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Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2005-04-11
2005-01-1755
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

Resistive Materials Applied to Quick Light-off Catalysts

1989-02-01
890799
The application of resistive materials as part of an exhaust emission control system is presented and discussed. The importance of cold start emissions is emphasized, and results are presented from experiments conducted with two different conductive materials. Most of the testing was conducted using methanol as the fuel, although some tests were run using gasoline-fueled vehicles.
Technical Paper

Recommended I/M Short Test Procedures for the 1990's: Six Alternatives

1991-02-01
910338
This report describes in detail new test procedures designed to minimize test variability, and the resulting false failures of new technology vehicles. There are currently six promulgated test procedures. The new procedures differ from the current ones in that they include controlled preconditioning, second chance testing, and sampling and score selecting algorithms. These are intended to minimize the variability in testing conditions and thereby reduce false failures of clean vehicles. High emitting vehicles which have been escaping detection with the current test procedures may continue to do so under the new ones. It is EPA's hope that these new procedures will improve the possibility of using more stringent cutpoints and non-idle test modes in the future to detect these high emitters by eliminating the additional false failures that would otherwise occur by instituting such measures under current procedures.
Technical Paper

Performance of Partial Flow Sampling Systems Relative to Full Flow CVS for Determination of Particulate Emissions under Steady-State and Transient Diesel Engine Operation

2002-05-06
2002-01-1718
The use of a partial flow sampling system (PFSS) to measure nonroad steady-state diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions is a technique for certification approved by a number of regulatory agencies around the world including the US EPA. Recently, there have been proposals to change future nonroad tests to include testing over a nonroad transient cycle. PFSS units that can quantify PM over the transient cycle have also been discussed. The full flow constant volume sampling (CVS) technique has been the standard method for collecting PM under transient engine operation. It is expensive and requires large facilities as compared to a typical PFSS. Despite the need for a cheaper alternative to the CVS, there has been a concern regarding how well the PM measured using a PFSS compared to that measured by the CVS. In this study, three PFSS units, including AVL SPC, Horiba MDLT, and Sierra BG-2 were investigated in parallel with a full flow CVS.
Technical Paper

On-road Testing and Characterization of Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0677
The potential discrepancy between the fuel economy shown on new vehicle labels and that achieved by consumers has been receiving increased attention of late. EPA has not modified its labeling procedures since 1985. It is likely possible that driving patterns in the U.S. have changed since that time. One possible modification to the labeling procedures is to incorporate the fuel economy measured over the emission certification tests not currently used in deriving the fuel economy label (i.e., the US06 high speed and aggressive driving test, the SC03 air conditioning test and the cold temperature test). This paper focuses on the US06 cycle and the possible incorporation of aggressive driving into the fuel economy label. As part of its development of the successor to the MOBILE emissions model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Modeling System (MOVES), EPA has developed a physically-based model of emissions and fuel consumption which accounts for different driving patterns.
Technical Paper

Nonroad Engine Activity Analysis and Transient Cycle Generation

1999-09-14
1999-01-2800
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has initiated Phase I of a regulatory program to control exhaust emissions of nonroad diesel engines over 37 kW. Central to any emissions regulation is the test procedure, which must include an appropriate test cycle. Based on actual in-use speed and estimated torque data collected from an agricultural tractor, a backhoe-loader, and a crawler tractor, three duty cycles were developed. Using an iterative process, comparison of chi-square statistical data was used to identify representative microtrips, segments of engine operation gathered during performance of selected activities. Representative microtrips for specific activities for a particular nonroad application were “strung” together to make up a test cycle. Before accepting the test cycle, data for the cycle was compared to statistical data used to characterize the raw data in an effort to validate that the cycle was representative of the raw data.
Journal Article

Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

2018-04-03
2018-01-0433
As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. This article presents the development and validation of a 48V lithium-ion battery model that will be integrated into EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model and that can also be used within Gamma Technologies, LLC (Westmont, IL) GT-DRIVE™ vehicle simulations. The battery model is a standard equivalent circuit model with the two-time constant resistance-capacitance (RC) blocks.
Technical Paper

