine with the glass piston of reentrant type. SiO2 coated phosphor particle was used for the gas-phase temperature measurements, which gave much less background signal. The measurements were performed in motored mode, in combustion mode with injection of n-heptane and in non-combustion mode with injection of iso-octane. In the beginning of injection period, the mean temperature of each injection cases was lower than that of the motored case, and temperature of iso-octane injection cases was even lower than that of n-heptane injection cases. This indicates, even if vaporization effect seemed to be the same at both injection cases, the effect of temperature decrease changed due to the chemical reaction effect for the n-heptane cases. Chemical reaction seems to be initiated outside of the fuel liquid spray and the position was moving towards the fuel rich area as the time proceeds.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimension Deposited Soot Distribution Measurement in Silicon Carbide Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography

Exhaust emissions are well known to have adverse impacts on human health. Studies have demonstrated that there is an association between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and various harmful cardiopulmonary conditions. Soot exhaust from diesel engines can be a significant contributor to airborne pollutants. A key component in PM level control for a diesel engine is a diesel particulate filter (DPF). This device traps soot while allowing other exhaust gases to pass unhindered. However, the performance of diesel particulate filters can change with increasing soot loadings and thus may require regeneration or replacement. Improved understanding of diesel particulate filters is dependent upon the knowledge of the actual soot loading and the soot distribution within the DPF. Neutron radiography (NR) has been identified as an effective means of non-destructively identifying hydrogen or carbon adsorbed in PM.
Technical Paper

Study of Plastic Plating Using Highly Concentrated Ozonized Water Pretreatment

In order to achieve good adhesive properties, typical decorative plastic plating technology uses a chromic acid process that creates an anchor effect. Due to environmental concerns with hexavalent chromium, there is a need to find alternative processes. Pretreatment using highly concentrated ozonized water was investigated as a novel approach to achieving this goal. In the conventional chromic acid process, strong adhesion between plating membranes is achieved by roughing the ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) resin surface by approximately 1 um. On the other hand, the highly concentrated ozonized water process achieves good adhesion with a smooth resin by changing the resin from ABS to ASA (acrylate-styrene-acrylonitrile). It was discovered that the difference in this strength of adhesion was the difference in resin surface strength (existence of deterioration or otherwise).
Technical Paper

Study of Improvements in NOx Reduction Performance on Simultaneous Reduction System of PM and NOx

Performance improvements were studied for the diesel particulate and NOx reduction system (DPNR), a system that simultaneously reduces NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) from diesel engine exhaust gas. The experimental system (hereinafter called the “dual DPNR”) consists of two DPNR catalysts arranged in parallel, each provided with an exhaust throttle valve downstream to control the exhaust gas flow to the catalyst, plus a fuel injector that precisely controls the air-fuel ratio and the catalyst bed temperature. The fuel injector is used to supply a rich mixture to the DPNR catalyst, and the flow of exhaust gas is switched between the two catalysts by operating the exhaust throttle valves alternately. Tests were conducted with the engine running at steady state. The results indicated that the NOx reduction performance dramatically improved and the loss of fuel economy from the NOx reduction reduced.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous PM and NOx Reduction System for Diesel Engines

A new after-treatment system called DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction System) has been developed for simultaneous and continuous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust gas. This system consists of both a new catalytic technology and a new diesel combustion technology which enables rich operating conditions in diesel engines. The catalytic converter for the DPNR has a newly developed porous ceramic structure coated with a NOx storage reduction catalyst. A fresh DPNR catalyst reduced more than 80 % of both PM and NOx. This paper describes the concept and performance of the system in detail. Especially, the details of the PM oxidation mechanism in DPNR are described.
Technical Paper

Research in Aluminum Matrix Composites for Improvement in Damping Capacity

We have tried to improve damping capacity of an aluminum alloy by means of dispersing ceramic particles (low damping SiC and high damping NdNbO4) of different sizes and volume fractions in the aluminum alloy by powder metallurgy. It is shown that the damping capacity is increased in every case accompanying an increase of Young's modulus. It is also shown that the intrinsic damping capacity of dispersed particles does not play a role in improving the damping capacity. The increase of the damping capacity seems to be attributed to dislocations breakaway, interaction of fine particles and dislocations, and relaxation of interface between ceramic particles and aluminum matrix.
Technical Paper

New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filter Material for the Diesel Particulate - NOx Reduction System.

