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Technical Paper

β-Carotene Content of Dehydrated Hydroponic Sweetpotatoes Grown under Different Lighting Conditions

2007-07-09
2007-01-3051
The sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. LAM.) is a versatile and underexploited food crop. Consumption of sweetpotato based processed foods provide β-carotene, which is the major precursor of vitamin A. The sweetpotato has the potential to provide antioxidants that may help reduce the radiation risks astronauts face while in space. Therefore the objective of this experiment was to evaluate β-carotene in dehydrated hydroponic sweetpotato cultivars. Hydroponic cultivars WHATLEY/LORETAN and NCC-58 were grown with and without 7-10 μmole of light. WHATLEY/LORETAN contained the highest amount of β-carotene content average of 31 μg/100g in dehydrated hydroponic sweetpotatoes compared to NCC-58 with 18.5 μg/100g.
Technical Paper

Using Sweetpotato Peels in Breadmaking as a Source of Dietary Fiber for Space Diets

2008-06-29
2008-01-2177
The study incorporated sweetpotato peels (SPP) in hard red spring wheat (HRSW) bread and investigated its impact on bread quality. Breads were formulated using blanched/dehydrated SPP (BDSPPB) and dehydrated SPP (DSPPB).Proximate composition, dietary fiber, β-carotene, thiamine, loaf volume, color and consumer acceptance of the breads were evaluated. Moisture content was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the BDSPPB than the DSPPB and CTRL bread. The BDSPPB contained two times more total dietary fiber than the CTRL. Soluble fiber in BDSPPB and DSPPB was threefold that of the CTRL bread. SPP may have potential usage in bread-making for space and consumer diets.
Technical Paper

Responses of Zucker Fatty Rats to a Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] Starch Syrup

2008-06-29
2008-01-2175
Astronauts experience body mass loss while in a microgravity environment. The consumption of sweetpotatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] can provide nutritional stability to astronauts. The objective of this study was to incorporate sweetpotato starch syrup into rats' diets and measure metabolic responses over a five week period. Twenty-four zucker fatty rats were given four treatments (glucose, corn, maple, and sweetpotato syrup) to determine glycemic index values and then randomly assigned into three groups: standard diet; sweetpotato diet; corn syrup diet. Rats assigned the sweetpotato diet exhibited significantly (P<0.05) lower postprandial glucose peaks and triglyceride levels as compared to the standard.
Technical Paper

Protein Profiles and Morphological Structures of Newly Developed Sweetpotato Cultivars [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]

2004-07-19
2004-01-2301
Protein profiles and morphological characteristics of two newly developed sweetpotato varieties (TU-82-155 and J6/66) were compared to a commercial variety (Beauregard) using SDS-PAGE, and SEM, respectively. Under reducing and denatured conditions, electrophoresis displayed the major protein, sporamins, at 25 kDa, for all the three cultivars. No major variability in protein profile or morphological structures, among the sweetpotatoes, was observed. Presence of sporamin was established and total protein was higher in TU-82-155 on a dry weight basis. Starch granules were slightly larger and more sparsely distributed in J6/66.
Technical Paper

Preparation and Characterization of Sweetpotato Peels for use as Dietary Fiber Enhancement in Space Foods

2007-07-09
2007-01-3053
The study prepared and characterized sweetpotato peels (SPP) for use as a dietary fiber supplement in space foods. SPP were fresh, dehydrated, blanched/dehydrated, frozen/dehydrated, freeze-dried, and blanched/freeze-dried. Total fiber, β-carotene, water-, oil-holding and swelling capacity, moisture, ash, protein, water activity and vitamin C were measured. Fresh SPP had 7.8% total fiber, 5.2 and 2.6% being dietary (insoluble) and functional (soluble) fibers, respectively. The total fiber content of the dehydrated SPP was 33.7% with roughly 11% functional fiber. β-carotene contents for the SPP were 23,040, 17,280 and 16,860 µg/100 g for blanched/freeze-dried, blanched, freeze-dried SPP, respectively. The fresh peels contained 4,848 µg/100 g β-carotene. The water holding capacity of the blanched/freeze-dried, blanched and dehydrated SPP were 15.6±1.4, 13.9±0.4 and 11.1±0.6 g/g, respectively.
Technical Paper

