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Technical Paper

The Impact of Injector Deposits on Spray and Particulate Emission of Advanced Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle

2016-10-17
2016-01-2284
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have developed rapidly in recent years driven by fuel efficiency and consumption requirements, but face challenges such as injector deposits and particulate emissions compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. While the mechanisms of GDI injector deposits formation and that of particulate emissions have been respectively revealed well, the impact of GDI injector deposits and their relation to particulate emissions have not yet been understood very well through systematic approach to investigate vehicle emissions together with injector spray analysis. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on a GDI vehicle produced by a Chinese Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and an optical spray test bench to determine the impact of injector deposits on spray and particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

The Impact of GDI Injector Deposits on Engine Combustion and Emission

2017-10-08
2017-01-2248
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is now widely used due to its high fuel efficiency and low CO2 emissions. However, particulate emissions pose one challenge to GDI technology, particularly in the presence of fuel injector deposits. In this paper, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine in the Chinese market was selected and operated at 2000rpm and 3bar BMEP condition for 55 hours to accumulate injector deposits. The engine spark timing, cylinder pressure, combustion duration, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), gaseous pollutants which include total hydro carbon (THC), NOx (NO and NO2) and carbon dioxide (CO), and particulate emissions were measured before and after the injector fouling test at eight different operating conditions. Test results indicated that mild injector fouling can result in an effect on engine combustion and emissions despite a small change in injector flow rate and pulse width.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter for Active Regeneration Process Using Secondary Fuel Injection

2017-10-08
2017-01-2287
Advanced exhaust after-treatment technology is required for heavy-duty diesel vehicles to achieve stringent Euro VI emission standards. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most efficient system that is used to trap the particulate matter (PM), and particulate number (PN) emissions form diesel engines. The after-treatment system used in this study is catalyzed DPF (CDPF) downstream of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) with secondary fuel injection. Additional fuel is injected upstream of DOC to enhance exothermal heat which is needed to raise the CDPF temperature during the active regeneration process. The objective of this research is to numerically investigate soot loading and active regeneration of a CDPF on a heavy-duty diesel engine. In order to improve the active regeneration performance of CDPF, several factors are investigated in the study such as the effect of catalytic in filter wall, soot distribution form along filter wall, and soot loads.
Technical Paper

Potential Fuel Consumption Improvement Analysis for Integrated Starter Generator System Base on the New European Drive-cycle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1570
A conventional vehicle with gasoline engine was tested on a chassis dynamometer over the new European drive-cycle (NEDC). The distributions of the engine speed and power, the throttle positions during the drive cycle are analyzed. Engine idling, acceleration and deceleration take an important proportion in the drive cycle. If engine idling is instead by engine stop, the fuel consumption will be improved by 2.27%. In an Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) system, with the assist of the starter/generator, transient operation of the engine will decrease, which reduces fuel consumption by 6%. Fuel economy will be also improved by braking regeneration and restricting operating points to an optimized region, the details are not discussed in this paper. To reduce fuel consumption further, the region where engine usually runs in urban traffic, should be paid more attention to while engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Reducing DPF Size Using Low Ash Lubricant Oil

2018-09-10
2018-01-1760
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is necessary for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Many studies have demonstrated that the lubricant derived ash has a significant effect on DPF pressure drop and engine fuel economy, and this effect becomes more and more severe with the increasing of operating hours of the DPF because the ash accumulated in the DPF cannot be removed by regeneration. It is reported that most of the DPFs operated with more ash than soot in the filter for more than three quarters of the time during its lifetime [1]. In order to mitigate this problem, the original engine manufacturers (OEM) tend to use an oversized DPF for the engine. However, it will increase the costs of the DPF and reduce the compactness of the engine aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Mission-based Design Space Exploration for Powertrain Electrification of Series Plugin Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck

2018-04-03
2018-01-1027
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are essential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, when analyzing different segments of the transportation industry, for example, public transportation or different sizes of delivery trucks and how the HEV are used, it is clear that one powertrain may not be optimal in all situations. Choosing a hybrid powertrain architecture and proper component sizes for different applications is an important task to find the optimal trade-off between fuel economy, drivability, and vehicle cost. However, exploring and evaluating all possible architectures and component sizes is a time-consuming task. A search algorithm, using Gaussian Processes, is proposed that simultaneously explores multiple architecture options, to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Neutral-Idle Shudder Phenomenon in an Automatic Transmission System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1128
Neutral-idle strategy has been applied for years to improve the fuel consumption of automatic transmission cars. The updated demand is the use of expanded slipping control strategy for further improvement of the transmission efficiency and response speed. However, one major drawback of the continuous slipping clutches is the high tendency to produce shudder or low frequency variation. In this research, a special neutral-idle shudder phenomenon is presented. This special shudder is not only related to slipping clutches but also related to the vibration and structure of the powertrain system. Simulations and experiments are conducted to give an insight view of this phenomenon. The analysis reveals that this special shudder is caused by both torsional vibration of the driveline and rigid-body vibration of the powertrain system. A positive feedback loop between those two kinds of vibrations leads to this special neutral-idle shudder.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Liquid Fuel Spray and Combustion with Gradually Varying Grid

2013-10-14
2013-01-2634
In this work, large eddy simulation (LES) with a K-equation subgrid turbulent kinetic energy model is implemented into the CFD code KIVA3V to study the features of liquid fuel spray and combustion using gradually varying grid in a constant volume chamber. The characteristic time-scale combustion model (CTC) incorporating a turbulent timescale is adopted to predict the combustion process and the SHELL auto-ignition model is used to predict auto-ignition. Combustion is also simulated using Parallel Detailed Chemistry with Lu's n-heptane reduced mechanism (58 species), which has been added into the KIVA3V-LES code. The computational results are compared with Sandia experimental data for non-reacting and reacting cases. As a result, LES can capture the complex structure of the spray and temperature distribution as well as the trend of ignition delay and flame lift-off length variations. Better results are obtained using the Parallel Detailed Chemistry than the CTC model.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mass Distribution of Battery and Occupant on Crash Response of Small Lightweight Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0575
Small lightweight electric vehicle (SLEV) is an approach for compensating low energy density of the current battery. However, small lightweight vehicle presents technical challenges to crash safety design. One issue is that mass of battery pack and occupants is a significant portion of vehicle's total weight, and therefore, the mass distribution has great influence on crash response. This paper presents a parametric analysis using finite element modeling. We first build LS-DYNA model of a two-seater SLEV with curb weight of 600 kg. The model has no complex components and can provide reasonable crash pulses under full frontal rigid barrier crash loading and offset deformable barrier (ODB) crash loading. For given mass of battery pack and one occupant (the driver), different battery layouts, representing different combinations of center of gravity and moment of inertia of the whole vehicle, are analyzed for their influences on the crash responses under the two frontal crash loadings.
Technical Paper

Incompressible Flow Computations Around Vehicle Bodies Using Unstructured Hybrid Grids

2002-03-04
2002-01-0598
A hybrid unstructured Navier-Stokes method is presented for the simulation of the incompressible turbulent flows around vehicle bodies. The hybrid grid system is composed of a structured or semistructured grid for the near-wall viscous region, and an unstructured grid for the remainder of the computational domain. By using prismatic cells, the number of cells in the boundary-layer region becomes approximately one-third of the tetrahedral grid. And the laminated grid rather than the tetrahedral grid is more suitable in the boundary-layer region for accurately computing the viscous terms. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved on the hybrid grid by a cell-vertex, central differencing finite volume method. The numerical accuracy of the present method is discussed by comparing with the experimental data for the cases of flows around a car model at different ground clearances.
Journal Article

High Speed Imaging Study on the Spray Characteristics of Dieseline at Elevated Temperatures and Back Pressures

2014-04-01
2014-01-1415
Dieseline combustion as a concept combines the advantages of gasoline and diesel by offline or online blending the two fuels. Dieseline has become an attractive new compression ignition combustion concept in recent years and furthermore an approach to a full-boiling-range fuel. High speed imaging with near-parallel backlit light was used to investigate the spray characteristics of dieseline and pure fuels with a common rail diesel injection system in a constant volume vessel. The results were acquired at different blend ratios, and at different temperatures and back pressures at an injection pressure of 100MPa. The penetrations and the evaporation states were compared with those of gasoline and diesel. The spray profile was analyzed in both area and shape with statistical methods. The effect of gasoline percentage on the evaporation in the fuel spray was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Heat Generation Mechanism and Failure Analysis of Shock Absorber

2015-04-14
2015-01-0607
This paper proposes a theoretical model to interpret the heat generation mechanism and thermal failure of shock absorber. For a common structure of double-tube shock absorber, all frictions between two contacting components of shock absorber are calculated particularly. The heat generation mechanism and heat distribution can be explained with the theoretical model. Thermal failure is a recurrent malfunction for traditional shock absorbers, which leads to shorten the service lives of vehicle components. Heat generation experiments are accomplished to validate the thermal degeneration of shock absorber. So this study is meaningful to develop a new system of vibration attenuation with satisfying reliability, which is essential to improve the riding comfort and handling stability of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Analysis and Optimizing of a Heavy Duty Dual Motor Coaxial Series-Parallel Hybrid Lorry under C-WTVC