The regulation of emissions discharged from diesel engines has become stricter worldwide. The regulatory values allowed for particulate matter (PM) as well as NOx will be lowered, especially in the Europe Euro 5, the U.S. EP 07, and the new Japanese long-term regulations. Since there is a tradeoff between the PM and NOx that are discharged from diesel engines, new emission reduction measures will be needed in order to greatly reduce both at the same time. By coating DPFs (Diesel Particulate Filters), which have been studied before, with NOx storage reduction catalysts, it has been found that simultaneous reduction of PM and NOx is possible, and so research was carried out in order to optimize a DPF for this type of system use. The DPF developed was used in the European DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction System) subject vehicles by Toyota Motor Corporation, and actual trial runs in Europe were performed.
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
Journal Article

Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
Technical Paper

JCAPII Cross Check Tests of Fast Electrical Mobility Spectrometers for Evaluation of Accuracy

Crosscheck tests of fast electrical mobility spectrometers, Differential Mobility Spectroscopy (DMS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer(EEPS), were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of fine particle measurement. Two kinds of particles were used as test particles for the crosscheck test of instruments: particles emitted from diesel vehicles and diluted in a full dilution tunnel, and particles generated by CAST. In the steady state tests, it was confirmed that the average concentration of each instrument was within the range of ±2σ from the average concentration of all the same type of instruments. In the transient tests, it is verified that the instruments have almost equal sensitivity. For application of the fast electrical mobility spectrometers to evaluation of particle number and size distributions, it is essential to develop a calibration method using reference particle counters and sizers (CPC, SMPS, etc.) and maintenance methods appropriate for each model.
Technical Paper

In Situ Observation of Catalysis Reactions Using Transmission Electron Microscope

Transmission electron microscope (TEM) is a powerful tool for studying catalyst materials at nano-size and/or atomic level. Conventional TEM usually needs to be observed at room temperature in high vacuum conditions. A gaseous atmosphere and high temperature condition may change the properties of catalyst materials. Recently we developed an in situ observation system in TEM for observing the oxidation and reduction under a gas atmosphere at high temperature. Using the new in situ observation system in TEM, the morphological changes of the nano particle and support were observed in the heated gaseous atmosphere at atomic level in real time.
Technical Paper

Improvement of DI Diesel Engine System by Utilizing GTL Fuels Characteristics

Gas To Liquid (GTL) fuels synthesized from natural gas are known as clean fuels. Therefore, GTL fuels have been expected to be a promising option that can reduce the NOx and PM emissions from diesel engines and contribute to the energy security. In this study, in order to clarify the emission reduction potentials, the improvement of DI diesel engine and aftertreatment systems were investigated by utilizing GTL fuels characteristics. To achieve a further reduction of both NOx and PM emissions, the combustion chamber, injection pattern and EGR calibration were modified. From the results of tests, the engine out NOx emissions were reduced to the Euro 6 regulation level and in parallel the expected deteriorations of HC emission and fuel consumption were suppressed because of the characteristics of high cetane number and zero poly-aromatics hydrocarbons. Additionally, an aftertreatment system was optimized to GTL fuel in order to improve NOx conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effect of Sulfur-free and Aromatics-free Diesel Fuel on Vehicle Exhaust Emissions using Simultaneous PM and NOx Reduction System

A new diesel after-treatment system, Diesel Particulate and NOx Reduction System (DPNR), is being developed for reducing PM and NOx emissions. We examined the effects of sulfur content in lubricants on exhaust NOx emission from DPNR catalyst, and examined the PM reduction ability using sulfur-free and aromatics-free fuel. After vehicle durability testing of 40,000 km without forced regeneration of PM and sulfur poisoning on DPNR catalyst, deterioration of DPNR was lower than using higher sulfur contents in fuel and oil. In addition to decreasing fuel sulfur, decreasing oil sulfur was also effective to maintain high NOx conversion efficiency. Although the catalyst was poisoned by sulfur in the lubricants, the influence of oil sulfur poisoning on the catalyst was lower than fuel sulfur poisoning. On the other hand, engine out PM emissions decreased by 70 % because of aromatics-free fuel. The pressure drop of DPNR did not increase during the 40,000 km vehicle durability test.
Journal Article

