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Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Potential Aerodynamic Drag Reductions from Trailer Aerodynamic Component Combinations

2015-09-29
2015-01-2884
The use of devices to reduce aerodynamic drag on large trailers and save fuel in long-haul, over-the-road freight operations has spurred innovation and prompted some trucking fleets to use them in combinations to achieve even greater gains in fuel-efficiency. This paper examines aerodynamic performance and potential drag reduction benefits of using trailer aerodynamic components in combinations based upon wind tunnel test data. Representations of SmartWay-verified trailer aerodynamic components were tested on a one-eighth scale model of a class 8 sleeper tractor and a fifty three foot, van trailer model. The open-jet wind tunnel employed a rolling floor to reduce floor boundary layer interference. The drag impacts of aerodynamic packages are evaluated for both van and refrigerated trailers. Additionally, the interactions between individual aerodynamic devices is investigated.
Technical Paper

Trends in Alternate Measures of Vehicle Fuel Economy

1986-10-01
861426
This paper develops and discusses the 1978-85 time trends in alternative measures of vehicle fuel economy. Nine alternative measures are presented ranging from ton-miles per gallon to menu-weighted performance adjusted miles per gallon. For each alternative measure, trends for important groups of manufacturers are presented. Ail of the trends in alternative measures are compared to the percent improvement implied by the original 1978 and 1985 passenger car average fuel economy standards (AFES).
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2005-04-11
2005-01-1755
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Video

Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

2012-06-18
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles ?with and without? the technologies being evaluated.
Journal Article

Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

2012-04-16
2012-01-1343
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles “with and without” the technologies being evaluated.
Technical Paper

Recommended I/M Short Test Procedures for the 1990's: Six Alternatives

1991-02-01
910338
This report describes in detail new test procedures designed to minimize test variability, and the resulting false failures of new technology vehicles. There are currently six promulgated test procedures. The new procedures differ from the current ones in that they include controlled preconditioning, second chance testing, and sampling and score selecting algorithms. These are intended to minimize the variability in testing conditions and thereby reduce false failures of clean vehicles. High emitting vehicles which have been escaping detection with the current test procedures may continue to do so under the new ones. It is EPA's hope that these new procedures will improve the possibility of using more stringent cutpoints and non-idle test modes in the future to detect these high emitters by eliminating the additional false failures that would otherwise occur by instituting such measures under current procedures.
Technical Paper

Performance of Partial Flow Sampling Systems Relative to Full Flow CVS for Determination of Particulate Emissions under Steady-State and Transient Diesel Engine Operation

2002-05-06
2002-01-1718
The use of a partial flow sampling system (PFSS) to measure nonroad steady-state diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions is a technique for certification approved by a number of regulatory agencies around the world including the US EPA. Recently, there have been proposals to change future nonroad tests to include testing over a nonroad transient cycle. PFSS units that can quantify PM over the transient cycle have also been discussed. The full flow constant volume sampling (CVS) technique has been the standard method for collecting PM under transient engine operation. It is expensive and requires large facilities as compared to a typical PFSS. Despite the need for a cheaper alternative to the CVS, there has been a concern regarding how well the PM measured using a PFSS compared to that measured by the CVS. In this study, three PFSS units, including AVL SPC, Horiba MDLT, and Sierra BG-2 were investigated in parallel with a full flow CVS.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Fuel Economy… Trends Through 1984

1984-02-01
840499
This the twelfth in a series of Papers on trends in EPA fuel economy, concentrates as usual on the current Model Year (1984). Final Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) production volumes and MPG figures have been used to update the data bases through the 1982 Model Year. This paper is different from earlier papers in four ways: 1) manufacturer-supplied production forecasts have been adjusted for both model years 1983 and 1984. 2) sales weighted MPG values at the nameplate level of aggregation are presented. 3) much of the analysis is stratified at the Domestic/European/Japanese manufacturer level, and 4) fuel economy analysis for Light Duty Trucks is not included. Conclusions are presented on the trends in fuel economy of the fleet as a whole and for various classes of vehicles.
Technical Paper

On-road Testing and Characterization of Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0677
The potential discrepancy between the fuel economy shown on new vehicle labels and that achieved by consumers has been receiving increased attention of late. EPA has not modified its labeling procedures since 1985. It is likely possible that driving patterns in the U.S. have changed since that time. One possible modification to the labeling procedures is to incorporate the fuel economy measured over the emission certification tests not currently used in deriving the fuel economy label (i.e., the US06 high speed and aggressive driving test, the SC03 air conditioning test and the cold temperature test). This paper focuses on the US06 cycle and the possible incorporation of aggressive driving into the fuel economy label. As part of its development of the successor to the MOBILE emissions model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Modeling System (MOVES), EPA has developed a physically-based model of emissions and fuel consumption which accounts for different driving patterns.
Technical Paper

Nonroad Engine Activity Analysis and Transient Cycle Generation

1999-09-14
1999-01-2800
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has initiated Phase I of a regulatory program to control exhaust emissions of nonroad diesel engines over 37 kW. Central to any emissions regulation is the test procedure, which must include an appropriate test cycle. Based on actual in-use speed and estimated torque data collected from an agricultural tractor, a backhoe-loader, and a crawler tractor, three duty cycles were developed. Using an iterative process, comparison of chi-square statistical data was used to identify representative microtrips, segments of engine operation gathered during performance of selected activities. Representative microtrips for specific activities for a particular nonroad application were “strung” together to make up a test cycle. Before accepting the test cycle, data for the cycle was compared to statistical data used to characterize the raw data in an effort to validate that the cycle was representative of the raw data.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0413
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ).
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Trends Through 1986