Physicochemical and Viscometric Properties of a Sweetpotato Syrup

2003-07-07
2003-01-2620
The sweetpotato [Ipomoea (L.) Lam.] has approximately 90% carbohydrate of its dry matter, which makes it ideal for glucose syrup production. However, data regarding the isolation and use of sweetpotato starch (SPS) in syrup production are scanty. The objectives of this study were to: i) develop a syrup from SPS; and ii) determine the physicochemical (refractive index and color), and viscometric properties during storage of the sweetpotato syrup. SPS was isolated from Hillbilly variety field-grown sweetpotatoes. The SPS was rehydrated, heated to 102°C, treated with -amylase at 90°C for five hours, cooled, and further treated with glucoamylase at 62.5°C for 12 hours. The syrup was filtered, evaporated and cooled. The refractive index and color were measured. To determine the viscometric properties of the syrup during storage, the syrups were stored between 21±4°C (room temperature) and 4°C. An AR-2000 Rheometer was used to measure the viscometric properties of the syrup.
Technical Paper

Physicochemical Properties and Consumer Acceptance of Hydroponic Carrots (Daucus carota) in an Extended Screening Process

2006-07-17
2006-01-2068
This study compared the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of seven nutrient film technique (NFT) and eight microporous tube membrane nutrient delivery system (MTMS) grown hydroponic carrots. NFT-grown carrots had moisture contents range from 86.3–92.1% while the MTMS-grown carrots a range of 82.0–92.0%. β-carotene contents for the NFT-carrots ranged between 2,030–9,900 μg/100 g and for the MTMS-carrots between 2,977–10,488 μg/100 g. Royal Chantenay-NFT- and Mignon-MTMS-grown were the lightest in color, whereas, Mignon-NFT, and Little Finger-MTMS were the darkest. Paramex MTMS-grown was the most acceptable cultivar to the consumers. Paramex, Kinko and Mignon have good potential to be considered for further screening.
Technical Paper

Management of the Physical / Chemical Parameters of Solid Biomass Degradation Using a Data Acquisition System

2000-07-10
2000-01-2470
An automated Data Acquisition System (DAS) for managing and controlling an aerobic biodegradation process of solid biomass has been developed. The system employs a personal computer equipped with a data acquisition card and a visual basic software (LabVIEW). The DAS was integrated with the physical / chemical hardware (a bioreactor with its auxiliary equipment) through the necessary sensing devices. These sensing devices include in-line electrical-conductivity (EC), pH, and temperature probes. A flow sensor was inserted in the circulating sampling line to ensure that the in-line manifold does not contain air bubbles or clogged with fine particles. A gas analyzer was used to sample off-gases from the bioreactor to measure and record the change in the CO2 and O2 levels. The data acquisition system is capable of controlling the pH level inside the bioreactor by activating acid or base metering pumps.
Technical Paper

Influence of α-Amylase on the Physical Properties and Consumer Acceptability of Sweetpotato Starch Syrup

2005-07-11
2005-01-3113
The sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) is a candidate crop for future space missions. However, sweetpotatoes are highly perishable and difficult to store, therefore, novel avenues for processing the surplus roots into value-added products that are commercially viable are needed. Technology was developed on a laboratory scale for the production of sweetpotato syrup and: i) the effect of varying levels of α-amylase on syrup quality determined; and ii) the storage stability and consumer acceptance of the syrup evaluated. Three levels of thermostable bacterial α-amylases (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 mL) were used for conversion of sweetpotato starch (SPS) into glucose syrup. The 1.5 mL α-amylase-treated was dropped from the experiment because there was no hydrolysis. The enzymatic conversion of SPS into glucose was significantly higher (P<0.05) for the 4.5 mL α-amylase-treated compared to the 1.5 and 3.0 mL levels.
Technical Paper

Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds from Model Sweetpotato Products Using Different Analytical Methods

2006-07-17
2006-01-2072
This study determined volatile emission from model sweetpotato products using different evaluation methods. Sublimation method and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) coupled to Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to assess the volatiles from a Ready-to-eat-breakfast cereal (RTEBC). TGA/FTIR, and Solid-Phase Microextraction Method (SPME) and gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to characterize volatiles in sweetpotato breads (SPB). FTIR peaks at 3500 (alcohols), 2400 (carbon dioxide), and 1900 (ketones) were identified in the RTEBC. For SPME/GC-MS measures, Dimethyl Phthalate (33±0.51), Phenol (39±0.52) and Diazene (48±0.280) were observed in doughs made using different cultivars.
Journal Article

