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Technical Paper

The Application of Phosphorescent Particle Tracking (PPT) to the Visualisation of Gas Flows in the Cylinder of a 1.8 Litre 4-Valve Engine

This paper describes the application of a new technique, Phosphorescent Particle Tracking (PPT), to the visualisation of gas flow streams in the cylinder of an engine flow rig. This technique uses small phosphorescent tracer particles suspended in the air-stream to provide evidence of the gas flow profile as they are carried away from the plane of excitation. A two colour version of the technique is also presented. This latter technique is shown to have the potential to reveal the interaction or degree of stratification of two flow streams within the cylinder.
Journal Article

Spray Formation from Spark-Eroded and Laser-Drilled Injectors for DISI Engines with Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels

One of the latest advancements in injector technology is laser drilling of the nozzle holes. In this context, the spray formation and atomisation characteristics of gasoline, ethanol and 1-butanol were investigated for a 7-hole spark eroded (SE) injector and its ‘direct replacement’ Laser-drilled (LD) injector using optical techniques. In the first step of the optical investigation, high-speed spray imaging was performed in a quiescent injection chamber with global illumination using diffused Laser light. The images were statistically analyzed to obtain spray penetration, spray tip velocity and spray ‘cone’ angles. Furthermore, droplet sizing was undertaken using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). A single spray plume was isolated for this analysis and measurements were obtained across the plume at a fixed distance from the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the Effects of Droplet Size Distribution on Fuel Transport and Air-Fuel Mixing in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of droplet size distribution on fuel transport and air-fuel mixing in a gasoline direct-injection (GD-I) engine. The engine grid was generated using the K3PREP grid generator and the simulations were carried out using the KIVA-3V Release 2 code. Three size distribution functions were considered, namely the Chi-squared (χ2) and two Rosin-Rammler functions with dispersion parameter, q of 3.5 and 7.5 (RRq=3.5 and RRq=7.5). A new subroutine, which arranges the fuel droplets into a spherical cloud of droplets, was developed to allow the in-cylinder placement of fuel droplets with different droplet size distribution. Two cases of intake valve timing were considered. Results of the simulation showed droplet size distribution to affect fuel dispersion under the influence of the in-cylinder gas flows.
Technical Paper

Non-Spherical Particle Trajectory Modelling for Ice Crystal Conditions

Aircraft icing is a significant issue for aviation safety. In this paper, recent developments for calculating the trajectory of non-spherical particles are used to determine the trajectory and impingement of ice crystals in aircraft icing scenarios. Two models are used, each formulated from direct numerical simulations, to give the drag, lift and torque correlations for various shaped particles. Previously, within the range of Reynolds number permitted in this study, it was only possible to model the trajectory and full rotational progression of cylindrical particles. The work presented in this paper allows for analysis of a wider range of ice shapes that are commonly seen in icing conditions, capturing the dynamics and behaviours specific to ice crystals. Previous limitations relate to the in ability to account for particle rotation and the dependency of force correlations on the measure of particle sphericity - which are now overcome.
Journal Article

Investigations on Deposit Formation in the Holes of Diesel Injector Nozzles

Current developments in fuels and emissions regulations are resulting in an increasingly severe operating environment for diesel fuel injection systems. The formation of deposits within the holes or on the outside of the injector nozzle can affect the overall system performance. The rate of deposit formation is affected by a number of parameters, including operating conditions and fuel composition. For the work reported here an accelerated test procedure was developed to evaluate the relative importance of some of these parameters in a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The resulting methodology produced measurable deposits in a custom-made injector nozzle on a single-cylinder engine. The results indicate that fuels containing 30%v/v and 100% Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) that does not meet EN 14214 produced more deposit than an EN590 petroleum diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Biomass-Derived Platform Fuels as Gasoline Extenders in a Single Cylinder Spark-Ignition Engine

The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels presents an alternative to the current production of renewable fuels for IC engines from food crops. However, realising the potential for reductions in net CO2 emissions through the utilisation of, for example, waste biomass for sustainable fuel production requires that energy and resource inputs into such processes be minimised. This work therefore investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of five intermediate platform molecules potentially derived from lignocellulosic biomass: gamma-valerolactone (GVL), methyl valerate, furfuryl alcohol, furfural and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF). The study was conducted on a naturally aspirated, water cooled, single cylinder spark-ignition engine. Each of the platform molecules were blended with reference fossil gasoline at 20 % wt/wt.
Technical Paper

Engine Testing of Dissolved Sodium Borohydride for Diesel Combustion CO2 Scrubbing

Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines and the development of renewable liquid fuels have both been deployed to reduce exhaust emissions of CO2. An additional approach is to scrub CO2 from the combustion gases, and one potential means by which this might be achieved is the reaction of combustions gases with sodium borohydride to form sodium carbonate. This paper presents experimental studies carried out on a modern direct injection diesel engine supplied with a solution of dissolved sodium borohydride so as to investigate the effects of sodium borohydride on combustion and emissions. Sodium borohydride was dissolved in the ether diglyme at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 % (wt/wt), and tested alongside pure diglyme and a reference fossil diesel. The sodium borohydride solutions and pure diglyme were supplied to the fuel injector under an inert atmosphere and tested at a constant injection timing and constant engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP).
Technical Paper

Effects on diesel combustion of the molecular structure of potential synthetic bio-fuel molecules

Synthetic bio-fuels, which can be obtained through the gasification of biomass into synthesis gas and the subsequent catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas into liquid fuel molecules, could play a key-role in providing a sustainable source of automotive fuels during the coming decades. This paper presents an attempt to understand the effect of molecular structure of potential oxygenated synthetic bio-fuel molecules of different structure on the diesel combustion process in both stratified and homogeneous combustion modes. Specifically, the effects of molecular structure on the energy release rates, gaseous exhaust emissions and the sub-micron particulate matter distribution were examined. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using a specially adapted common-rail fuel-system which allowed the injection of small single-molecule fuel samples at high pressure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on Liquid-Phase Fuel Distributions in a Centrally-Injected Four-Valve Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on the spatial and temporal development of injected fuel sprays within a firing direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. It was found that the structure of the injected fuel sprays varied significantly with the timing of the injection event. During the induction stroke and the early part of the compression stroke, the development of the injected fuel sprays was shown to be controlled by the state of the intake and intake-generated gas flows at the start of injection (SOI).The relative influence of these two flow regimes on the injected fuel sprays during this period was also observed to change with injection timing, directly affecting tip penetration, spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. Later in the compression stroke, the results show the development of the injected fuel sprays to be dominated by the increased cylinder pressure at SOI.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure in an Optically-Accessed DISI Engine with Side-Mounted Fuel Injector

This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the effects of fuel injection pressure on mixture formation within an optically accessed direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Comparison is made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions due to supply rail pressures of 50 bar and 100 bar subject to part-warm, part-load homogeneous charge operating conditions. A constant fuel mass, corresponding to stoichiometric tune, was maintained for both supply pressures. The injected sprays and their subsequent liquid-phase fuel distributions were visualized using the 2-D laser Mie-scattering technique. The experimental injector (nominally a hollow-cone pressure-swirl design) was seen to produce a dense filled spray structure for both injection pressures under investigation. In both cases, the leading edge velocities of the main spray suggest the direct impingement of liquid fuel on the cylinder walls.
Journal Article

Effect of the Molecular Structure of Individual Fatty Acid Alcohol Esters (Biodiesel) on the Formation of Nox and Particulate Matter in the Diesel Combustion Process

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel which can be used as a direct replacement for fossil Diesel fuel as a calorific source in Diesel Engines. It consists of fatty acid mono-alkyl esters, which are produced by the trans-esterification reaction of plant oils with monohydric alcohols. The Plant oils and alcohols can both be derived from biomass, giving this fuel the potential for a sustainable carbon dioxide neutral life-cycle, which is an important quality with regard to avoiding the net emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Depending on its fatty ester composition, Biodiesel can have varying physical and chemical properties which influence its combustion behaviour in a Diesel engine. It has been observed by many researchers that Biodiesel can sometimes lead to an increase in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compared to fossil Diesel fuel, while emitting a lower amount of particulate mass.
Technical Paper

Effect of Impinging Airflow on the Near Nozzle Characteristics of a Gasoline Spray from a Pressure-Swirl Atomiser

The effects of impinging airflow on the near nozzle characteristics of an inwardly opening, high pressure-swirl atomiser are investigated in an optically-accessed, steady-state flow rig designed to emulate the intake flow of a typical, side-injected, 4-valve gasoline direct-injection combustion system. The results indicate that the impinging airflow has a relatively minor effect on the initial break-up of the fuel spray. However, the secondary break-up of the spray, i.e. the break-up of liquid ligaments, the spatial distribution of droplets within the spray and the location of the spray within the cylinder are significantly affected by the impinging air.
Journal Article

Development of a Fast-Acting, Time-Resolved Gas Sampling System for Combustion and Fuels Analysis