1986-04-01
860366
This, the fourteenth in this series of papers, examines trends in fuel economy, technology usage and estimated 0 to 60 MPH acceleration time for model year 1986 passenger cars. Comparisons with previous year's data are made for the fleet as a whole and using three measures of vehicle/engine size: number of cylinders, EPA car class, and inertia weight class. Emphasis on vehicle performance and fuel metering has been expanded and analysis of individual manufacturers has been deemphasized; comparisons of the Domestic, European, and Japanese market sectors are given increased emphasis.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy… Trends thru 1983

1983-02-01
830544
This, the eleventh in a series of Papers on EPA fuel economy trends, emphasizes the current Model Year (1983) as usual, but also gives increased emphasis to trends in vehicle technology, including catalyst and transmission subclasses. Final “CAFE”* production volumes and MPG figures have been used to update the data bases through the 1980 Model Year, and an analytic method used in the past to allocate year-to-year fleet MPG changes to specific causes, such as weight mix shifts, has been reinstituted. Conclusions are presented on the relation between fuel economy and emission standards, catalyst types, and transmission types.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy …Trends through 1981

1981-02-01
810386
EPA new-model fuel economy figures are presented for passenger vehicles and light duty trucks (those with GVW ratings up to 8500 lbs). The 1981 models are emphasized, with some comparisons to prior years included. Reader familiarity with the EPA tests, data bases, and analytical methods is assumed. Principal two-way analyses include comparisons of domestic vs. import, gasoline vs. Diesel, and Federal (49-state) vs. California vehicles. Sales fractions for a number of vehicle and engine emission control design features are included. The principal finding is that increased use of newer vehicle and emission control technologies in 1981 has accompanied significant fuel economy gains in spite of the tougher 1981 emission standards.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy … Trends thru 1985

1985-05-01
850550
This, the thirteenth in a series of papers on trends in EPA fuel economy, covers both passenger cars and light trucks and concentrates on the current model year, 1985. It differs from previous papers in two ways: 1) Model years 1975, 1980 and 1985 are highlighted, with the model years in between these rarely discussed; 2) The progress of the industry, as a whole, in improving fuel economy since 1975 is emphasized, and individual manufacturer data are de-emphasized. Conclusions are presented on the trends in fuel economy of the car and light truck fleets; the Domestic, European and Japanese market sectors; and various vehicle classes.
Technical Paper

Light Duty Automotive Fuel Economy … Trends through 1982

1982-02-01
820300
EPA Fuel economy figures are presented for model year 1982 cars and light duty trucks. Comparisons with the MPG figures of prior years are included. Sales penetrations of various vehicle, engine, and emission control design features are given, and domestic cars' MPG characteristics are compared to that of imports', gasoline vehicle MPG is compared to Diesel MPG, and 49-states MPG is compared to California MPG. Usage of newer vehicle technologies is continuing to increase, leading to continued growth in fuel economy capability in spite of stringent emission standards.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Vehicle Exhaust Emissions of High Percentage Ethanol Blends

1995-02-01
950777
Six in-use vehicles were tested on a baseline gasoline and nine gasoline/ethanol blends to determine the effect of ethanol content in fuels on automotive exhaust emissions and fuel economy. The baseline gasoline was representative of average summer gasoline and served as the base from which the other fuels were blended. For the majority of the vehicles, total hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions as well as fuel economy decreased while NOx and acetaldehyde exhaust emissions increased as the ethanol content in the test fuel increased. Formaldehyde and carbon dioxide emissions were relatively unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The emission responses to the increased fuel oxygen levels were consistent with what would be expected from leaning-out the air/fuel ratio for a spark ignition engine. The results are shown graphically and a linear regression is performed utilizing the method of least squares to investigate statistically significant trends in the data.
Technical Paper

Inspection/Maintenance in the 1990's

1987-08-01
870621
In the 1990's there will be a different mix of vehicle technologies than existed in the late 1970's when inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programs were first mandated. These changes include the widespread use of “closed-loop” computer control of engine parameters and fuel injection. Several studies by EPA are examined to determine the effect of these changes on existing I/M programs and to investigate new methods of vehicle inspection. The report discusses the effectiveness of a standard idle emission test versus other inspection methods, the role of proper preconditioning, self-diagnostic trouble code checks as a method to identify high emitting vehicles, uncertainties in predicting tampering and misfueling rates for the future, problems with decentralized programs, and the effectiveness of I/M repairs in reducing vehicle emissions as measured on the Federal Test Procedure.
Technical Paper

In-Use Emissions of 1980 and 1981 Passenger Cars: Results of EPA Testing

1982-02-01
820975
This paper presents the results of several emission testing programs conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The test vehicles were primarily 1980 and 1981 passenger cars which were obtained at random from private owners. Some 1982 models were also tested. The 1328 vehicles were selected from the Los Angeles area as well as from a number of other low-altitude locations. The test sequence included the Federal Test Procedure, the Highway Fuel Economy Test and several short cycle tests. The primary purpose of the program was to gather information on current vehicles which could be used in calculations and projections of air quality and aid development of programs to improve it. The results of the program indicate that these vehicles are capable of maintaining low emission levels although high levels are also possible due to defects, deterioration, or tampering. Inspection/Maintenance programs are a feasible and effective means for correcting high levels when they occur.
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