Identification of Styrene and Hexanol During Baking of Sweetpotato Bread in a Closed Chamber

2008-06-29
2008-01-2176
The objective of the study was to quantify styrene and hexanol generated during the baking of a model sweetpotato bread (SPB) using three different sorbent based tubes. Volatiles were trapped from the ambient air and Gerstel TDU tubes packed with PDMS foam, Tenax and Carbopack B. The average mass of styrene from Tenax absorption tubes was 26.99 μg. The average mass of hexanol desorbed from the Tenax absorbent tubes was 6.2 μg. Considering the low amount of styrene and hexanol emitted from the SPB, it is believe that it is not enough to pose harm to the human body.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sweetpotatoes Grown with and without Ryegrass Cover Crop

2007-07-09
2007-01-3048
This study compared nutritional and physical properties of Beauregard sweetpotatoes grown without, A2, and with, A4, cover crop (ryegrass). Moisture, β-carotene, ash, ascorbic acid and protein contents, color, and texture were determined. A2 Sweetpotatoes had moisture contents of 75.2±1.69% verse 76.3±1.78% for A4. Ash was about 0.7% for all the sweetpotatoes. Average β-carotene for A2 was 35300 µg/100 g while that for A4 was 36100 µg/100g. Ascorbic acid for A2 was 13.6±4.02 versus 17.5±4.12 mg/100 g for A4. No significant nutritional and physical differences were found between A2 and A4 sweetpotatoes.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Nutritional Properties and Consumer Acceptance of Hydroponic Carrots (Daucus carota L.) Grown Under Different Light Intensities and CO2 Concentrations

2008-06-29
2008-01-2173
This study evaluated three groups of four hydroponic carrots grown in different lighting and CO2 levels. Moisture, β-carotene, ash, color, texture and consumer acceptance were assessed. For Group I, II and III, moisture content ranges were 81.9-92.4%, 81.9-91.2%, 85.4-89.2%, respectively. β-Carotene content ranged from 3295-10486, 3978-14664, and 5802-21360 μg/100 g for Group I, II and III, respectively. Ash ranged from 0.5 to 1.7%. Color L* value range was 53.7-62.2. Consumers moderately liked the color and slightly liked the crunchiness of the carrots tested. Carrots under low light generally had higher moisture content. However, the other measures were variable.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Carrots (Daucus carota L.) Grown in Two Hydroponic Systems for Inclusion in NASA's Advanced Food Systems

2005-07-11
2005-01-3114
In contribution towards the screening of eight hydroponically grown carrots, some biochemical, physical and sensory properties of the roots were evaluated. The carrots had been grown under two nutrient delivery systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and Microporous Tube Membrane nutrient delivery System (MTMS). Biochemical measures conducted included, moisture, fat and β-carotene contents, and the physical measures were texture and color. For the NFT- and MTMS-grown carrots, Nantes Touchan (91%) and Nanco Hybrid (87%), respectively, had the highest moisture contents. Fat contents for all the cultivars grown in both systems ranged from 0.1 to 0.4%. In the NFT-grown carrots, Baby Spike and Juwaroot had the highest and lowest β-carotene contents, 8777 and 248 µg/100 g, respectively. For the MTMS-grown carrots, Thumbelina had the highest β-carotene content (7840 µg/100 g). However, the lowest β-carotene value for the MTMS-grown carrots was 3059 µg/100 g.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Amylose/Amylopectin, Dietary Fiber, Sugar and Vitamin C in Two Processed and Unprocessed Hydroponic Sweetpotato Cultivars

2008-06-29
2008-01-2174
Spaceflight introduces the human body to extremes not normally experienced in daily life to supplement the body's natural protections for some of the negative effects; important nutrients must be included in an astronaut's diet. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate chemical properties (amylose/amylopectin, dietary fiber, sugars and vitamin C) in two processed and unprocessed hydroponic sweetpotato cultivars. In both cultivars dietary fiber ranged from 0.4% to 3%. Amylose/Amylopectin ratio in both cultivars ranged from 1/99% to 14/86%. Glucose and sucrose were the dominant sugars in both cultivars. Vitamin C was reduced 35-50% when processed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Storage on the Physicochemical Properties of a Sweetpotato Beverage Produced Through Centrifugation