2017-10-08
2017-01-2359
Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with parallel configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series mode, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption limits and calculation method of the third stage will be introduced in detail. Then, the quasi-static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC (China worldwide transient vehicle cycle) are built. The control strategies are designed based on engine and motor performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lean Mixture Combustion at Ultra-High Compression Ratios in a Rapid Compression Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1422
In order to meet increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations, more attentions are paid to improve engine efficiency. A large amount of energy-saving technologies have been applied in automotive field especially in gasoline engines. It is well known that lean burn and ultra-high compression ratio technologies are two basic and important methods to increase efficiency. In this paper, a rapid compression machine was employed to study combustion process of lean iso-octane mixture at ultra-high compression ratios (16 to 19:1). Regardless of flammability of the mixture, spark was triggered at the timing right after the end of compression, then, the flame propagation and/or auto-ignition can be recorded using high-speed photography simultaneously. The effects of equivalence ratio (φ), compression ratio (ε), dilution ratio, and effective temperature (Teff) on the combustion process was investigated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter with Exhaust Fuel Injection System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1496
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an effective technology for particulate matter (PM) and particle number (PN) reduction. On heavy-duty diesel engines, the passive regeneration by Diesel Oxidation catalysts (DOC) and catalyzed DPFs (CDPF) is widely used for its simplicity and low cost, which is generally combined with the active regeneration of exhaust fuel injection. This study investigated a DOC-CDPF system with exhaust fuel injection upstream of the DOC. The system was integrated with a 7-liter diesel engine whose engine-out PM emission was below the Euro IV level and tested on an engine dynamometer. PM and PN concentrations were measured based on the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP), and the number/size spectrum for particles was obtained by a Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS). The filtration efficiency of DPF on PN was higher than 99% in ESC test, while the efficiency on PM was only 58%.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Numerical Interpretation on the Temperature Field of DPF during Active Regeneration with Hydrocarbon Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-1257
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is indispensable for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Both the peak temperature and the maximum temperature gradient of the DPF during active regeneration should be well controlled in order to enhance the reliability and durability of the filter. In this paper, the temperature field of the DPF during active regeneration with hydrocarbon (HC) injection was investigated with engine bench tests and numerical simulation. For the experimental study, 24 thermocouples were inserted into the DPF channels to measure the inner temperature of the filter to capture its temperature field, and the circumferential, axial and radial distribution of the filter temperature was analyzed to understand the DPF temperature field behavior during active regeneration.
Journal Article

Experimental Studies on Viscoelasticity of Film Materials in Laminated Glass Sheets

2015-04-14
2015-01-0709
Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film and SentryGlas® Plus (SGP) film have been widely used in automotive windshield and architecture curtain serving as protective interlayer materials. Viscoelasticity is the unique property of such film materials, which can contribute to improving impact resistance and energy absorbing characteristics of laminated glass. In this study, the uniaxial tensile creep and stress relaxation tests are conducted to investigate the viscoelasticity of PVB and SGP films used in laminated glass. Firstly, tensile creep and stress relaxation tests of PVB film (0.76mm) and SGP film with three thickness (0.89mm, 1.14mm and 1.52mm) are conducted using Instron universal testing machine to obtain creep and stress relaxation curves. Afterwards, both viscoelastic models (Burgers model, Maxwell-Weichert model) and empirical equations (Findley power law, Kohlrausch equation) are applied to simulate the creep and stress relaxation results.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum Adhesive Joints under Mixed-Mode Loading Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0105
In recent years, structural adhesives have rapidly become the preferred alternative to resistance spot welding in fabricating stronger, lighter aluminum connections. Connections inevitably undergo and must withstand complex quasi-static and/or dynamic loads during their service life. Therefore, understanding how loading conditions affect the mechanical behavior of adhesive joints is vital to their design and the advancement of structural safety. Quasi-static and dynamic tests are performed to analyze both the strength and failure modes of aluminum 6062 substrates bonded by an adhesive (Darbond EP-1506) for an array of loading directions. An Arcan test device, which enables application of mixed-mode loads ranging from pure peel (mode I) to pure shear (mode II) to the adhesive layer, is employed in quasi-static testing. A self-designed medium-speed test machine is utilized to perform dynamic testing.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Improving Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) Combustion at Medium and High Load by Reducing Compression Ratio

2017-03-28
2017-01-0765
This research focuses on the potential of Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) combustion meeting the Euro V emission standard on a heavy-duty multi-cylinder engine using a simple after-treatment system. However, in our previous studies, it was found that the gasoline ratio was limited in HCII by the over-high compression ratio (CR). In this paper, the effects of reducing CR on the performances of HCII at medium and high loads were explored by experimental methods. It was found that by reducing CR from 18:1 to 16:1 the peak in-cylinder pressure and the peak pressure rise rate were effectively reduced and the gasoline ratio range could be obviously extended. Thus, the combustion and emission characteristics of HCII at medium and high loads were noticeably improved. Soot emissions can be significantly reduced because of the increase of premixed combustion ratio. The reduction could be over 50% especially at high load and high speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Energy Management and Design Optimization for a Power-Split, Heavy-Duty Truck

2017-10-08
2017-01-2450
Power-split configuration is highlighted as the most popular concept for full hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). However, the energy management and design of power-split heavy duty truck under Chinese driving conditions still need to be investigated. In this paper, the parametric design, a rule-based control strategy and an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) for the power-split heavy duty truck are presented. Besides, the influence of a penalty factor also discussed under ECMS algorithm. Meanwhile, two different methods to search the engine operation point have been proposed and the reason of different economy performance is presented by using energy flow chart. And the simulation results show both fuel consumption can satisfy the second phase fuel consumption standard and the third phase fuel consumption standard which will be implemented in 2020, under C-WTVC (Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle).
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