Development of Prediction Method for Engine Compartment Water Level by Using Coupled Multibody and Fluid Dynamics

When vehicles run on the flooded road, water enters to the engine compartment and sometimes reaches the position of the air intake duct and electrical parts and causes the reliability problems. Numerical simulation is an effective tool for this phenomenon because it can not only evaluate the water level before experiment but also identify the intrusion route. Recently, the gap around the engine cooling modules tends to become smaller and the undercover tends to become bigger than before in order to enhance the vehicle performance (e.g., aerodynamics, exterior noise). Leakage tightness around the engine compartment becomes higher and causes an increase of the buoyancy force from the water. Therefore the vehicle attitude change is causing a greater impact on the water level. This paper describes the development of a water level prediction method in engine compartment while running on the flooded road by using the coupled multibody and fluid dynamics.
Technical Paper

Development of Next-Generation NOx Reduction System for Diesel Exhaust Emission

Diesel particulate and NOx reduction system (DPNR) is an effective technology for the diesel after-treatment system, which can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) simultaneously. The DPNR has been developed under the Toyota D-CAT (Diesel Clean Advanced Technology) concept. Further improvement of the DPNR is hoped for cleaner air in the future. This paper reviews the results of our study to improve the NOx purification performance on the DPNR. The NOx reduction performance of the catalysts deteriorates due to thermal deterioration and sulfur poisoning. In order to improve the thermal resistance of the catalysts, the suppression of precious metal sintering in the catalyst has been studied. As a result, higher catalytic activity after aging especially under lower temperature conditions was obtained. On the other hands, improvement of desulfurization performance is one of the key technologies in order to keep the high NOx reduction capability of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Development of NOx Reduction System for Diesel Aftertreatment with Sulfur Trap Catalyst

The Diesel Particulate and NOx Reduction System (DPNR) is an effective technology as a diesel after-treatment system, which can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) simultaneously. However, it requires desulfurization control since the DPNR catalyst is poisoned by sulfur components in the exhaust gas from the fuel and lubricant. Desulfurization control causes some degree of fuel penalty and thermal deterioration of the DPNR catalyst because it requires control of rich air fuel ratio and high temperature simultaneously. In this paper, we investigated a new system with a sulfur trap catalyst which can trap sulfur components included in the exhaust gas as sulfates (Sulfur trap DPNR). In this system, desulfurization control is not performed because the sulfur poisoning of the DPNR catalyst is drastically suppressed by the sulfur trap catalyst. In the present DPNR, periodic desulfurization control is required.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure and High Performance GPF Catalyst

Awareness of environmental protection with respect to the particulate number (PN) in the exhaust emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine vehicles has increased. In order to decrease the emission of particulate matter (PM), suppressing emissions by improving engine combustion, and/or filtering PM with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is effective. This paper describes the improvement of the coated GPF to reduce pressure drop while securing three-way performance and PN filtration efficiency. It was necessary to load a certain amount of washcoat on the GPF to add the three-way function, but this led to an increase in pressure drop that affected engine power. The pressure drop was influenced by the gas permeation properties of the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Method for Spray Shape Estimation

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is widely used to develop engine combustion. Especially the in-cylinder spray calculation is important in order to resolve the issues of direct injection gasoline engines (e.g., particulate matter (PM) and oil dilution caused by fuel wetting on the cylinder walls). Conventional spray calculation methods require fitting based on measurements of spray characteristics such as penetration and droplet diameter (i.e., the Sauter mean diameter (SMD)). Particularly in the case of slit nozzle shapes that widen from the inlet to the outlet to form a fan-shaped spray, fitting the shape of spray is a complex procedure because the flow inside the nozzle is not uniform. In response, a new calculation method has been developed that eliminates the need for spray shape fitting by combining calculations of the Eulerian multiphase and the Lagrangian multiphase.
Journal Article

Cooling Loss Reduction of Highly Dispersed Spray Combustion with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flow in Diesel Engine

In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.