2006-07-17
2006-01-2073
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage on the physicochemical properties of a sweetpotato beverage (SWPB) produced through centrifugation. The SWPBs were formulated using 19, 22, and 26% pureed sweetpotato and other ingredients. Each SWPB was centrifuged at 3,500 rpm for 10 minutes. The beverages were stored for 14 days at 5°C. Colony forming units were enumerated every 48h. SWPBs were diluted to 10-5 and distributed on Petrifilm plates in duplicate. ºBrix, color, pH, and ascorbic acid were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether there were differences among the means for ºBrix, color, pH, and ascorbic acid. Negligible microbial growth (0-42 CFU/mL) was observed for the beverages during storage. Solids contents in the SWPBs were constant, ranging from 15.2±0.3 to 15.3± 0.7. Lightness values were from 62.7, 63.3, and 63.9, for the 19%, 22% and 26% SWPB, respectively. The mean pH of the beverages ranged from 4.2 to 4.3.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computer-Aided Tool for System Description, Modeling, Analysis and Integration for Screening Planetary Habitation Alternatives

2006-07-17
2006-01-2053
The objective of this work is to develop a computer-aided tool that enables the development, screening, modeling, analysis, and integration of physico-chemical and bio-regenerative components of Advanced Life Support System (ALS) system. The tool has the following four main components that are interrelated and automatically integrated: Process configuration. Particular emphasis is given to food production (e.g., syrup and flour from sweet potato, starch from sweet potato, breakfast cereal from sweet potato). Modeling and analysis for mass and energy tracking and budgeting System integration (both functional as well material and energy integration) Metrics evaluation (e.g., Equivalent System Mass (ESM)) Modeling and analysis is achieved by developing material- and energy-budgeting models. Various forms of mass and energy are tracked through fundamental as well as semi-empirical models. These models include kinetics, mass transfer, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics.
Technical Paper

Development and Characterization of Paper Products from Dried Sweetpotato Stems, Peanut Shells and Soybean Pods

1998-07-13
981563
A Tuskegee University research team has developed paper from inedible sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas), peanut (Arachis hypogea), and soybean (Glycine max) plant residues for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS) for sustaining human life in space. The objective was to develop papers that could be used as a media for inocula and characterize their physical and mechanical properties. The tensile fracture behavior, micromorphological analysis, and fracture surface examination of peanut shells, sweetpotato stems, soybean pods, and a combination of sweetpotato stems (60%) / peanut shells (40%) papers were also investigated. The ultimate strength was 2.6 MPa, 9.2 MPa, 7.1 MPa and 6.5 MPa, respectively. All samples performed well as a media inocula.
Technical Paper

Consumer Acceptance of Entrées Substituted with Texturized Soy Protein

2003-07-07
2003-01-2619
Soybean (Glycine max) is a candidate crop that has been selected to be grown on long-duration planetary missions by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The nutritive composition of the soybean is 38% protein, 18% oil (.5% lecithin), 15% soluble carbohydrates (sucrose, stachyose, raffinose, others), 15% insoluble carbohydrates (dietary fiber), and 14% moisture, ash, and other substances. Several reports have indicated the effects of soy-rich foods on the deterrence of estrogen-associated cancers, cardiovascular diseases, decrease of climacteric symptoms, and prevention of osteoporosis. In spite of its nutritive value, and seemingly popularity, direct consumer consumption of soy remains limited.
Technical Paper

Comparative Treatments of Organically Grown Sweet Potatoes for Use in Space Foods

2007-07-09
2007-01-3052
This study evaluated moisture, ash and color in sweetpotato varieties: [Beauregard (BEAU), Porto Rican (PR) and Nugget (N)]. The experimental design was a randomized-complete-block with four replications, four treatments and three varieties. Treatments included control without fertilizer (CTRL), broiler litter (BL), Crimson-clover (CLOV) and NPK fertilizers. BEAU had the lowest L values, and was darker in color than PR and N. Mean moisture content for the four groups was 60.1± 6.7% CTRL; 54.7± 7.9% BL; 60.9±5.1% CLOV and 63.2± 6.1% for NPK. Mean ash contents were: 2.5± 0.1; 3.5± 0.3 and 2.1± 0.02 for BEA, PR and N, respectively.
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