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Technical Paper

Virtual GDI Engine as a Tool for Model-Based Calibration

Recent and forthcoming fuel consumption reduction requirements and exhaust emissions regulations are forcing the development of innovative and particularly complex intake-engine-exhaust layouts. In the case of Spark Ignition (SI) engines, the necessity to further reduce fuel consumption has led to the adoption of direct injection systems, displacement downsizing, and challenging intake-exhaust configurations, such as multi-stage turbocharging or turbo-assist solutions. Further, the most recent turbo-GDI engines may be equipped with other fuel-reduction oriented technologies, such as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) systems, devices for actively control tumble/swirl in-cylinder flow components, and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems. Such degree of flexibility has a main drawback: the exponentially increasing effort required for optimal engine control calibration.
Technical Paper

UEGO-based Exhaust Gas Mass Flow Rate Measurement

New and upcoming exhaust emissions regulations and fuel consumption reduction requirements are forcing the development of innovative and particularly complex intake-engine-exhaust layouts. Especially in the case of Compression Ignition (CI) engines, the HC-CO-NOx-PM after-treatment system is becoming extremely expensive and sophisticated, and the necessity to further reduce engine-out emission levels, without significantly penalizing fuel consumption figures, may lead to the adoption of intricate and challenging intake-exhaust systems configurations. The adoption of both long- and short-route Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems is one example of such situation, and the need to precisely measure (or estimate) mass flow rates in the various elements of the gas exchange circuit is one of the consequences.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Control-Oriented Modeling: Twin-Entry Turbine Issues and Possible Solutions

The paper presents possible solutions for developing fast and reliable turbocharger models, to be used mainly for control applications. This issue is of particular interest today for SI engines since, due to the search for consistent CO2 reduction, extreme downsizing concepts require highly boosted air charge solutions to compensate for power and torque de-rating. For engines presenting at least four in-line cylinders, twin-entry turbines offer the ability of maximizing the overall energy conversion efficiency, and therefore such solutions are actually widely adopted. This work presents a critical review of the most promising (and recent) modeling approaches for automotive turbochargers, highlighting the main open issues especially in the field of turbine models, and proposing possible improvements.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management Strategies for SCR After Treatment Systems

While the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is actually a quasi-standard equipment in the European Diesel passenger cars market, an interesting solution to fulfill NOx emission limits for the next EU 6 legislation is the application of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system on the exhaust line, to drastically reduce NOx emissions. In this context, one of the main issues is the performance of the SCR system during cold start and warm up phases of the engine. The exhaust temperature is too low to allow thermal activation of the reactor and, consequently, to promote high conversion efficiency and significant NOx concentration reduction. This is increasingly evident the smaller the engine displacement, because of its lower exhaust system temperature (reduced gross power while producing the same net power, i.e., higher efficiency).
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Throttle Valve Rotational Direction on the Tumble Motion at Different Partial Load Conditions

In PFI and GDI engines the tumble motion is the most important charge motion for enhancing the in-cylinder turbulence level at ignition time close to the spark plug position. In the open literature different studies were reported on the tumble motion, experimental and not. In the present paper the research activity on the tumble generation at partial load and very partial load conditions was presented. The added value of the analysis was the study of the effect of the throttle valve rotational direction on the tumble motion and the final level of turbulence at the ignition time close to the spark plug location. The focus was to determine if the throttle rotational direction was crucial for the tumble ratio and the turbulence level. The analyzed engine was a PFI 4-valves motorcycle engine. The engine geometry was formed by the intake duct and the cylinder. The CFD code was FIRE AVL code 2013.1.
Journal Article

Technology Comparison for Spark Ignition Engines of New Generation

New gasoline engine design is highly influenced by CO2 and emission limits defined by legislations, the demand for real conditions fuel economy, higher torque, higher specific power and lower cost. To reach the requirements coming from the end-users and legislations, especially for SI engines, several technologies are available, such as downsizing, including turbocharging in combination with direct injection. These technologies allow to solve the main issues of gasoline engines in terms of efficiency and performance which are knocking, part-load losses, and thermal stress at high power conditions. Moreover, other possibilities are under evaluation to allow further steps of enhancement for the even more challenging requirements. However, the benefits and costs given by the mix of these technologies must be accurately evaluated by means of objective tools and procedures in order to choose among the best alternatives.
Technical Paper

Superheated Sprays of Alternative Fuels for Direct Injection Engines

Alternative and oxygenated fuels are nowadays being studied in order to increase engine efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions and also to limit the automotive industry's economical dependency from crude oil. These fuels are considered more ecological compared to hydrocarbons because they are obtained using renewable sources. Fuels like anhydrous/hydrous ethanol, methanol or alcohol/gasoline blends which are injected in liquid form must vaporize quickly, especially in direct injection engines, therefore their volatility is a very important factor and strongly depends on thermodynamic conditions and chemical properties. When a multi-component fuel blend is injected into a low pressure environment below its saturation pressure, a rapid boiling of the most volatile component triggers a thermodynamic atomization mechanism. These kinds of sprays show smaller droplets and lower penetration compared to mechanical break up.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Knock Intensity Probability Distribution and Development of 0-D Predictive Knock Model for a SI TC Engine

