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Journal Article

Visualization of Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline-like Fuel Using High Speed Imaging in a Constant Volume Vessel

2012-04-16
2012-01-1236
Combustion visualizations were carried out in a constant volume vessel to study the partially premixed combustion of a gasoline-like fuel using high speed imaging. The test fuel (G80H20) is composed by volume 80% commercial gasoline and 20% n-heptane. The effects of ambient gas composition, ambient temperature and injection pressure on G80H20 combustion characteristics were analyzed. Meanwhile, a comparison of the EGR effect on combustion process between G80H20 and diesel was made. Four ambient gas conditions that represent the in-cylinder gas compositions of a heavy-duty diesel engine with EGR ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% were used to simulate EGR conditions. Variables also include two ambient temperature (910K and 870K) and two injection pressure (20 MPa and 50 MPa) conditions.
Technical Paper

Using Shoulder Bolster and Knee Bolster to Achieve Protection Effect Comparable to Seatbelt and Airbag

2018-04-03
2018-01-1170
Seatbelt and airbags provide effective occupant restraint, but are also potential to induce intrusive deformation and submarining injuries in motor vehicle crashes. To address these issues, this study puts forward a new restraint concept that applies restraint loads on shoulders and knees/femurs, i.e., the sturdiest regions of human body, via a combined use of shoulder bolster and knee bolster based on biomechanical computational analysis. The load characteristics of the two bolsters were optimized to obtain protection effectiveness superior to conventional use of seatbelt and airbag. Occupant kinematics and kinetics were taken into account, including the excursions of head, shoulders and knees, the accelerations of head and chest, and the compressions of thorax on several locations on the ribcage. The injury risk of rib fractures was monitored based on the strain levels of ribcage.
Journal Article

Transient Emissions Characteristics of a Turbocharged Engine Fuelled by Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1302
The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Tire Force Fast Estimation Method for Vehicle Dynamics Stability Real Time Control

2007-10-30
2007-01-4244
A tire force estimation algorithm is proposed for vehicle dynamic stability control (DSC) system to protect the vehicle from deviation of the normal dynamics attitude and to realize the improved dynamics stability in limited driving conditions. The developed algorithm is based on the theoretical analysis of all the subsystems of the active brake control in DSC system and modulation in DSC, and the robustness is achieved by a compensation method using nonlinear filter in the real time control. The software-in-loop simulation using Matlab/AMEsim and the ground test in the real car show the validation of this method.
Technical Paper

The engaging process model of sleeve and teeth ring with a precise, continuous and nonlinear damping impact model in mechanical transmissions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2443
During the engaging process of sleeve and teeth ring in mechanical transmissions, their rotational speed and position differences cause multiple engaging ways and trajectories, and casual impacts between them will delay the engaging process and cause a long power off time for a gear shift. In order to reveal the engaging mechanism of the sleeve and the teeth ring, it is essential to build a high-fidelity model to cover all of their engaging ways and capture their speed changes for an impact. In this work, our contribution is that their impact process is modeled as a precise, continuous and nonlinear damping model, and then a hybrid automaton model is built to connect the system dynamics in different mechanical coupling relationships.
Technical Paper

The Review of Present and Future Energy Structure in China

2019-04-02
2019-01-0612
Both the economy and energy demand increase rapidly in China. The government is facing severe problems from energy security, carbon emissions and environmental issues. The past trends and future plans of energy will have great influence on the transportation, construction and industry development. This paper summarizes the present and future energy structure in China. Conventional fossil energy, nuclear energy and renewable energy are all included. Electricity will account for more proportion in total energy consumption in the future, and the structure of electricity will be cleaner. That will promote the development of electric vehicles and the transformation of China’s automotive industry. The optimization of energy structure will accelerate the low-carbon development in China. China’s energy development will enter a new stage from the expansion of total quantity to the upgrading of quality and efficiency.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Passive Elements on STATCOM Performance

1999-08-02
1999-01-2644
As important members of the STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator), the passive elements play an indispensable role in the transient and steady state performance of STATCOM. The harmonics resonant phenomena have been pointed out in some papers. However from the engineering design point of view, a more detailed investigation should be conducted to give an insight into the effects of passive parameter selection on the system performance. Based on the experience in developing STATCOM, the authors proposed a modified mathematical model in a per-unit system as the base of parameter evaluation. With the proposed model, the authors analyze the influence of the per-unit passive parameters on the performance of STATCOM systematically. Simplified algebraic expressions for the magnitudes of the harmonic current as well as the dc voltage regarding the particular harmonics are derived, which can be used as an indication of the preference for the passive elements.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Injector Deposits on Spray and Particulate Emission of Advanced Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle

2016-10-17
2016-01-2284
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have developed rapidly in recent years driven by fuel efficiency and consumption requirements, but face challenges such as injector deposits and particulate emissions compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. While the mechanisms of GDI injector deposits formation and that of particulate emissions have been respectively revealed well, the impact of GDI injector deposits and their relation to particulate emissions have not yet been understood very well through systematic approach to investigate vehicle emissions together with injector spray analysis. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on a GDI vehicle produced by a Chinese Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and an optical spray test bench to determine the impact of injector deposits on spray and particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

The Impact of GDI Injector Deposits on Engine Combustion and Emission

2017-10-08
2017-01-2248
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is now widely used due to its high fuel efficiency and low CO2 emissions. However, particulate emissions pose one challenge to GDI technology, particularly in the presence of fuel injector deposits. In this paper, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine in the Chinese market was selected and operated at 2000rpm and 3bar BMEP condition for 55 hours to accumulate injector deposits. The engine spark timing, cylinder pressure, combustion duration, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), gaseous pollutants which include total hydro carbon (THC), NOx (NO and NO2) and carbon dioxide (CO), and particulate emissions were measured before and after the injector fouling test at eight different operating conditions. Test results indicated that mild injector fouling can result in an effect on engine combustion and emissions despite a small change in injector flow rate and pulse width.
Journal Article

The Fixed Points on the Nonlinear Dynamic Properties and the Parameters Identification Method for Hydraulic Engine Mount

2008-04-01
2008-01-2763
Based on the third generation of hydraulic engine mounts (HEMs), which has three types of hydraulic mechanisms such as inertia track, decoupler and disturbing plate, the influences of the three different hydraulic mechanisms on the dynamic properties were studied experimentally. The working principles of the three hydraulic mechanisms and the relationship between the dynamic properties of the three generations of HEMs were revealed clearly, these experimental results will be helpful for HEM design selection. It was discovered experimentally that the frequency-dependent dynamic properties of HEM with inertia track or orifice have fixed points under different excitation displacement amplitudes. Based on the facts that the analytical results matched well with the experimental ones, a new parameter-identification-method for HEM is presented, which is clear in theory and is time- and cost-saving, the identified results were reliable.
Technical Paper

The Differential Braking Steering Control of Special Purpose Flat-Bed Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0440
Special purpose flat-bed vehicle is commonly utilized to move heavily items such as containers in warehouse, port and other freight handling scene, the hydraulic steering system have be gradually replaced by electric ones. However, the cost of electric steering system is high for commercial activities. Thus, for some corporates, the differential braking steering strategy becomes an ideal alternative. The purpose of this paper is to present a steering control method for flat-bed electric vehicle based on differential braking system. There are two main components of the control method, steering while moving forward and pivot steering, and each of them was composed by upper layer and executive layer. To evaluate the practicability of the control methods, a 7-DOF flat-bed vehicle model was established in Simulink.
Technical Paper

The 3-Dimensional Modal Parameter Tire Model and Simulation of Tire Rolling Over Oblique Cleats

2008-04-14
2008-01-1408
Based on the simulation results of tire rolling over perpendicular cleats by MPTM model, in present paper, a series of simulation results of tire rolling over oblique cleats with different angles are given. For that, the Modal Parameter Tire Camber property Model is established. For the appraisement of comparison between simulation and experimental results a problem concern the validation test is pointed out. In the end, simulation results of tire rolling over a series of continuous cleats are given.
Technical Paper

Study on Modeling Method for Common Rail Diesel Engine Calibration and Optimization

2004-03-08
2004-01-0426
The large amount of controllable fuel injection parameters of Diesel engine equipped with high pressure common-rail fuel injection system makes the control of combustion more flexible, and also makes the workload of calibration and optimization much heavier. For higher efficiency, model-based approaches are presented and researched. This contribution presents a new method for modeling which is constituted by Neural Network and Adaptive Network-based Fussy Inference System (ANFIS). The experiment is carried out on a 6-cylinder common rail diesel engine. The analysis and experiment show that effective modeling can be achieved using this method.
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Responses of the Vehicle Handling Models with a Speed-sensitive Hydraulic Power Steering System

2007-10-30
2007-01-4239
In this work, a speed-sensitive electronically controlled hydraulic power steering (ECHPS) system is analyzed. The use of an electro-hydraulic transducer and a hydraulic bypass in parallel with the hydraulic power steering system makes it possible to vary steering effort with vehicle speed. In order to research the dynamic responses of the vehicle with the ECHPS system during maneuvers, an ECHPS model and a vehicle handling model are developed. These models can be used for performance evaluation of the steering motion of the vehicles, and also for the design of new power steering system.
Technical Paper

