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Technical Paper

Water Jacket Spacer for Improvement of Cylinder Bore Temperature Distribution

For reduction of fuel consumption, a new device “Water Jacket Spacer” which improves temperature distribution of a cylinder block bore wall was developed. In the case of a conventional cylinder block, coolant flow concentrates at the bottom and middle region of the water jacket. While temperature of the upper bore wall is high (due to high-temperature combustion gas) the temperature of the lower bore wall is low, since its only function is to support the piston. When the developed spacer is inserted into a water jacket, the coolant flow concentrates at the upper part of the jacket. As a result, cooling ability to the upper bore wall was improved and temperature of lower bore wall was increased, thereby reducing fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Vegetable Oil Hydrogenating Process for Automotive Fuel

From the viewpoint of primary energy diversification and CO2 reduction, interests of using Biomass Fuel are rising. Some kinds of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester), which are obtained from oil fats like vegetable oil using transesterification reaction with methanol, are getting Palm Oilpular for bio-diesel recently. In this study, we have conducted many experiments of palm oil hydrogenations using our pilot plants, and checked the reactivity and the pattern of product yields. As a result, we figured out that the hydrocarbon oil equivalent to the conventional diesel fuel can be obtained from vegetable oils in good yield under mild hydrogenation conditions. Moreover, as a result of various evaluations for the hydrogenated palm oil (oxidation stability, lowtemperature flow property, LCA, etc.), we found that the hydrogenated palm oil by our technology has performances almost equivalent to conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs. The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Journal Article

Unsteady Aerodynamic Response of a Vehicle by Natural Wind Generator of a Full-Scale Wind Tunnel

In recent years, the automotive manufacturers have been working to reduce fuel consumption in order to cut down on CO2 emissions, promoting weight reduction as one of the fuel saving countermeasures. On the other hand, this trend of weight reduction is well known to reduce vehicle stability in response to disturbances. Thus, automotive aerodynamic development is required not only to reduce aerodynamic drag, which contributes directly to lower fuel consumption, but also to develop technology for controlling unstable vehicle behavior caused by natural wind. In order to control the unstable vehicle motion changed by external contour modification, it is necessary to understand unsteady aerodynamic forces that fluctuating natural wind in real-world environments exerts on vehicles. In the past, some studies have reported the characteristics of unsteady aerodynamic forces induced by natural winds, comparing to steady aerodynamic forces obtained from conventional wind tunnel tests.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Trends of Future Powertrain Development and the Evolution of Powertrain Control Systems

High fuel efficiency and low emission technologies, such as Direct Injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines and hybrid powertrains, have been developed to resolve environmental and energy resource issues. The hybrid powertrain system has achieved superior power performance as well as higher system efficiency and is expected to be a core powertrain technology because it is compatible with various power sources including fuel cells. It becomes important to control complicated hybrid systems that consist of not only a powertrain but also vehicle systems such as regenerative braking. Model-based control and calibration enables both control strategy optimization and control system development efficiency improvement.
Technical Paper

Toyota’s New Driveline for FR Passenger Vehicles

The renewed platform of the upcoming flagship front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) vehicles demands high levels of driving performance, fuel efficiency and noise-vibration performance. The newly developed driveline system must balance these conflicting performance attributes by adopting new technologies. This article focuses on several technologies that were needed in order to meet the demand for noise-vibration performance and fuel efficiency. For noise-vibration performance, this article will focus on propeller shaft low frequency noise (booming noise). This noise level is determined by the propeller shaft’s excitation force and the sensitivity of differential mounting system. In regards to the propeller shaft’s excitation force, the contribution of the axial excitation force was clarified. This excitation force was decreased by adopting a double offset joint (DOJ) as the propeller shaft’s second joint and low stiffness rubber couplings as the first and third joints.
Journal Article

