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Technical Paper

Evaluating Particulate Emissions from a Flexible Fuel Vehicle with Direct Injection when Operated on Ethanol and Iso-butanol Blends

The relationship between ethanol and iso-butanol fuel concentrations and vehicle particulate matter emissions was investigated. This study utilized a gasoline direct injection (GDI) flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) with wall-guided fueling system tested with four fuels, including E10, E51, E83, and an iso-butanol blend at a proportion of 55% by volume. Emission measurements were conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer with an emphasis on the physical and chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results indicated that the addition of higher ethanol blends and the iso-butanol blend resulted in large reductions in PM mass, soot, and total and solid particle number emissions. PM emissions for the baseline E10 fuel were characterized by a higher fraction of elemental carbon (EC), whereas the PM emissions for the higher ethanol blends were more organic carbon (OC) in nature.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Vehicle Operating on a Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Renewable Diesel

We assessed the engine-out emissions of an ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a neat hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) from a light-duty diesel truck equipped with common rail direct injection. The vehicle was tested at least twice on each fuel using the LA-92 drive cycle and at steady-state conditions at 30 mph and 50 mph at different loads. Results showed reductions in the engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate emissions with HVO. The reductions in soot mass, solid particle number, and particulate matter (PM) mass emissions with HVO were due to the absence of aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds, as well as sulfur species, which are known precursors of soot formation. Volumetric fuel economy, calculated based on the carbon balance method, did not show statistically significant differences between the fuels.