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Journal Article

Visualization of Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline-like Fuel Using High Speed Imaging in a Constant Volume Vessel

2012-04-16
2012-01-1236
Combustion visualizations were carried out in a constant volume vessel to study the partially premixed combustion of a gasoline-like fuel using high speed imaging. The test fuel (G80H20) is composed by volume 80% commercial gasoline and 20% n-heptane. The effects of ambient gas composition, ambient temperature and injection pressure on G80H20 combustion characteristics were analyzed. Meanwhile, a comparison of the EGR effect on combustion process between G80H20 and diesel was made. Four ambient gas conditions that represent the in-cylinder gas compositions of a heavy-duty diesel engine with EGR ratios of 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% were used to simulate EGR conditions. Variables also include two ambient temperature (910K and 870K) and two injection pressure (20 MPa and 50 MPa) conditions.
Technical Paper

Study on Modeling Method for Common Rail Diesel Engine Calibration and Optimization

2004-03-08
2004-01-0426
The large amount of controllable fuel injection parameters of Diesel engine equipped with high pressure common-rail fuel injection system makes the control of combustion more flexible, and also makes the workload of calibration and optimization much heavier. For higher efficiency, model-based approaches are presented and researched. This contribution presents a new method for modeling which is constituted by Neural Network and Adaptive Network-based Fussy Inference System (ANFIS). The experiment is carried out on a 6-cylinder common rail diesel engine. The analysis and experiment show that effective modeling can be achieved using this method.
Technical Paper

Study on Engine Start Vibration Index in a Hybrid Powertrain Using Torque Sensor and Cylinder Pressure Sensor

2019-11-04
2019-01-5034
This paper presents an investigation of drivability issue of engine start-stop. Hybrid vehicles provide excellent benefits regarding fuel efficiency and emission. However, vibration results from constant engine start and stop events generate drivability issues, thus compromising driving comfort. This paper has designed a high speed torque sensor to capture instantaneous torque at the engine shaft. Its consequences help to find out the most suitable index of vibration severity. This paper is organized in four sections. The first section introduces the powertrain to be studied. The second section introduces development of a specially designed torque sensor. The torque sensor is installed between the engine and ISG (Integrated Starter Generator), alongside with an encoder. The torque sensor is utilized to collect the instantaneous shaft torque on occasion of engine start. In the third section, this paper has performed two experiments.
Technical Paper

Study of the Injection Control Valve in a New Electronic Diesel Fuel System

1998-02-23
980813
At first, the dynamic electromagnetic characteristics of a pulsed solenoid valve is analyzed by experiments. The fast valve response is obtained by material modifications. Then, the intelligent solenoid driving method is discussed. The new techniques of the “active” PWM and the “d2i/dt2” detection are developed for feedback control of the solenoid holding current and the valve closure timing. Finally, the control and diagnosis method for the valve closure duration is investigated. A sensing mechanism utilizing momentary camshaft speed fluctuations of fuel injection pump is presented, which provides the basis for feedback control and diagnosis of the valve closure duration and diesel fuel injection process.
Technical Paper

Study of the Control Strategy of the Plateau Self-adapted Turbocharging System for Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1636
A plateau self-adapted turbocharging system based on variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) technology is proposed to solve the problem of diesel engine operating at plateau. The control strategy of the plateau self-adapted turbocharging system is studied using a GT-Power engine model. The control strategy is based on the optimization of the VGT nozzle vane position at various engine operating conditions and various altitudes. Simulation results show that by optimizing the matching and controlling the VGT, the performance of the engine matched with VGT can be improved significantly compared with the one matched with FGT (fixed geometry turbocharger) at various altitudes. Surge and overspeed phenomena of the turbocharger can also be avoided.
Technical Paper

Study of Near Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Ethanol under Different Saturation Ratios

2016-10-17
2016-01-2189
Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in controlling the combustion quality in the direct-injection engines. In this present work, the effect of saturation ratio (Rs) on the near nozzle spray patterns of ethanol was investigated using an ultra-high speed imaging technique. The Rs range covered both flash-boiling and non-flash boiling regions. Ethanol was injected from a single-hole injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at a fixed injection pressure of 40 MPa with different fuel temperatures and back pressures. High-speed imaging was performed using an ultrahigh speed camera (1 million fps) coupled with a long-distance microscope. Under non-flash boiling conditions, the effect of Rs on fuel development was small but observable. Clear fuel collision can be observed at Rs=1.5 and 1.0. Under the flash boiling conditions, near-nozzle spray patterns were significant different from the non-flash boiling ones.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter for Active Regeneration Process Using Secondary Fuel Injection

2017-10-08
2017-01-2287
Advanced exhaust after-treatment technology is required for heavy-duty diesel vehicles to achieve stringent Euro VI emission standards. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most efficient system that is used to trap the particulate matter (PM), and particulate number (PN) emissions form diesel engines. The after-treatment system used in this study is catalyzed DPF (CDPF) downstream of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) with secondary fuel injection. Additional fuel is injected upstream of DOC to enhance exothermal heat which is needed to raise the CDPF temperature during the active regeneration process. The objective of this research is to numerically investigate soot loading and active regeneration of a CDPF on a heavy-duty diesel engine. In order to improve the active regeneration performance of CDPF, several factors are investigated in the study such as the effect of catalytic in filter wall, soot distribution form along filter wall, and soot loads.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research on Engine Speed Fluctuation Suppression Based on Engine Torque Observer by Using a Flywheel ISG

2019-04-02
2019-01-0787
This paper conducts simulation research on engine torque ripple suppression based on the engine torque observer by using a flywheel-ISG (integrated starter generator). Usually, engine torque can be suppressed by using a passive method such as by installing a flywheel or torsional damper. However, failure problems arise in hybrid system because of different mechanical characters of the engine and its co-axial ISG motor. On the prototype test bench, the flywheel of the engine has been removed and replaced by an ISG rotor, namely FISG (flywheel ISG). Besides, the crank and FISG rotor are directly connected, which means no dampers or clutches are installed. If the engine torque ripples can be suppressed by the same level as the flywheel and damper by FISG active torque compensation, the new system can be more compact and economical. Simulation efforts are made to verify its feasibility. Firstly, based on the experimental test bench, which is currently under construction.
Technical Paper

Research on Steady and Transient Performance of an HCCI Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection

2008-06-23
2008-01-1723
In this paper, a hybrid combustion mode in four-stroke gasoline direct injection engines was studied. Switching cam profiles and injection strategies simultaneously was adopted to obtain a rapid and smooth switch between SI mode and HCCI mode. Based on the continuous pressure traces and corresponding emissions, HCCI steady operation, HCCI transient process (combustion phase adjustment, SI-HCCI, HCCI-SI, HCCI cold start) were studied. In HCCI mode, HCCI combustion phase can be adjusted rapidly by changing the split injection ratio. The HCCI control strategies had been demonstrated in a Chery GDI2.0 engine. The HCCI engine simulation results show that, oxygen and active radicals are stored due to negative valve overlap and split fuel injection under learn burn condition. This reduces the HCCI sensitivity on inlet boundary conditions, such as intake charge and intake temperature. The engine can be run from 1500rpm to 4000rpm in HCCI mode without spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Relative Impact of Chemical and Physical Properties of the Oil-Fuel Droplet on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2278
A conceptual approach to help understand and simulate droplet induced pre-ignition is presented. The complex phenomenon of oil-fuel droplet induced pre-ignition has been decomposed to its elementary processes. This approach helps identify the key fluid properties and engine parameters that affect the pre-ignition phenomenon, and could be used to control LSPI. Based on the conceptual model, a 3D CFD engine simulation has been developed which is able to realistically model all of the elementary processes involved in droplet induced pre-ignition. The simulation was successfully able to predict droplet induced pre-ignition at conditions where the phenomenon has been experimentally observed. The simulation has been able to help explain the observation of pre-ignition advancement relative to injection timing as experimentally observed in a previous study [6].
Technical Paper

PLII-LEM and OH* Chemiluminescence Study on Soot Formation in Spray Combustion of PODEn-Diesel Blend Fuels in a Constant Volume Vessel

2017-10-08
2017-01-2329
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) are promising alternative fuel candidates for diesel engines because they present advantages in soot reduction. This study uses a PODEn mixture (contains PODE3-6) from mass production to provide oxygen component in blend fuels. The spray combustion of PODEn-diesel bend fuels in a constant volume vessel was studied using high speed imaging, PLII-LEM and OH* chemiluminescence. Fuels of several blend ratios are compared with pure diesel. Flame luminance data show a near linear decrease tendency with the blend ratio increasing. The OH* images reveal that the ignition positions of all the cases have small differences, which indicates that using a low PODEn blend ratio of no more than 30% does not need significant adjustment in engine combustion control strategies. It is found that 30% PODEn blended with diesel (P30) can effectively reduce the total soot by approximately 68% in comparison with pure diesel.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Piston Bowl Geometry for a Low Emission Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2056
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided design optimization was conducted for the piston bowl geometry for a heavy-duty diesel engine. The optimization goal was to minimize engine-out NOx emissions without sacrificing engine peak power and thermal efficiency. The CFD model was validated with experiments and the combustion system optimization was conducted under three selected operating conditions representing low speed, maximum torque, and rated power. A hundred piston bowl shapes were generated, of which 32 shapes with 3 spray angles for each shape were numerically analyzed and one optimized design of piston bowl geometry with spray angle was selected. On average, the optimized combustion system decreased nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 17% and soot emissions by 41% without compromising maximum engine power and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Optimal Speed Profile for Minimum Vibration during Engine Start Using Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle Approach

2019-11-04
2019-01-5026
An imperceptible engine start is critical to the acceptance of hybrid vehicles. This paper focusses on an optimal control problem that tries to reduce vibration during engine start. Efforts are made to obtain the optimal speed trajectory that could cause minimum vibration during engine start. In the first section, the target diesel powertrain is introduced. A four cylinder diesel engine is coaxially paralleled with an ISG motor. The ISG motor serves as the engine starter and engine flywheel. Its dynamic model is established using crank-link dynamics. Secondly, an index is brought out to evaluate the severity of vibration. The cylinder pressure variation is the main cause of engine torque ripple, which in turn results in engine speed fluctuation. The square of the angular acceleration is chosen as the index of vibration. The index shows a positive relation of cylinder pressure in terms of amplitude.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Reducing DPF Size Using Low Ash Lubricant Oil

2018-09-10
2018-01-1760
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is necessary for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Many studies have demonstrated that the lubricant derived ash has a significant effect on DPF pressure drop and engine fuel economy, and this effect becomes more and more severe with the increasing of operating hours of the DPF because the ash accumulated in the DPF cannot be removed by regeneration. It is reported that most of the DPFs operated with more ash than soot in the filter for more than three quarters of the time during its lifetime [1]. In order to mitigate this problem, the original engine manufacturers (OEM) tend to use an oversized DPF for the engine. However, it will increase the costs of the DPF and reduce the compactness of the engine aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of a Magnetorheological Fluid Damper with Multi-Accumulator during Mode Shifting

2019-04-02
2019-01-0856
In a monotube magnetorheological fluid damper (MRFD), there usually exists a compensation chamber with designated initial gas pressure. This enclosed compensation chamber works as an air spring to some degree to provide force to the working piston. In this work, in order to extend the external damping force range and improve the controlling efficiency, a structure of MRFD with three additional accumulators is proposed. These additional accumulators are connected to the atmosphere through an air pump and the compensation chamber with a barometric valve. The external damping force range thus can be rapidly adjusted through mode shifting with this configuration. A mathematical model of this damper with coupled effects between the air and the magnetorheological fluid (MRF) is developed. Comparing the bench tests results with some simulation outcomes, the simulation model of this MRFD is validated.
Technical Paper