Toyota's Integrated Drive Power Control System for Downsized Turbocharged Engine

New engine controls have been developed for the turbocharged Lexus NX200t to improve driving power by reducing engine torque output lag. Drive power management functions have been centralized in an integrated drive power control system. The newly developed controls minimize the potential reduction in drivability associated with the adoption of a turbocharged engine while improving fuel efficiency. General driveability issues commonly associated with a turbocharged engine include sudden increases in drive power due to the response lag of the turbocharger, and higher shifting frequencies if this response lag triggers a disturbed accelerator operation pattern by the driver. The developed technologies detect and control sudden increases in drive power to create the optimum drive power map, and reduce unnecessary shifts even if the driver's accelerator operation is disturbed.
Technical Paper

Toyota Newly Developed 2VZ-FE Type Engine

Newly developed 2VZ-FE engine for CAMRY is a 2.5-liter water cooled and V-type 6-cylinder engine exported from TOYOTA for the first time. This engine has the TOYOTA original 4-valve DOHC system. That is, exhaust camshafts driven by intake camshafts using scissors gears. By its compact configuration with the gear driven camshafts, this V-type 6-cylinder engine is mounted on a front-wheel-drive vehicle which originally had an in-line 4-cylinder engine. By increasing IVZ-FE engine displacement (for domestic), compact pentroof-type combustion chambers, optimum air-fuel ratio and ignition timing by TCCS (TOYOTA Computer Controlled System) and other technologies, a high performance 153HP/5600rpm and a large torque 155ft·lbs/4400rpm have been achieved with a low fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) by using a heat pump system in cold weather. The advantage of an HV is a high efficiency of the vehicle system since an electric motor and an engine are coupled and optimally controlled. However, in the conventional HV, we see the fuel economy degradation in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin by using an engine results in a low efficiency of the vehicle system. To improve the fuel economy degradation, in this study, a heat pump is used and combined with an engine for the thermal management. The heat pump with an electrically driven compressor pumps heat from ambient into a water-cooled condenser. The heat which is generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce the emission and the cabin needs heat for thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

The Power Performance and the Fuel Economy Estimation of HV for Vehicle Concept Planning Using VHDL-AMS Full Vehicle Simulation

In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota Inline 4 Cylinder 1.8L ESTEC 2ZR-FXE Gasoline Engine for Hybrid Car

The engine in the new fourth generation Prius carries over the same basic structure as the 2ZR-FXE used in the third generation and incorporates various refinements to enhance fuel efficiency. Called the ESTEC 2ZR-FXE, the new engine incorporates various fuel efficient technologies to improve combustion characteristics, knocking, and heat management, while also reducing friction. As a result of this meticulous approach to enhancing fuel efficiency, the new engine is the first gasoline engine in the world to achieve a maximum thermal efficiency of 40%. This paper describes the fuel efficient technologies incorporated into this engine.
Technical Paper

The New RWD 6 Speed Automatic Transmission for SUV and Truck

Aisin AW (AW) and Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) have developed a new RWD 6 speed automatic transmission, AWR6B45(AC60), suitable for SUV’s and LDT’s in the worldwide market, not only for North America but also for other countries including emerging nations. This 6 speed automatic transmission has achieved low cost, equivalent to AW and TMCs’ current 5 speed automatic transmission, while realizing improvement in both fuel economy and driving performance against current in-house 5-speed automatic transmissions, in addition to satisfying both toughness against various usage and light weight/compactness. They are accomplished by using a compact gear train structure, the latest efficiency improvement technologies, and a high-response, compact hydraulic control system. In addition, the compactness of this 6 speed automatic transmission enables it to replace current 4 speed and 5 speed automatic transmissions for various engine applications.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RON on SI Engine Thermal Efficiency

Recently, global warming and energy security have received significant attention. Thus an improvement of the vehicle fuel economy is strongly required. For engines, one effective way is to improve the engine thermal efficiency. Raising compression ratio [1] or turbo charging technologies have potential to achieve high thermal efficiency. However knock does not allow the high thermal efficiency. Knock depends on the fuel composition and the pressure and temperature history of unburnt end-gas [2-3]. For fuels, RON is well known for describing the anti knock quality. High RON fuels have high anti knock quality and result in higher thermal efficiency. This paper investigates the impact of high RON fuels on the thermal efficiency by using high compression ratio engine, turbo charged engine, and lean boosted engine [4]. Finally, it is shown that the high thermal efficiency can be approached with high RON gasoline and ethanol.
Journal Article