Study on Closed-Loop Coupling Model for Brake Squeal Concerning Disc Rotation

2016-09-18
2016-01-1922
Modelling of disc is crucial in analyzing brake squeal since the disc rotates past the non-rotating pads and the pads are coupled with different areas of the disc at different times. However, in most of the complex eigenvalue analysis of brake squeal, the effect of disc rotation was ignored. This paper proposes a closed-loop coupling model for brake squeal analysis. A modal parameter-based rotating disc model, whose dynamic behavior is represented by rotation speed-dependent equivalent modal parameters, is built through space and time-frequency transformation between reference and moving coordinate systems. The orthogonality of the equivalent modal parameters in state-space is derived. By performing modal synthesis in state-space, the rotating disc is incorporated into brake squeal closed-loop coupling model with other stationary components. Dynamic instability of the system is solved through complex eigenvalue analysis in state-space.
Technical Paper

Study of the Injection Control Valve in a New Electronic Diesel Fuel System

1998-02-23
980813
At first, the dynamic electromagnetic characteristics of a pulsed solenoid valve is analyzed by experiments. The fast valve response is obtained by material modifications. Then, the intelligent solenoid driving method is discussed. The new techniques of the “active” PWM and the “d2i/dt2” detection are developed for feedback control of the solenoid holding current and the valve closure timing. Finally, the control and diagnosis method for the valve closure duration is investigated. A sensing mechanism utilizing momentary camshaft speed fluctuations of fuel injection pump is presented, which provides the basis for feedback control and diagnosis of the valve closure duration and diesel fuel injection process.
Technical Paper

Study of the Control Strategy of the Plateau Self-adapted Turbocharging System for Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1636
A plateau self-adapted turbocharging system based on variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) technology is proposed to solve the problem of diesel engine operating at plateau. The control strategy of the plateau self-adapted turbocharging system is studied using a GT-Power engine model. The control strategy is based on the optimization of the VGT nozzle vane position at various engine operating conditions and various altitudes. Simulation results show that by optimizing the matching and controlling the VGT, the performance of the engine matched with VGT can be improved significantly compared with the one matched with FGT (fixed geometry turbocharger) at various altitudes. Surge and overspeed phenomena of the turbocharger can also be avoided.
Technical Paper

Study of Turbulent Entrainment Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model for HCNG Engines with Variable Ignition Timings

2018-09-10
2018-01-1687
Presently, urban transportation highly depends on the fossil fuels, but its rapid fluctuating economic issues and environmental consequences impose the variegation of energy sources. Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) engines offer the potential of higher brake thermal efficiency with low emissions, which also satisfies the strict pollutant emission standards. The two-zone turbulent entrainment quasi-dimensional combustion model is developed to predict the combustion process of spark-ignited hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas-fueled engines. The fundamentals of thermodynamic process, turbulent flame propagation model and other sub-models like laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature and ignition lag model are introduced for the better accuracy. The experiments have been conducted for three different fuels; pure CNG, 20% HCNG, and 40% HCNG blends under MAP of 105 kPa for various excess air ratios (λ) and ignition timing (θi).
Technical Paper

Study of Near Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Ethanol under Different Saturation Ratios

2016-10-17
2016-01-2189
Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in controlling the combustion quality in the direct-injection engines. In this present work, the effect of saturation ratio (Rs) on the near nozzle spray patterns of ethanol was investigated using an ultra-high speed imaging technique. The Rs range covered both flash-boiling and non-flash boiling regions. Ethanol was injected from a single-hole injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at a fixed injection pressure of 40 MPa with different fuel temperatures and back pressures. High-speed imaging was performed using an ultrahigh speed camera (1 million fps) coupled with a long-distance microscope. Under non-flash boiling conditions, the effect of Rs on fuel development was small but observable. Clear fuel collision can be observed at Rs=1.5 and 1.0. Under the flash boiling conditions, near-nozzle spray patterns were significant different from the non-flash boiling ones.
Technical Paper

Structural Designs for Electric Vehicle Battery Pack against Ground Impact

2018-04-03
2018-01-1438
Ground impact caused by road debris can result in very severe fire accident of Electric Vehicles (EV). In order to study the ground impact accidents, a Finite Element model of the battery pack structure is carefully set up according to the practical designs of EVs. Based on this model, the sequence of the deformation process is studied, and the contribution of each component is clarified. Subsequently, four designs, including three enhanced shield plates and one enhanced housing box, are investigated. Results show that the BRAS (Blast Resistant Adaptive Sandwich) shield plate is the most effective structure to decrease the deformation of the battery cells. Compared with the baseline case, which adopts a 6.35-mm-thick aluminum sheet as the shield plate, the BRAS can reduce the shortening of cells by more than 50%. Another type of sandwich structure, the NavTruss, can also improve the safety of battery pack, but not as effectively as the BRAS.
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