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Journal Article

Vehicle Component Benchmarking Using a Chassis Dynamometer

2015-04-14
2015-01-0589
The benchmarking study described in this paper uses data from chassis dynamometer testing to determine the efficiency and operation of vehicle driveline components. A robust test procedure was created that can be followed with no a priori knowledge of component performance, nor additional instrumentation installed in the vehicle. To develop the procedure, a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu was tested on a chassis dynamometer. Dynamometer data, emissions data, and data from the vehicle controller area network (CAN) bus were used to construct efficiency maps for the engine and transmission. These maps were compared to maps of the same components produced from standalone component benchmarking, resulting in a good match between results from in-vehicle and standalone testing. The benchmarking methodology was extended to a 2013 Mercedes E350 diesel vehicle. Dynamometer, emissions, and CAN data were used to construct efficiency maps and operation strategies for the engine and transmission.
Technical Paper

Transient Control of HCCI Engines Using MRPR or Its Proxies

2012-09-10
2012-01-1580
To make an HCCI engine as a useful commercial product, the engine has to be capable of performing quick transients in a large operating range, especially in vehicle applications. HCCI combustion is kinetically controlled and has to be operated properly between two limits: misfire and knock. To achieve the correct state, the right amount of fuel/air/EGR has to be inducted into the cylinder. The amounts and ratios of the three components are highly dependent on other variables as operating conditions change. It is unrealistic and unreliable to predict the right combination of these variables without principal component analysis. Thus, the optimal response control path has to be based on the quality of the previous combustion event as well as the direction and the rate of transition.
Technical Paper

The Measurement of Exhaust Emissions from Oxygenated Fuel Blends by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

1995-02-01
950220
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been used to measure the exhaust emissions from vehicles during standard driving tests. Comparisons with conventional analyzers for modal tests have been made for the regulated species such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total hydrocarbon (THC). The concentrations of methane, methanol and formaldehyde were also measured at one second time intervals during several driving tests. The average concentration values for these species were compared to the bag samples for several tests. Modal concentration curves were also calculated for MTBE, ETBE and several other species of interest. The results indicate FT-IR can be used for making modal measurements on the regulated species and non-regulated species in vehicle exhaust emissions. Several studies were performed to evaluate the long-term stability and sensitivity of FT-IR in actual test situations.
Technical Paper

Testing of Catalytic Exhaust Emission Control Systems Under Simulated Locomotive Exhaust Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1313
Exhaust emissions were evaluated for four different catalytic exhaust emission control systems. Each system utilized a diesel oxidation catalyst, a metal-substrate partial-flow diesel particulate filter, an iron-exchanged or copper-exchanged Y-zeolite catalyst for urea selective catalytic reduction, and an ammonia slip catalyst. A 5.9-liter diesel truck engine was modified to match the exhaust conditions of a four-stroke diesel locomotive engine meeting the current Tier 2 locomotive emissions standards. NOx emissions, CO₂ emissions and exhaust temperatures were matched to the eight locomotive "throttle notch" power settings while exhaust mass flow was maintained near a constant fraction of locomotive exhaust mass flow for each "throttle notch" position. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions were measured over a steady-state test cycle for each of the four systems at low hours and following accelerated thermal aging and accelerated oil ash accumulation.
Technical Paper

Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

2017-11-17
2017-01-5020
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.
Technical Paper

Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase II: Continued Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Oxygenate Content, Oxygenate Type, Volatility, Sulfur, Olefins and Distillation Parameters

1994-10-01
941974
This study is the second in a series of three EPA studies to investigate the effect of fuel reformulations and modifications on exhaust emissions. Both the first and second study in this series of studies were used to support the development of EPA's complex model for the certification of reformulated gasolines. Phase I of the study tested eight fuels on forty vehicles. This study, termed Phase II, tested twelve fuels on a separate fleet of 39 light-duty vehicles. The Phase II fuel parameters studied included Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP), the 50% and 90% evaporated distillation temperatures (T50 and T90), sulfur content, aromatics content, olefin content, oxygenate type and oxygen content. Measured exhaust emissions included total hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
Technical Paper

Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase I: Initial Investigation of Oxygenate, Volatility, Distillation and Sulfur Effects

1994-10-01
941973
This study was the first of three EPA studies to investigate the effect of gasoline fuel parameters on hydrocarbon, nonmethane hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxides, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde exhaust emissions of 1990 model year or equivalent vehicles. The fuel parameters tested in this program were oxygen concentration, Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP), ninety percent evaporative distillation temperature (T90), and sulfur concentration. Sulfur concentration was found to have the greatest effect on hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Increasing oxygen concentration and RVP reduction was found to reduce hydrocarbon emission more for high-emitting than normal-emitting vehicles. Oxygenate concentration was found to have a significant effect on aldehyde emissions.
Technical Paper

Real-World Emission Modeling and Validations Using PEMS and GPS Vehicle Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0757
Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) are used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to measure gaseous and particulate mass emissions from vehicles in normal, in-use, on-the-road operation to support many of its programs, including assessing mobile source emissions compliance, emissions factor assessment for in-use fleet modeling, and collection of in-use vehicle operational data to support vehicle simulation modeling programs. This paper discusses EPA’s use of Global Positioning System (GPS) measured altitude data and electronically logged vehicle speed data to provide real-world road grade data for use as an input into the Gamma Technologies GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model. The GPS measured altitudes and the CAN vehicle speed data were filtered and smoothed to calculate the road grades by using open-source Python code and associated packages.
Technical Paper

Potential Fuel Economy Improvements from the Implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson Cycle Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1016
EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its technology assessments supporting the Midterm Evaluation of EPA’s 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle greenhouse gas emissions assessments. As part of an Atkinson cycle engine technology assessment of applications in light-duty vehicles, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) and cylinder deactivation (CDA) were evaluated. The base engine was a production gasoline 2.0L four-cylinder engine with 75 degrees of intake cam phase authority and a 14:1 geometric compression ratio. An open ECU and cEGR hardware were installed on the engine so that the CO2 reduction effectiveness could be evaluated. Additionally, two cylinders were deactivated to determine what CO2 benefits could be achieved. Once a steady state calibration was complete, two-cycle (FTP and HwFET) CO2 reduction estimates were made using fuel weighted operating modes and a full vehicle model (ALPHA) cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Transmission Gear Count, Ratio Progression, and Final Drive Ratio on Fuel Economy and Performance Using ALPHA

2016-04-05
2016-01-1143
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model [2]. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 LD GHG emissions standards, the model is being revalidated with newly acquired vehicle data. This paper presents an analysis of the effects of varying the absolute and relative gear ratios of a given transmission on carbon emissions and performance.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a Conventional Mid-Size Car with CVT Using ALPHA and Comparable Powertrain Technologies

2016-04-05
2016-01-1141
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model [2]. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 LD GHG emissions standards, the model is being revalidated with newly acquired vehicle data.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Power-Split and P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1470
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool will extend its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Automotive Battery Packs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1539
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technology such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG and Fuel Economy rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool extends its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
Journal Article

Investigating the Effect of Advanced Automatic Transmissions on Fuel Consumption Using Vehicle Testing and Modeling

2016-04-05
2016-01-1142
In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is refining and revalidating their Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. As part of the validation of ALPHA, the EPA obtained model year 2014 Dodge Chargers equipped with 3.6 liter V6 engines and either a NAG1 five-speed automatic transmission or an 845RE eight-speed automatic transmission.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel PM Index and Ethanol Content on Particulate Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1072
The EPAct/V2/E-89 gasoline fuel effects program collected emissions data for 27 test fuels using a fleet of 15 high-sales cars and light trucks from the 2008 model year (all with port fuel injection). The test fuel matrix covered values of T50, T90, vapor pressure, ethanol content, and total aromatic content spanning ranges typical of market gasolines. Emission measurements were made over the LA92 cycle at a nominal temperature of 24°C (75°F). The resulting emissions database of 956 tests includes a particulate matter (PM) mass measurement for each. Emission models for PM fuel effects were fit based on terms for which the fuel matrix was originally optimized, with results published by EPA in a 2013 analysis report. This paper presents results of a subsequent modeling analysis of this PM data using the PM Index fuel parameter, and compares these models to the original versions.
Journal Article

