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Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for DISI Combustion Systems

2001-05-07
2001-01-1974
This paper presents results from a comprehensive experimental study of high-pressure pressure-swirl gasoline injectors tested under a range of simulated operating conditions. This study encompassed photographic analysis of single spray sequences and simultaneous measurement of axial velocity, radial velocity and diameter at point locations using the phase-doppler technique. The combination of these measurement techniques permitted an insight into the fluid dynamics of the injected spray and its development with time. Five primary stages in the spray-history were identified and numerated with experimental data.
Technical Paper

An Investigation Into Transient Diesel Spray Development Using High Speed Imaging In A Novel Optical Pressure Chamber

2011-08-30
2011-01-1836
The fuel economy and emissions performance of a Diesel engine is strongly influenced by the fuel injection process. This paper presents early results of an experimental investigation into diesel spray development carried out in a novel in-house developed optical pressure chamber capable of operating at pressure up to 50 bar and temperatures up to 900 K. The spatial evolution of a diesel spray tends to experience many transitory macroscopic phenomena that directly influence the mixing process. These phenomena are not considered highly reproducible and are extremely short lived, hence recording and understanding these transient effects is difficult. In this study, high-speed backlight-illuminated imaging has been employed in order to capture the transient dynamics of a short signal duration diesel spray injected into incremental back pressures and temperatures reaching a maximum of 10 bar and 473 K respectively.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Numerical Modelling of Flash-Boiling Fuel Sprays

2015-09-06
2015-24-2463
Flash-boiling of sprays may occur when a superheated liquid is discharged into an ambient environment with lower pressure than its saturation pressure. Such conditions normally exist in direct-injection spark-ignition engines operating at low in-cylinder pressures and/or high fuel temperatures. The addition of novel high volatile additives/fuels may also promote flash-boiling. Fuel flashing plays a significant role in mixture formation by promoting faster breakup and higher fuel evaporation rates compared to non-flashing conditions. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the characteristics of flashing sprays is necessary for the development of more efficient mixture formation. The present computational work focuses on modelling flash-boiling of n-Pentane and iso-Octane sprays using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Ethanol, Butanol, Iso-Octane and Gasoline Sprays and Combustion from a Multi-Hole Injector in a DISI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1591
Recent pressures on vehicle manufacturers to reduce their average fleet levels of CO2 emissions have resulted in an increased drive to improve fuel economy and enable use of fuels developed from renewable sources that can achieve a net reduction in the CO2 output of each vehicle. The most popular choice for spark-ignition engines has been the blending of ethanol with gasoline, where the ethanol is derived either from agricultural or cellulosic sources such as sugar cane, corn or decomposed plant matter. However, other fuels, such as butanol, have also arisen as potential candidates due to their similarities to gasoline, e.g. higher energy density than ethanol. To extract the maximum benefits from these new fuels through optimized engine design and calibration, an understanding of the behaviour of these fuels in modern engines is necessary.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Flame Development with Hydrous and Anhydrous Ethanol Fuels in a Spark-Ignition Engine with Direct Injection and Port Injection Systems

2014-10-13
2014-01-2623
This paper presents a study of the combustion mechanism of hydrous and anhydrous ethanol in comparison to iso-octane and gasoline fuels in a single-cylinder spark-ignition research engine operated at 1000 rpm with 0.5 bar intake plenum pressure. The engine was equipped with optical access and tests were conducted with both Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and Direct Injection (DI) mixture preparation methods; all tests were conducted at stoichiometric conditions. The results showed that all alcohol fuels, both hydrous and anhydrous, burned faster than iso-octane and gasoline for both PFI and DI operation. The rate of combustion and peak cylinder pressure decreased with water content in ethanol for both modes of mixture preparation. Flame growth data were obtained by high-speed chemiluminescence imaging. These showed similar trends to the mass fraction burned curves obtained by in-cylinder heat release analysis for PFI operation; however, the trend with DI was not as consistent as with PFI.
Technical Paper

Charge Stratification in a 4-Valve SI Engine Through Injection Into One Intake Port with Induced Axial Swirl Within the Cylinder

1997-10-01
972875
An arrangement of port - injected, stratified-charge, 4 - valve SI engine is proposed, in which fuel is injected in a thin column from an injector which is angled so that the fuel is deflected by one of the inlet valves onto the combustion chamber surface, at a position close to the central spark plug. The injection takes place towards the end of the induction stroke, and the injector is mounted to the side of one of the intake ports. The second intake port is deactivated at part load to establish an axial swirling motion to stabilise the fuel evaporating from the warm combustion chamber surface. Testing has been performed on a single - cylinder research engine to assess the extent of the stratification by measuring pre - flame hydrocarbon concentrations at various positions around the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Combining Unthrottled Operation with Internal EGR under Port and Central Direct Fuel Injection Conditions in a Single Cylinder SI Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1835
This experimental work was concerned with the combination of internal EGR with an early inlet valve closure strategy for improved part-load fuel economy. The experiments were performed in a new spark-ignited thermodynamic single cylinder research engine, equipped with a mechanical fully variable valvetrain on both the inlet and exhaust. During unthrottled operation at constant engine speed and load, increasing the mass of trapped residual allowed increased valve duration and lift to be used. In turn, this enabled further small improvements in gas exchange efficiency, thermal efficiency and hence indicated fuel consumption. Such effects were quantified under both port and homogeneous central direct fuel injection conditions. Shrouding of the inlet ports as a potential method to increase in-cylinder gas velocities has also been considered.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Unthrottled, Single and Two-valve Induction Strategies Utilising Direct Gasoline Injection: Emissions, Heat-release and Fuel Consumption Analysis