Knock is a non-deterministic phenomenon and its intensity is typically defined by a non-symmetrical distribution, under fixed operating conditions. A statistical approach is therefore the correct way to study knock features. Typically, intrinsically deterministic knock models need to artificially introduce Cycle-to-Cycle Variation (CCV) of relevant combustion parameters, or of cycle initial conditions, to generate different knock intensity values for a given operating condition. Their output is limited to the percentage of knocking cycles, once the user imposes an arbitrary knock intensity threshold to define the correlation between the number of knocking events and the Spark Advance (SA). In the first part of the paper, a statistical analysis of knock intensity is carried out: for different values of SA, the probability distributions of an experimental Knock Index (KI) are self-compared, and the characteristics of some percentiles are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Indicating Parameters for Knock Detection Purposes

Specific power and efficiency of gasoline engines are influenced by factors such as compression ratio and Spark Advance (SA) regulation. These factors influence the combustion development over the crank angle: the trade-off between performance and the risk of irreversible damages is still a key element in the design of both high-performance (racing) and low-consumption engines. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem, with the objective of defining a damage-related and operating conditions-independent index. The methodology is based on the combined analysis of indicating parameters, such as Cumulated Heat Release (CHR), Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) and 50% Mass Fraction Burned (MFB50), and typical knock detection parameters, estimated by means of the in-cylinder pressure sensor signal. Knocking combustions have several consequences, therefore they can be detected in many ways.
Technical Paper

Setup of a 1D Model for Simulating Dynamic Behaviour of External Gear Pumps

External gear pumps are widely used in many different applications because of their relatively low costs and high performances, especially in terms of volumetric and mechanical efficiency. The main weaknesses of external gear pumps can be summarized as follows: 1 Sudden increase or decrease of pressure inside volumes between teeth, which could lead respectively to noise emissions and to cavitation onset; 2 Necessity of limiting power losses and increasing volumetric efficiency, obtainable by reducing leakage flows between components; 3 Need of maintaining an ad-hoc minimum lubrication film thickness. In recent years many efforts, in terms of mathematical models and experimental tests, were done in order to limit energy losses and noise emissions. With the aim of deeply studying dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps and addressing their design, a 1D model was developed by means AMESim® code.
Technical Paper

Remote Sensing Methodology for the Closed-Loop Control of RCCI Dual Fuel Combustion

The continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world. Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. These aspects are even more crucial for innovative Low Temperature Combustions (such as RCCI), mainly due to the high instability and the high sensitivity to slight variations of the injection parameters that characterize this kind of combustion. Optimal combustion control can be achieved through a proper closed-loop control of the injection parameters. The most important feedback quantities used for combustion control are engine load (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure or Torque delivered by the engine) and center of combustion (CA50), i.e. the angular position in which 50% of fuel burned within the engine cycle is reached.
Journal Article

Relating Knocking Combustions Effects to Measurable Data

Knocking combustions heavily influence the efficiency of Spark Ignition engines, limiting the compression ratio and sometimes preventing the use of Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) Spark Advance (SA). A detailed analysis of knocking events can help in improving the engine performance and diagnostic strategies. An effective way is to use advanced 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation for the analysis and prediction of the combustion process. The standard 3D CFD approach based on RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) equations allows the analysis of the average engine cycle. However, the knocking phenomenon is heavily affected by the Cycle to Cycle Variation (CCV): the effects of CCV on knocking combustions are then taken into account, maintaining a RANS CFD approach, while representing a complex running condition, where knock intensity changes from cycle to cycle.
Technical Paper

Rapid Prototyping as a Tool to Support Wind Tunnel Testing of Unconventional Unmanned Airships

Scaled models are often used to check the aerodynamic performance of full scale aircraft and airship concepts, which have gone through a conceptual and preliminary design process. Results from these tests can be quite useful to improve the design of unconventional airships whose aerodynamics might be quite different from classical configurations. Once the airship geometry has been defined, testing is required to acquire aerodynamic data necessary to implement the mathematical model of the airship needed by the flight control system to develop full autonomous capabilities. Rapid prototyping has the great potential of playing a beneficial role in unconventional autonomous airship design similarly to the success obtained in the design process of conventional aircrafts.
Technical Paper

Primary Breakup Model for Turbulent Liquid Jet Based on Ligament Evolution

The overall performance of direct injection (DI) engines is strictly correlated to the fuel liquid spray evolution into the cylinder volume. More in detail, spray behavior can drastically affect mixture formation, combustion efficiency, cycle to cycle engine variability, soot amount, and lubricant contamination. For this reason, in DI engine an accurate numerical reproduction of the spray behavior is mandatory. In order to improve the spray simulation accuracy, authors defined a new atomization model based on experimental evidences about ligament and droplet formations from a turbulent liquid jet surface. The proposed atomization approach was based on the assumption that the droplet stripping in a turbulent liquid jet is mainly linked to ligament formations. Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulation method was adopted for the continuum phase while the liquid discrete phase is managed by Lagrangian approach.
Technical Paper

Predictive Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Fuel Economy Improvement and Battery Capacity Sensitivity Analysis

This paper shows the influence of different battery charge management strategies on the fuel economy of a hybrid parallel axle-split vehicle in a real driving scenario, for a vehicle control system that has the additional possibility to split the torque between front and rear axles. The first section regards the validation of a self-developed Model in the Loop (MiL) environment of a P1-P4 plug-in hybrid electric car, using experimental data of a New European Driving Cycle test. In its original version, which is implemented on-board the vehicle, the energy management supervisor implements a heuristic, or rule-based, Energy Management Strategy (EMS). During this project, a different EMS has been developed, consisting of a sub-optimal control scheme called Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS), explained in detail in the second section.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of the Effect of the Fluid Properties and the Mesh Setup by Using the Schnerr-Sauer Cavitation Model

The primary target of the internal combustion engines design is to lower the fuel consumption and to enhance the combustion process quality, in order to reduce the raw emission levels without performances penalty. In this scenario the direct injection system plays a key role for both diesel and gasoline engines. The spray dynamic behaviour is crucial in defining the global and the local air index of the mixture, which in turns affects the combustion process development. At the same time it is widely recognized that the spray formation is influenced by numerous parameters, among which also the cavitation process inside every single hole of the injector nozzle. The proper prediction of the cavitation development inside the injector nozzle holes is crucial in predicting the liquid jet emerging from them.
Journal Article

Non-Intrusive Methodology for Estimation of Speed Fluctuations in Automotive Turbochargers under Unsteady Flow Conditions

The optimization of turbocharging systems for automotive applications has become crucial in order to increase engine performance and meet the requirements for pollutant emissions and fuel consumption reduction. Unfortunately, performing an optimal turbocharging system control is very difficult, mainly due to the fact that the flow through compressor and turbine is highly unsteady, while only steady flow maps are usually provided by the manufacturer. For these reasons, one of the most important quantities to be used onboard for optimal turbocharger system control is the rotational speed fluctuation, since it provides information both on turbocharger operating point and on the energy of the unsteady flow in the intake and exhaust circuits. This work presents a methodology that allows determining the instantaneous turbocharger rotational speed through a proper frequency processing of the signal coming from one accelerometer mounted on the turbocharger compressor.
Technical Paper

New Unconventional Airship Concept by Morphing the Lenticular Shape

The aim of this paper is to develop a new concept of unconventional airship based on morphing a lenticular shape while preserving the volumetric dimension. Lenticular shape is known to have relatively poor aerodynamic characteristics. It is also well known to have poor static and dynamic stability after the certain critical speed. The new shape presented in this paper is obtained by extending one and reducing the other direction of the original lenticular shape. The volume is kept constant through the morphing process. To improve the airship performance, four steps of morphing, starting from the lenticular shape, were obtained and compared in terms of aerodynamic characteristics, including drag, lift and pitching moment, and stability characteristics for two different operational scenarios. The comparison of the stability was carried out based on necessary deflection angle of the part of tail surface.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Diesel Fuel Spray Breakup by Using a Hybrid Model

Diesel engine CFD simulation is challenged by the need to improve the accuracy in the spray modeling due to the strong influence played by spray dynamics on evaporation rate, flow field, combustion process and emissions. This paper aims to present a hybrid model able to describe both primary and secondary breakup of high-dense high-pressure sprays. According to this approach, the model proposed by Huh and Gosman is used to compute the atomization of the liquid jet (primary breakup) while a modified version of the TAB model of O'Rourke and Amsden is used for the secondary breakup. The atomization model considers the jet turbulence at the nozzle exit and the growth of unstable wave on the jet surface. In order to validate the hybrid model, a free non-evaporating high-pressure-driven spray at engine like conditions has been simulated. The accuracy of the breakup time evaluation has been improved by tuning the TAB constant Ck according to the Pilch's experimental correlations.
Technical Paper

Knock Indexes Thresholds Setting Methodology

Gasoline engines can be affected, under certain operating conditions, by knocking combustions: this is still a factor limiting engines performance, and an accurate control is required for those engines working near the knock limit, in order to avoid permanent damage. HCCI engines also need a sophisticated combustion monitoring methodology, especially for high BMEP operating conditions. Many methodologies can be found in the literature to recognize potentially dangerous combustions, based on the analysis of the in-cylinder pressure signal. The signal is usually filtered and processed, in order to obtain an index that is then be compared to the knock threshold level. Thresholds setting is a challenging task, since usually indexes are not intrinsically related to the damages caused by abnormal combustions events. Furthermore, their values strongly depend on the engine operating conditions (speed and load), and thresholds must therefore vary with respect to speed and load.