Inspection/Maintenance in the 1990's

1987-08-01
870621
In the 1990's there will be a different mix of vehicle technologies than existed in the late 1970's when inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programs were first mandated. These changes include the widespread use of “closed-loop” computer control of engine parameters and fuel injection. Several studies by EPA are examined to determine the effect of these changes on existing I/M programs and to investigate new methods of vehicle inspection. The report discusses the effectiveness of a standard idle emission test versus other inspection methods, the role of proper preconditioning, self-diagnostic trouble code checks as a method to identify high emitting vehicles, uncertainties in predicting tampering and misfueling rates for the future, problems with decentralized programs, and the effectiveness of I/M repairs in reducing vehicle emissions as measured on the Federal Test Procedure.
Technical Paper

In-Use Emissions of 1980 and 1981 Passenger Cars: Results of EPA Testing

1982-02-01
820975
This paper presents the results of several emission testing programs conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The test vehicles were primarily 1980 and 1981 passenger cars which were obtained at random from private owners. Some 1982 models were also tested. The 1328 vehicles were selected from the Los Angeles area as well as from a number of other low-altitude locations. The test sequence included the Federal Test Procedure, the Highway Fuel Economy Test and several short cycle tests. The primary purpose of the program was to gather information on current vehicles which could be used in calculations and projections of air quality and aid development of programs to improve it. The results of the program indicate that these vehicles are capable of maintaining low emission levels although high levels are also possible due to defects, deterioration, or tampering. Inspection/Maintenance programs are a feasible and effective means for correcting high levels when they occur.
Technical Paper

Impact of Real-World Drive Cycles on PHEV Battery Requirements

2009-04-20
2009-01-1383
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the ability to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), working with the FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership, helped define the battery requirements for PHEVs. Previous studies demonstrated the impact of the vehicle's characteristics, such as its class, mass, or electrical accessories, on the requirements. However, questions on the impact of drive cycles remain outstanding. In this paper, we evaluate the consequences of sizing the electrical machine and the battery to follow standard drive cycles, such as the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS), as well as real-world drive cycles in electric vehicle (EV) mode. The requirements are defined for several driving conditions (e.g., urban, highway) and types of driving behavior (e.g., smooth, aggressive).
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy of In-Use Passenger Cars: Laboratory and Road

1981-06-01
810780
This report describes an evaluation of fuel economy of in-use passenger cars conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency during 1980. A total of 440 vehicles from the 1975-1980 model years were obtained from private owners in several cities. Each vehicle was tested according to the Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test. After the laboratory testing, the owners were asked to record their next four fuel purchases on a reply postcard. The results from the survey were analyzed and compared with the test results, estimates by the owner, and the values published in EPA's Gas Mileage Guide.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements and NOx Reduction by Reduction of Parasitic Losses: Effect of Engine Design

2006-10-31
2006-01-3474
Reducing aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance in trucks using cooled EGR engines meeting EPA 2004 emissions standards has been observed to result in increases in fuel economy and decreases in NOx emissions. We report here on tests conducted using vehicles equipped a non-EGR engine meeting EPA 2004 emission standards and an electronically-controlled engine meeting EPA 1998 emissions standards. The effects of trailer fairings and single-wide tires on fuel economy and NOx emissions were tested using SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and by the gravimetric method specified by test procedure J1321. Fuel consumption decreased and fuel economy increased by a maximum of about 10 percent, and NOx emissions decreased by a maximum of 20 percent relative to baseline.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks Tested on a Road Course and by Dynamometer

1975-02-01
750901
This is a summary compilation and analysis of exhaust-emission results and operating parameters from forty-five heavy-duty gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles tested over a 7.24-mile road course known as the San Antonio Road Route (SARR); and, for correlative purposes, on a chassis dynamometer.(2) Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed using the Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) technique similar to that used in emission testing of light-duty vehicles. On the road course, all equipment and instrumentation were located on the vehicle while electrical power was supplied by a trailer-mounted generator. In addition to exhaust emissions, operating parameters such as vehicle speed, engine speed, manifold vacuum, and transmission gear were simultaneously measured and recorded on magnetic tape. The forty-five vehicles tested represent various model years, GVW ratings, and engine types and sizes.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Heat Storage Technology for Quick Engine Warm-Up

1992-10-01
922244
The Schatz Heat Battery stores excess heat energy from the engine cooling system during vehicle operation. This excess energy may be returned to the coolant upon the ensuing cold start, shortening the engine warm-up period and decreasing cold start related emissions of unburned fuel and carbon monoxide (CO). A Heat Battery was evaluated on a test vehicle to determine its effect on unburned fuel emissions, CO emissions, and fuel economy over the cold start portion (Bag 1) of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) at 24°C and -7°C ambient conditions. The Heat Battery was mounted in a vehicle fueled alternately with indolene clear (unleaded gasoline) and M85 high methanol blend fuels. Several Heat Battery/coolant flow configurations were evaluated to determine which would result in lowest cold start emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Real-World Fuel Economy on Heavy Duty Vehicles using a Portable Emissions Measurement System

2006-10-31
2006-01-3543
Current SAE practices for evaluating potential improvements in fuel economy on heavy-duty vehicles rely on gravimetric measurements of fuel tanks. However, the recent evolution of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) offers an alternative means of evaluating real-world fuel economy that may be faster and more cost effective. This paper provides a direct comparison of these two methods based on a recent EPA study conducted at Southwest Research Institute. More than 228 on-road tests were performed on two pairs of class 8 tractor-trailers according to SAE test procedure J1321 in an assessment of various chassis components designed to reduce drag losses on the vehicle. During these tests, SEMTECH-D™ portable emissions measurement systems from Sensor's, Incorporated were operating in each of the vehicles to evaluate emissions and to provide a redundant measure of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Emission Patterns of Diesel-Powered Passenger Cars - Part II

1977-02-01
770168
An experimental program was conducted to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions from a 1975 Peugeot 504D light duty diesel-powered vehicle. The vehicle was tested over the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, Highway Fuel Economy Test, and Sulfate Emissions Test driving cycles using four different fuels covering a fair range of composition, density, and sulfur content. In addition to fuel economy and regulated gaseous emission measurements of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, emission measurements were also obtained for non-regulated pollutants including sulfur dioxide, sulfates, aldehydes, benzo[a]pyrene, carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, nonreactive hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The results are discussed in terms of emission trends due to either fuel type or driving cycle influence.
Technical Paper

Effect of Single Wide Tires and Trailer Aerodynamics on Fuel Economy and NOx Emissions of Class 8 Line-Haul Tractor-Trailers

2005-11-01
2005-01-3551
We hypothesize that components designed to improve fuel economy by reducing power requirements should also result in a decrease in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Fuel economy and NOx emissions of a pair of class 8 tractor-trailers were measured on a test track to evaluate the effects of single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices. Fuel economy was measured using a modified version of SAE test procedure J1321. NOx emissions were measured using a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). Fuel consumption was estimated by a carbon balance on PEMS output and correlated to fuel meter measurements. Tests were conducted using drive cycles simulating highway operations at 55 mph and 65 mph and suburban stop-and-go traffic. The tests showed a negative correlation (significant at p < 0.05) between fuel economy and NOx emissions. Single wide tires and trailer aerodynamic devices resulted in increased fuel economy and decreased NOx emissions relative to the baseline tests.
Journal Article

Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program Part 3 – Results and Validation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0938
Beginning in 2007, heavy-duty engine manufacturers in the U.S. have been responsible for verifying the compliance on in-use vehicles with Not-to-Exceed (NTE) standards under the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing Program (HDIUT). This in-use testing is conducted using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) which are installed on the vehicles to measure emissions during real-world operation. A key component of the HDIUT program is the generation of measurement allowances which account for the relative accuracy of PEMS as compared to more conventional, laboratory based measurement techniques. A program to determine these measurement allowances for gaseous emissions was jointly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and various member companies of the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA).
Technical Paper

Detection of Catalyst Failure On-Vehicle Using the Dual Oxygen Sensor Method

1991-02-01
910561
On-vehicle proof-of-concept testing was conducted to evaluate the ability of the dual oxygen sensor catalyst evaluation method to identify serious losses in catalyst efficiency under actual vehicle operating conditions. The dual oxygen sensor method, which utilizes a comparison between an upstream oxygen sensor and an oxygen sensor placed downstream of the catalyst, was initially studied by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under steady-state operating conditions on an engine dynamometer and reported in Clemmens, et al. (1).* At the time that study was released, questions were raised as to whether the technological concepts developed on a test fixture could be transferred to a vehicle operating under normal transient conditions.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0319
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.
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