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Technical Paper

Verification of High Frequency SiC On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger for PHV

2016-04-05
2016-01-1210
This paper presents a new application of a vehicle on-board battery charger utilizing high frequency Silicon Carbide (SiC) power devices. SiC is one of the most promising alternatives to Silicon (Si) for power semiconductor devices due to its superior material characteristics such as lower on-state resistance, higher junction temperature, and higher switching frequency. An on-board charger prototype is developed demonstrating these advantages and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating with a switching frequency of 250 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.06 kW results in a gravimetric power density of 3.8 W/kg and a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L, which are about 10 times the densities compared with the current Prius Plug-In Si charger. SiC technology is indispensable to eco-friendly PHV/EV development.
Technical Paper

Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicles Part 2: Comparative Analysis of Economic, Environmental, and Usability Benefits

2016-04-05
2016-01-1286
Introducing effective technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector is a critical issue for automotive manufacturers to contribute to sustainable development. Unlike the plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), whose effectiveness is dependent on the carbon intensity of grid electricity, the solar hybrid vehicle (SHV) can be an alternative electric vehicle because of its off-grid, zero-emission electric technology. Its usability is also advantageous because it does not require manual charging by the users. This study aims at evaluating the economic, environmental, and usability benefits of SHV by comparing it with other types of vehicles including PEVs. By setting cost and energy efficiency on the basis of the assumed technology level in 2030, annual cost and annual CO2 emissions of each vehicle are calculated using the daily mileage pattern obtained from a user survey of 5,000 people in Japan and the daily radiation data for each corresponding user.
Technical Paper

Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicles Part 1: Analysis of Solar Hybrid Vehicle Potential Considering Well-to-Wheel GHG Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1287
In recent years, automakers have been developing various types of environmentally friendly vehicles such as hybrid (HV), plug-in hybrid (PHV), electric (EV), and fuel cell (FCV) vehicles to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there are few commercial solar vehicles on the market. One of the reasons why automakers have not focused attention on this area is because the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles under real conditions are unclear. There are two difficulties in measuring the benefits of installing solar modules on vehicles: (1) vehicles travel under various conditions of sunlight exposure and (2) sunlight exposure conditions differ in each region. To address these problems, an analysis was performed based on an internet survey of 5,000 people and publically available meteorological data from 48 observation stations in Japan.
Technical Paper

Study on the Potential Benefits of Plug-in Hybrid Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0456
There is ever increasing interest in the issues of fossil fuel depletion, global warming, due to increased atmospheric CO2, and air pollution, all of which are due in some extent to transportation, including automobiles. Hybrid Vehicles (HVs), whose performance and usage are equivalent to existing conventional vehicles, attract lots of attention and have started to come into wider use. Meanwhile, EVs have been considered by many as the best solution for the issues mentioned above. But the technical difficulty of battery energy density is an obstruction to successful implementation. Currently the Plug-in HV (PHEV), which combines the advantages of HV and EV, is being considered as one promising solution. PHEVs can be categorized into two types, according to operating modes. The first uses battery stored energy initially, only stating the internal combustion engine when the battery is depleted. This we call the All Electric Range (AER) system.
Technical Paper

Novel Power Conversion System for Cost Reduction in Vehicles with 42V/14V Power Supply

2003-03-03
2003-01-0307
In recent years, attention is being given to 42V power supply technology for solving the problem of increased power demand in vehicles. Since 2001, Toyota Motor Corporation has been marketing a mild hybrid system (THS-M) in order to further improve fuel economy and reduce emissions; this system requires both 42V and 14V power sources. The THS-M system consists of a 42V motor generator (M/G) connected to the engine crankshaft with a belt; an inverter; a 36V battery; a DC/DC converter for stepping down the 42V power supply to a conventional 12V battery; and high-power related electrical components. These components require additional costs, which must be reduced in order to increase the sales volume of THS-M vehicles. We have devised a method to eliminate the conventional DC/DC converter from the THS-M, and as a result we have developed a new, revolutionary power conversion system (multi-function inverter).
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Toyota Plug-in Hybrid System and its Vehicle Performance under Real Life Operation

2011-06-09
2011-37-0033
Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) since 1997 as a countermeasure to the concerns raised by automobile, like CO2 reduction, energy security, and pollutant emission reduction in urban areas. Plug in hybrid Vehicle (PHV) uses electric energy from grid rather than fuel for most short trips and therefore presents a next step forward towards an even more effective solution for these concerns. For longer trips, the PHV works as a conventional hybrid vehicle, providing all the benefits of Toyota full hybrid technology, such as low fuel consumption, user-friendliness and long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an EV-range within usual trip length without sacrificing cabin space.
Technical Paper