In-Use Emissions from Non-road Equipment for EPA Emissions Inventory Modeling (MOVES)

2010-10-05
2010-01-1952
Because of U.S. EPA regulatory actions and the National Academies National Research Council suggestions for improvements in the U.S. EPA emissions inventory methods, the U.S. EPA' Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) has made a concerted effort to develop instrumentation that can measure criteria pollutant emissions during the operation of on-road and off-road vehicles. These instruments are now being used in applications ranging from snowmobiles to on-road passenger cars to trans-Pacific container ships. For the betterment of emissions inventory estimation these on-vehicle instruments have recently been employed to measure time resolved (1 hz) in-use gaseous emissions (CO₂, CO, THC, NO ) and particulate matter mass (with teflon membrane filter) emissions from 29 non-road construction vehicles (model years ranging from 1993 to 2007) over a three year period in various counties in Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas.
Journal Article

In-Situ Emissions Performance of EPA2010-Compliant On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2013-09-24
2013-01-2430
Implementation of EPA's heavy-duty engine NOx standard of 0.20 g/bhp-hr has resulted in the introduction of a new generation of emission control systems for on-highway heavy-duty diesel engines. These new control systems are predominantly based around aftertreatment systems utilizing urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) techniques, with only one manufacturer relying solely on in-cylinder NOx emission reduction techniques. As with any new technology, EPA is interested in evaluating whether these systems are delivering the expected emissions reductions under real-world conditions and where areas for improvement may lie. To accomplish these goals, an in-situ gaseous emissions measurement study was conducted using portable emissions measurement devices. The first stage of this study, and subject of this paper, focused on engines typically used in line-haul trucking applications (12-15L displacement).
Journal Article

Fuel-Savings from Aerodynamic Efficiency Improvements for Combination Tractor-Trailers Relative to Vehicle Speed

2016-09-27
2016-01-8133
Commercial, class-8 tractor-trailers were tested to develop a relationship between vehicle speed and fuel savings associated with trailer aerodynamic technologies representative of typical long-haul freight applications. This research seeks to address a concern that many long-distance U.S. freight companies hold that, as vehicle speed is reduced, the fuel savings benefits of aerodynamic technologies are not realized. In this paper, the reductions in fuel consumption were measured using the SAE J1231 test method and thru-engine fueling rates recorded from the vehicle’s electronic data stream. Constant speed testing was conducted on road at different speeds and corresponding testing was conducted on track to confirm results. Data was collected at four (4) vehicle speeds: 35, 45, 55, and 62 miles per hour. Two different trailer aerodynamic configurations were evaluated relative to a baseline tractor trailer.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects Study with In-Use Two-Stroke Motorcycles and All-Terrain-Vehicles

2013-10-14
2013-01-2518
This paper covers work performed for the California Air Resources Board and US Environmental Protection Agency by Southwest Research Institute. Emission measurements were made on four in-use off-road two-stroke motorcycles and all-terrain vehicles utilizing oxygenated and non-oxygenated fuels. Emission data was produced to augment ARB and EPA's off-road emission inventory. It was intended that this program provide ARB and EPA with emission test results they require for atmospheric modeling. The paper describes the equipment and engines tested, test procedures, emissions sampling methodologies, and emissions analytical techniques. Fuels used in the study are described, along with the emissions characterization results. The fuel effects on exhaust emissions and operation due to ethanol content and fuel components is compared.
Journal Article

Fleet-Level Modeling of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emission Simulation in ALPHA

2017-03-28
2017-01-0899
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of internal energy flows in the model. In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been updated utilizing newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. Simulations conducted with ALPHA provide data on the effectiveness of various GHG reduction technologies, and reveal synergies that exist between technologies. The ALPHA model has been validated against a variety of vehicles with different powertrain configurations and GHG reduction technologies.
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