2008-06-23
2008-01-1626
For a spark-ignition engine, the parasitic loss suffered as a result of conventional throttling has long been recognised as a major reason for poor part-load fuel efficiency. While lean, stratified charge, operation addresses this issue, exhaust gas aftertreatment is more challenging compared with homogeneous operation and three-way catalyst after-treatment. This paper adopts a different approach: homogeneous charge direct injection (DI) operation with variable valve actuations which reduce throttling losses. In particular, low-lift and early inlet valve closing (EIVC) strategies are investigated. Results from a thermodynamic single cylinder engine are presented that quantify the effect of two low-lift camshafts and one standard high-lift camshaft operating EIVC strategies at four engine running conditions; both, two- and single-inlet valve operation were investigated. Tests were conducted for both port and DI fuelling, under stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of Hydrogen Direct Injection for Internal Combustion Engines

2013-10-14
2013-01-2524
Hydrogen has been largely proposed as a possible fuel for internal combustion engines. The main advantage of burning hydrogen is the absence of carbon-based tailpipe emissions. Hydrogen's wide flammability also offers the advantage of very lean combustion and higher engine efficiency than conventional carbon-based fuels. In order to avoid abnormal combustion modes like pre-ignition and backfiring, as well as air displacement from hydrogen's large injected volume per cycle, direct injection of hydrogen after intake valve closure is the preferred mixture preparation method for hydrogen engines. The current work focused on computational studies of hydrogen injection and mixture formation for direct-injection spark-ignition engines. Hydrogen conditions at the injector's nozzle exit are typically sonic.
Technical Paper

Developing Low Gasoline Particulate Emission Engines Through Improved Fuel Delivery

2014-10-13
2014-01-2843
Particulate emissions are of growing concern due to health impacts. Many urban areas around the world currently have particulate matter levels exceeding the World Health Organisation safe limits. Gasoline engines, especially when equipped with direct injection systems, contribute to this pollution. In recognition of this fact European limits on particulate mass and number are being introduced. A number of ways to meet these new stringent limits have been under investigation. The focus of this paper is on particulate emissions reduction through improvements in fuel delivery. This investigation is part of the author's ongoing particulate research and development that includes optical engine spray and combustion visualisation, CFD method development, engine and vehicle testing with the aim to move particulate emission development upstream in the development process.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Novel Optical Interface for Spark Ignition Engine Research

2002-03-04
2002-01-0742
A key objective of this research was to develop an interface device to enable visualization of in-cylinder events within a production SI engine operating at normal speeds and loads, without the need for engine modifications. The device was designed to utilize the existing spark plug hole and to be capable of providing in-cylinder illumination, image transmission and a source of ignition. This technical paper presents the results of the initial evaluation of the device. The evaluation of the durability of the device, in terms of its ability to operate as a spark plug and its permissible operating range is presented. In addition, images of events in the cylinder captured using the device are provided.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Properties on Spray Development from a Multi-Hole DISI Engine Injector

2007-10-29
2007-01-4032
Extensive literature exists on spray development, mixing and combustion regarding engine modeling and diagnostics using single-component and model fuels. However, often the variation in data between different fuels, particularly relating to spray development and its effect on combustion, is neglected or overlooked. By injecting into a quiescent chamber, this work quantifies the differences in spray development from a multi-hole direct-injection spark-ignition engine injector for two single-component fuels (iso-octane and n-pentane), a non-fluorescing multi-component model fuel which may be used for in-cylinder Laser Induced Fluorescence experiments, and several grades of pump gasoline (with and without additives). High-speed recordings of the sprays were made for a range of fuel temperatures and gas pressures. It is shown that a fuel temperature above that of the lowest boiling point fraction of the tested fuel at the given gas pressure causes a convergence of the spray plumes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Impinging Airflow on the Near Nozzle Characteristics of a Gasoline Spray from a Pressure-Swirl Atomiser

2006-10-16
2006-01-3343
The effects of impinging airflow on the near nozzle characteristics of an inwardly opening, high pressure-swirl atomiser are investigated in an optically-accessed, steady-state flow rig designed to emulate the intake flow of a typical, side-injected, 4-valve gasoline direct-injection combustion system. The results indicate that the impinging airflow has a relatively minor effect on the initial break-up of the fuel spray. However, the secondary break-up of the spray, i.e. the break-up of liquid ligaments, the spatial distribution of droplets within the spray and the location of the spray within the cylinder are significantly affected by the impinging air.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Composition on Mixture Formation in a Firing Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine: An Experimental Study using Mie-Scattering and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) Techniques