The Impact of Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel Composition on a Euro V HSDI Engine with Advanced DPNR Emissions Control

In an effort to reduce CO2 emissions, governments are increasingly mandating the use of various levels of biofuels. While this is strongly supported in principle within the energy and transportation industries, the impact of these mandates on the transport stock’s CO2 emissions and overall operating efficiency has yet to be fully explored. This paper provides information on studies to assess biodiesel influences and effects on engine performance, driveability, emissions and fuel consumption on state-of-the-art Euro IV compliant Toyota Avensis D4-D vehicles with DPNR aftertreatment systems. Two fuel matrices (Phases 1 & 2) were designed to look at the impact of fuel composition on vehicle operation using a wide range of critical parameters such as cetane number, density, distillation and biofuel (FAME) level and type, which can be found within the current global range of Diesel fuel qualities.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Gasoline Metallic Additives on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is used as an octane-enhancing metallic additive for unleaded gasoline which can prevent engine knock by proactive reaction with the hydrocarbon free radicals before starting the auto-ignition of hydrocarbons. However it has been pointed out that MMT causes automotive catalysts clogging and spark plug severely fouling. Therefore, many countries have fuel standards that prohibit or limit the usage of MMT. Nevertheless, some countries still use MMT as there are no restrictions imposed by fuel standards. As mentioned in several papers, metallic additives of engine oil such as calcium cause an abnormal combustion phenomenon called low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in turbocharged spark ignition engines. In contrast, the effect of metallic additives of gasoline such as MMT on LSPI has not been studied.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Ethanol Fuel on a Spark Ignition Engine

Since ethanol is a renewable source of energy and it contributes to lower CO2 emissions, ethanol produced from biomass is expected to increase in use as an alternative fuel. It is recognized that for spark ignition (SI) engines ethanol has advantages of high octane number and high combustion speed and has a disadvantage of difficult startability at low temperature. This paper investigates the influence of ethanol fuel on SI engine performance, thermal efficiency, and emissions. The combustion characteristics under cold engine conditions are also examined. Ethanol has high anti-knock quality due to its high octane number, and high latent heat of evaporation, which decreases the compressed gas temperature during the compression stroke. In addition to the effect of latent heat of evaporation, the difference of combustion products compared with gasoline further decreases combustion temperature, thereby reducing cooling heat loss.
Technical Paper

The Development of Fluid for Small-Sized and Light Weight Viscous Coupling

For viscous couplings(VCs) as a driving force transmission system of vehicles, requirement of torque characteristics has been getting very stringent. Because the torque characteristics significantly affect four wheel drive vehicles' abilities such as traction performance and driving stability. Furthermore, the recent concerns on high fuel economy, low pollution and low cost require that design of VCs should be increasingly compact, light weighted and excellent in transmitted torque's stability. It is an easy way to increase viscosity of viscous coupling fluids(VCFs) for the compact design of the VC. But it might cause increase in heat load and wear of plates which resulted in degradation of the VCF. The degradation affects VCF's viscosity and impairs stability in torque transmission. Therefore it is indispensable to develop high viscosity VCF which is excellent in long-term viscosity's stability.
Technical Paper

Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicles Part 2: Comparative Analysis of Economic, Environmental, and Usability Benefits

Introducing effective technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector is a critical issue for automotive manufacturers to contribute to sustainable development. Unlike the plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), whose effectiveness is dependent on the carbon intensity of grid electricity, the solar hybrid vehicle (SHV) can be an alternative electric vehicle because of its off-grid, zero-emission electric technology. Its usability is also advantageous because it does not require manual charging by the users. This study aims at evaluating the economic, environmental, and usability benefits of SHV by comparing it with other types of vehicles including PEVs. By setting cost and energy efficiency on the basis of the assumed technology level in 2030, annual cost and annual CO2 emissions of each vehicle are calculated using the daily mileage pattern obtained from a user survey of 5,000 people in Japan and the daily radiation data for each corresponding user.