Development of new fuels and engine combustion strategies for future ultra-low emission engines requires a greater level of insight into the process of emissions formation than is afforded by the approach of engine exhaust measurement. The paper describes the development of an in-cylinder gas sampling system consisting of a fast-acting, percussion-based, poppet-type sampling valve, and a heated dilution tunnel; and the deployment of the system in a single cylinder engine. A control system was also developed for the sampling valve to allow gas samples to be extracted from the engine cylinder during combustion, at any desired crank angle in the engine cycle, while the valve motion was continuously monitored using a proximity sensor. The gas sampling system was utilised on a direct injection diesel engine co-combusting a range of hydrogen-diesel fuel and methane-diesel fuel mixtures.
Technical Paper

Developing Low Gasoline Particulate Emission Engines Through Improved Fuel Delivery

Particulate emissions are of growing concern due to health impacts. Many urban areas around the world currently have particulate matter levels exceeding the World Health Organisation safe limits. Gasoline engines, especially when equipped with direct injection systems, contribute to this pollution. In recognition of this fact European limits on particulate mass and number are being introduced. A number of ways to meet these new stringent limits have been under investigation. The focus of this paper is on particulate emissions reduction through improvements in fuel delivery. This investigation is part of the author's ongoing particulate research and development that includes optical engine spray and combustion visualisation, CFD method development, engine and vehicle testing with the aim to move particulate emission development upstream in the development process.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Unthrottled, Single and Two-valve Induction Strategies Utilising Direct Gasoline Injection: Emissions, Heat-release and Fuel Consumption Analysis

For a spark-ignition engine, the parasitic loss suffered as a result of conventional throttling has long been recognised as a major reason for poor part-load fuel efficiency. While lean, stratified charge, operation addresses this issue, exhaust gas aftertreatment is more challenging compared with homogeneous operation and three-way catalyst after-treatment. This paper adopts a different approach: homogeneous charge direct injection (DI) operation with variable valve actuations which reduce throttling losses. In particular, low-lift and early inlet valve closing (EIVC) strategies are investigated. Results from a thermodynamic single cylinder engine are presented that quantify the effect of two low-lift camshafts and one standard high-lift camshaft operating EIVC strategies at four engine running conditions; both, two- and single-inlet valve operation were investigated. Tests were conducted for both port and DI fuelling, under stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Flame Development with Hydrous and Anhydrous Ethanol Fuels in a Spark-Ignition Engine with Direct Injection and Port Injection Systems

This paper presents a study of the combustion mechanism of hydrous and anhydrous ethanol in comparison to iso-octane and gasoline fuels in a single-cylinder spark-ignition research engine operated at 1000 rpm with 0.5 bar intake plenum pressure. The engine was equipped with optical access and tests were conducted with both Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and Direct Injection (DI) mixture preparation methods; all tests were conducted at stoichiometric conditions. The results showed that all alcohol fuels, both hydrous and anhydrous, burned faster than iso-octane and gasoline for both PFI and DI operation. The rate of combustion and peak cylinder pressure decreased with water content in ethanol for both modes of mixture preparation. Flame growth data were obtained by high-speed chemiluminescence imaging. These showed similar trends to the mass fraction burned curves obtained by in-cylinder heat release analysis for PFI operation; however, the trend with DI was not as consistent as with PFI.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Ethanol, Butanol, Iso-Octane and Gasoline Sprays and Combustion from a Multi-Hole Injector in a DISI Engine

Recent pressures on vehicle manufacturers to reduce their average fleet levels of CO2 emissions have resulted in an increased drive to improve fuel economy and enable use of fuels developed from renewable sources that can achieve a net reduction in the CO2 output of each vehicle. The most popular choice for spark-ignition engines has been the blending of ethanol with gasoline, where the ethanol is derived either from agricultural or cellulosic sources such as sugar cane, corn or decomposed plant matter. However, other fuels, such as butanol, have also arisen as potential candidates due to their similarities to gasoline, e.g. higher energy density than ethanol. To extract the maximum benefits from these new fuels through optimized engine design and calibration, an understanding of the behaviour of these fuels in modern engines is necessary.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Numerical Modelling of Flash-Boiling Fuel Sprays

Flash-boiling of sprays may occur when a superheated liquid is discharged into an ambient environment with lower pressure than its saturation pressure. Such conditions normally exist in direct-injection spark-ignition engines operating at low in-cylinder pressures and/or high fuel temperatures. The addition of novel high volatile additives/fuels may also promote flash-boiling. Fuel flashing plays a significant role in mixture formation by promoting faster breakup and higher fuel evaporation rates compared to non-flashing conditions. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the characteristics of flashing sprays is necessary for the development of more efficient mixture formation. The present computational work focuses on modelling flash-boiling of n-Pentane and iso-Octane sprays using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique.