The Environmental Implications of Manganese as an Alternate Antiknock
Methylcyclopentadienylmanganese tricarbonyl (MMT) while originally marketed in the late 50's and early 60's as a secondary antiknock to leaded fuels, is presently being marketed as a primary antiknock targeted for the EPA required lead-free gasoline grade tailored for use in catalyst-equipped vehicles. This paper reviews and discusses new information related to the effect of manganese gasoline additives on the performance of catalysts, regulated emissions, and several currently unregulated emissions. In addition, estimates of human exposures to automotive-generated manganese particulate and the toxicological characteristics of manganese are discussed as they related to an assessment of the potential public health consequences should manganese additives come into widespread use. EPA's position regarding the use of manganese additives is presented and discussed.