2000-06-19
2000-01-1904
Two-dimensional Mie-scattering and laser-induced fluorescence techniques were applied to investigate the effects of fuel composition on mixture formation within a firing direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. A comparison was made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions resulting from the use of a typical multi-component gasoline (European specification premium-grade unleaded), a single-component research fuel (iso-octane), and a three-component research fuel (iso-pentane, iso-octane and n-nonane). Studies were performed at three different injection timings under cold and part-warm conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition affects both the initial spray formation and the subsequent mixture formation process. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the mixing process to the effects of fuel volatility was shown to depend on injection timing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure in an Optically-Accessed DISI Engine with Side-Mounted Fuel Injector

2001-05-07
2001-01-1975
This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the effects of fuel injection pressure on mixture formation within an optically accessed direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Comparison is made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions due to supply rail pressures of 50 bar and 100 bar subject to part-warm, part-load homogeneous charge operating conditions. A constant fuel mass, corresponding to stoichiometric tune, was maintained for both supply pressures. The injected sprays and their subsequent liquid-phase fuel distributions were visualized using the 2-D laser Mie-scattering technique. The experimental injector (nominally a hollow-cone pressure-swirl design) was seen to produce a dense filled spray structure for both injection pressures under investigation. In both cases, the leading edge velocities of the main spray suggest the direct impingement of liquid fuel on the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on Liquid-Phase Fuel Distributions in a Centrally-Injected Four-Valve Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1998-10-19
982699
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on the spatial and temporal development of injected fuel sprays within a firing direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. It was found that the structure of the injected fuel sprays varied significantly with the timing of the injection event. During the induction stroke and the early part of the compression stroke, the development of the injected fuel sprays was shown to be controlled by the state of the intake and intake-generated gas flows at the start of injection (SOI).The relative influence of these two flow regimes on the injected fuel sprays during this period was also observed to change with injection timing, directly affecting tip penetration, spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. Later in the compression stroke, the results show the development of the injected fuel sprays to be dominated by the increased cylinder pressure at SOI.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on the Exhaust Emissions of a Centrally-Injected Four-Valve Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1998-10-19
982700
A study to investigate the influence of fuel injection timing on exhaust emissions from a single-cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) research engine was performed. Experimental results were obtained for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Images showing the variation of liquid-phase fuel distribution with changing injection timing were obtained in a firing optically-accessed engine of similar design. A correlation between measured emissions and observed liquid-phase fuel distribution was performed. This correlation was supported by development of phenomenological models that permit explanation of the variation of CO, HC, and NOx emissions with changes in air-fuel mixture preparation.
Technical Paper

Effects on diesel combustion of the molecular structure of potential synthetic bio-fuel molecules

2007-09-16
2007-24-0125
Synthetic bio-fuels, which can be obtained through the gasification of biomass into synthesis gas and the subsequent catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas into liquid fuel molecules, could play a key-role in providing a sustainable source of automotive fuels during the coming decades. This paper presents an attempt to understand the effect of molecular structure of potential oxygenated synthetic bio-fuel molecules of different structure on the diesel combustion process in both stratified and homogeneous combustion modes. Specifically, the effects of molecular structure on the energy release rates, gaseous exhaust emissions and the sub-micron particulate matter distribution were examined. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using a specially adapted common-rail fuel-system which allowed the injection of small single-molecule fuel samples at high pressure.
Technical Paper

Engine Testing of Dissolved Sodium Borohydride for Diesel Combustion CO2 Scrubbing

2014-10-13
2014-01-2729
Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines and the development of renewable liquid fuels have both been deployed to reduce exhaust emissions of CO2. An additional approach is to scrub CO2 from the combustion gases, and one potential means by which this might be achieved is the reaction of combustions gases with sodium borohydride to form sodium carbonate. This paper presents experimental studies carried out on a modern direct injection diesel engine supplied with a solution of dissolved sodium borohydride so as to investigate the effects of sodium borohydride on combustion and emissions. Sodium borohydride was dissolved in the ether diglyme at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 % (wt/wt), and tested alongside pure diglyme and a reference fossil diesel. The sodium borohydride solutions and pure diglyme were supplied to the fuel injector under an inert atmosphere and tested at a constant injection timing and constant engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP).
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into the Liquid Sheet Break-Up of High-Pressure DISI Swirl Atomizers

2003-10-27
2003-01-3102
This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the liquid sheet break-up mechanisms of high-pressure swirl atomizers of the type commonly used in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines. Sheet disintegration was investigated at two fuel pressures: 5 and 10 MPa, and three ambient back pressures: 50, 100 (atmospheric) and 200 kPa for a pre-production DISI injector. Microscopic images of the near-nozzle spray region were obtained with a high-speed rotating drum camera and copper vapour laser. For the range of conditions considered, the results show the initial break-up to occur in ‘perforated-sheet’ mode. A novel ‘void fraction’ analysis technique was applied to multiple images from the steady-state period of a single injection event in order to characterise and quantify details of the sheet break-up process. The sheet break-up lengths obtained by the authors were compared with the break-up lengths predicted by three commonly employed models from the literature.
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