High-pressure Metal Hydride Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicles

2007-07-23
2007-01-2011
High-pressure metal hydride (MH) tank has been designed based on a 35 MPa cylinder vessel. The heat exchanger module is integrated into the tank. Its advantage over high-pressure cylinder vessels is its large hydrogen storage capacity, for example 9.5 kg with a tank volume of 180 L by Ti25Cr50V20Mo5 alloy. Cruising range is about 900 km, over 3 times longer than that of a 35 MPa cylinder vessel system with the same volume. The hydrogen-charging rate of this system is equal to the 35 MPa cylinders without any external cooling facility. And release of hydrogen at 243 K is enabled due to the use of hydrogen-absorbing alloy with high-dissociation pressure, for example Ti35Cr34Mn31 alloy.
Technical Paper

Development of the Li-ion Battery Cell for Hybrid Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1207
Toyota introduced the first generation Prius in 1997. The vehicle was conceived, designed and launched as a dedicated, mass-produced global hybrid vehicle platform, the first of its kind. The introduction of the 2nd and 3rd generation Prius (2003, 2009) saw vehicles with significantly improved performance, including fuel efficiency. The Prius Alpha (Japan/EU), launched in 2011, represented Toyota first foray with Li-ion battery in a strong hybrid configuration. For the Prius Alpha, the adoption of a compact Li-ion battery resulted in sufficient cabin space to allow a 3rd row of seats while maintaining high fuel efficiency. Before and after the launch of the Prius Alpha, an extensive list of tests was performed on the Li-ion battery pack, including electrical, electrochemical, mechanical, and safety. The evaluations were performed in the lab, in the field (demonstration fleets) and by acquiring vehicles used by customers.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid/Battery ECU for the Toyota Hybrid System

1998-02-23
981122
For energy saving and global warming prevention, Toyota has developed Toyota Hybrid System (THS) for mass-produced passenger cars, which achieves drastic improvement in fuel efficiency and reduction in exhaust emissions compared to conventional gasoline engine cars. The THS has two motive power sources which engage depending on driving conditions. It's power is supplied either from an engine (controlled by the engine ECU) or an electric motor (controlled by the motor ECU) which is powered by a high-voltage battery (monitored by the battery ECU). These ECUs are controlled by a hybrid ECU. Each ECU has been developed with a fail-safe system in mind, to ensure driver safety in case of vehicle breakdowns. Among these ECUs, this paper reports particularly on the newly introduced ECUs: hybrid ECU and battery ECU. In the development of these ECUs, special attention was focused on fail-safe performance.
Technical Paper

Development of ToyotaS Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

1998-10-19
98C053
Toyota has been developing various environmentally friendly vehicles to address global environmental concerns. In 1996, Toyota started to sell the battery powered "RAV4" electric vehicle, and introduced the "e-com" in 1997. Late last year, Toyota launched production of the world's first hybrid vehicle, the "PRIUS", doubling the fuel efficiency and drastically reducing the emission of carbon dioxide. Toyota is also conducting research in the area of fuel cell electric vehicles. This paper explains the electric systems of these vehicles, i.e., motor, inverter, Ni-MH battery and control. Some of the technical problems will also be discussed
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota Plug-In Hybrid System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0874
Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) as a countermeasure to concerns related to the automotive mobility like CO2 reduction, energy security, and emission reduction in urban areas. A next step towards an even more effective solution for these concerns is a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV). This vehicle combines the advantages of electric vehicles (EV), which can use clean electric energy, and HV with it's high environmental potential and user-friendliness comparable to conventional vehicles such as a long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an EV-range within usual trip length without sacrificing cabin space. The vehicle achieves a CO2 emission of 59g/km and meets the most stringent emission regulations in the world. The new PHV is a forerunner of the large-scale mass production PHV which will be introduced in two years.
Technical Paper

Development of Plug-In Hybrid System for Midsize Car

2012-04-16
2012-01-1014
In recent years, many various energy sources have been investigated as replacements for traditional automotive fossil fuels to help reduce CO₂ emissions, respond to instabilities in the supply of fossil fuels, and reduce emissions of air pollutants in urban areas. Toyota Motor Corporation considers the plug-in hybrid vehicle, which can use electricity efficiently, to be the most practical current solution to these issues. For this reason, Toyota began sales of the Prius plug-in hybrid in early 2012 in both the U.S. and Japan. This is the first plug-in hybrid vehicle to be mass-produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. Prior to this, in December 2009, Toyota sold 650 plug-in hybrid vehicles through lease programs for verification testing in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The system of the recently launched mass-produced vehicle underwent major improvements in response to the results of this verification testing. As a result, EV range was increased with a smaller battery.
Technical Paper

Development of Next Generation Fuel-Cell Hybrid System - Consideration of High Voltage System -

2004-03-08
2004-01-1304
Toyota Motor Corporation began leasing a new generation fuel cell vehicle the FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) in December 2002. That vehicle includes a new variable voltage power electronics system and uses the Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery system from the Prius hybrid gasoline electric vehicle. This paper describes on-going efforts to model optimum secondary storage systems for future vehicles. Efficiency modeling is presented for the base Ni-MH storage system, an ultra capacitor system and a Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery system. The Li-ion system in combination with a new high efficiency converter shows a 4% improvement in fuel economy relative to the base system. The ultra capacitor system is not as efficient as the base system.
Journal Article

Development of Multi Stage Hybrid System for New Lexus Coupe

2017-03-28
2017-01-1173
Lexus launched the new hybrid luxury coupe LC500h in 2017 to help enhance its brand image and competitiveness for the new generation of Lexus. During the development of the LC500h, major improvements were made to the hybrid system by adopting the newly-developed Multi Stage Hybrid System, which combines a multi stage shift device with the transmission from the previous hybrid system to maximize the potential of the electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission. Optimum engine and electrical component specifications were designed for the new vehicle and transmission. As a result, the LC500h achieves a 0-to-60 mph acceleration time of 4.7 seconds, with a combined fuel economy of 30.0 mpg while satisfying SULEV emissions requirements. Two controls were constructed to help resolve the issues that arose due to adding the shift device.
Technical Paper

Development of Lithium-Ion Battery for Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0066
We developed a high performance automotive lithium-ion battery and applied it to our new Toyota Intelligent Idling Stop System. This hybrid power management system has been introduced in the “intelligent package” of Toyota Vitz vehicles sold in Japan. The lithium-ion battery is installed under the seat on the passenger-side. The battery supplies electric power to the auxiliary electrical systems during the “idling stop” mode, and when restarting the engine. The main requirements of this battery are to supply high electric power output even at low temperatures and at the same time, maintain continuous power during charge and discharge cycling, and have long storage life. This performance has been accomplished successfully through a series of improvements in battery materials and structures.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Vehicle System for City Commuter Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1447
Recently, automakers have launched various types of electric vehicles (EVs) to help reduce global CO₂ emissions and reduce dependency on fossil fuel energy. Because the lithium-ion batteries that are currently under development are restricted by energy density, the physical size and mass of the battery must be significantly increased to extend the cruising range of the EV. Furthermore, dedicated charging infrastructure is required to charge the battery in a short time. At SAE in 2012, Toyota Motor Corporation proposed a concept that described the EV as suitable mainly for short-distance transportation now and in the near future. Later in the same year, Toyota launched a new EV that embodies this concept in the American and Japanese markets. This new EV is light-weight and has a compact body size, and its battery capacity is designed to sufficiently cover distances traveled in daily life. Charging is assumed to take place mainly at home.
Technical Paper

Development and Improvement of an Ultra Lightweight Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2003-03-03
2003-01-2011
An experimental ultra lightweight compact vehicle named “the Waseda Future Vehicle” has been designed and developed, aiming at a simultaneous achievement of low exhaust gas emissions, high fuel economy and driving performance. The vehicle is powered by a dual-type hybrid system having a SI engine, electric motor and generator. A high performance lithium-ion battery unit is used for electricity storage. A variety of driving cycles were reproduced using the hybrid vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. By changing the logics and parameters in the electronic control unit (ECU) of the engine, a significant improvement in emissions was possible, achieving a very high fuel economy of 34 km/h at the Japanese 10-15 drive mode. At the same time, a numerical simulation model has been developed to predict fuel economy. This would be very useful in determining design factors and optimizing operating conditions in the hybrid power system.
Journal Article

Development Progress of the Toyota Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

2008-04-14
2008-01-0420
Since 1992, Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been working on the development of fuel cell system technology. TMC is designing principal components in-house, including fuel cell stacks, high-pressure hydrogen storage tank systems, and hybrid systems. TMC developed the '02 model TOYOTA FCHV, the world-first market-ready fuel cell vehicle, and started limited lease of the vehicles in 2002. In 2005, TMC developed a new model of TOYOTA FCHV which obtained vehicle type certification in Japan, and is currently available for leasing. TMC has improved the cruising range and cold start/drive capability of the TOYOTA FCHV, and conducted public road tests to evaluate the performance. The improved TOYOTA FCHV successfully traveled from Osaka to Tokyo (approximately 560km, 350 miles) on a single fueling of hydrogen. In addition, the cold weather tests carried out in Hokkaido and North America have verified its starting/driving capability at subfreezing temperatures including -37°C.
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