Mixing Effects of Early Injection in Diesel Spray Using LES Model with Different Subgrid Scale Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-1111
Early injection timing is an effective measure of pre-mixture formation for diesel low-temperature combustion. Three algebraic subgrid models (Smagorinsky model, dynamic Smagorinsky model and WALE model) and one-equation kinetic energy turbulent model using modified TAB breakup model (MTAB model) have been implemented into KIVA3V code to make a detailed large eddy simulation of the atomization and evaporation processes of early injection timing in a constant volume chamber and a Ford high-speed direct-injection diesel engine. The results show that the predictive vapor mass fraction and liquid penetration using LES is in good agreement with the experiment results. In combustion chamber, the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity using LES are less than with the RANS models, and following the increasing time, the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity also increase and are concentrated on the spray area.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Ignition of a Single Lubricating Oil Droplet in Premixed Combustible Mixture at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0298
The ignition of lubricating oil droplet has been proved to be the main factor for pre-ignition and the following super-knock in turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. In this paper, the ignition process of lubricating oil droplet in combustible ambient gaseous mixture was investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The pre-ignition induction by oil droplet of the ambient gaseous mixture was analyzed under different initial droplet volume and effective temperature conditions. The oil droplet was suspended on a tungsten fiber in the combustion chamber and the ignition process was recorded by a high-speed camera through the quartz window mounted at the end of the combustion chamber. The pressure traces were also obtained by a sensor in order to get the ignition delay and analyze the combustion process in detail.
Journal Article

Investigation of Flow Structure in a Turbocharger Turbine under Pulsating Flow Conditions

2008-06-23
2008-01-1691
A three-dimensional numerical investigation into aerodynamic feature of the turbocharger turbine under pulsating flow conditions is conducted in this paper. Dual time stepping approach is applied to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, while the Jameson central scheme is brought in for spatial discretization, and Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is employed in order to get good viscous resolution, accuracy and computing efficiency. The quasi-steady and unsteady performance of the turbine is given and compared. Five blade passage cross sections are chosen to analyze the structure of the secondary flow at 4 key instants. The developments of different vortex, especially the tip leakage vortex, passage vortex are discussed. The results have shown that the unsteady performance deviates substantially from quasi-steady performance, and the secondary flow structure varies tremendously under the pulsating flow conditions.
Technical Paper

Integrated System Simulation for Turbocharged IC Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1640
An integrated simulation platform for turbocharged internal combustion engines has been developed. Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes are integrated into the system to model the turbocharging circuit, gas circuit, in-cylinder circuit, coolant and oil circuits. As the turbocharger is a critical factor for the IC engine, a turbocharger through-flow model based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations has been developed and added in the integrated platform. Compared with the traditional MAP method, the through-flow model can solve the problems of transient matching and lack of numerous experimental maps during the pre-prototype engine design. Partial systems in the integrated platform, such as the in-cylinder flow and combustion circuit, can be modeled by 3-D CFD codes for the investigation of the detailed flow patterns.
Technical Paper

Instantaneous PLII and OH* Chemiluminescence Study on Wide Distillation Fuels, PODEn and Ethanol Blends in a Constant Volume Vessel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0340
The combustion characteristics and soot emissions of three types of fuels were studied in a high pressure and temperature vessel. In order to achieve better volatility, proper cetane number and high oxygen content, the newly designed WDEP fuel was proposed and investigated. It is composed of wide distillation fuel (WD), PODE3-6 mixture (PODEn) and ethanol. For comparison, the test on WD and the mixture of PODEn-ethanol (EP) are also conducted. OH* chemiluminescence during the combustion was measured and instantaneous PLII was also applied to reveal the soot distribution. Abel transformation was adopted to calculate the total soot of axisymmetric flame. The results show that WDEP has similar ignition delays and flame lift-off lengths to those of WD at 870-920 K. But the initial ignition locations of WDEP flame in different cycles were more concentrated, particularly under the condition of low oxygen atmosphere.
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