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Technical Paper

Vehicle Trajectories After Intersection Collision Impact

The postcollision motion starts immediately upon completion of a collision impact where the vehicles obtain new sets of velocities through an exchange of momentum. Similitude with model study and fullscale automobile experiments indicate that the post-collision trajectory is essentially a plane motion, governed by inertia and tire friction. Trajectories depend on many parameters (such as tire friction coefficient, front wheel steering angle, vehicle geometrics, and whether wheels are locked or free to rotate) but not on the vehicle weight. Theoretical computation of trajectories are compared with experiments.
Technical Paper

The Performance Effects of Edge-Based Heat Transfer on Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells Compared to Face-Based Systems

Optimizing the hardware design and control strategies of thermal management systems (TMS) in battery packs using large format pouch cells is a difficult but important problem due to the limited understanding of how internal temperature distributions impact the performance and lifetime of the pack. Understanding these impacts is difficult due to the greatly varying length and time scales between the coupled phenomena, causing the need for complex and computationally expensive models. Here, an experimental investigation is performed in which a set of fixed one-dimensional temperature distributions are applied across the face of a Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) cathode lithium ion pouch cell in order to study the performance impacts. Effects on the open circuit voltage (OCV), Ohmic resistance, bulk discharge and charge resistance and instantaneous power are investigated.
Technical Paper

Surface Acoustic Wave Microhygrometer

A microhygrometer has been developed at JPL's Microdevices Laboratory based on the principle of dewpoint/frostpoint detection. The surface acoustic wave device used in this instrument is approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive to condensation than the optical sensor used in chilled-mirror hygrometers. In tests in the laboratory and on the NASA DC8, the SAW hygrometer has demonstrated more than an order of magnitude faster response than commercial chilled-mirror hygrometers, while showing comparable accuracy under steady-state conditions. Current development efforts are directed toward miniaturization and optimization of the microhygrometer electronics for flight validation experiments on a small radiosonde balloon.
Technical Paper

ST-Lib: A Library for Specifying and Classifying Model Behaviors

Test and verification procedures are a vital aspect of the development process for embedded control systems in the automotive domain. Formal requirements can be used in automated procedures to check whether simulation or experimental results adhere to design specifications and even to perform automatic test and formal verification of design models; however, developing formal requirements typically requires significant investment of time and effort for control software designers. We propose Signal Template Library (ST-Lib), a uniform modeling language to encapsulate a number of useful signal patterns in a formal requirement language with the goal of facilitating requirement formulation for automotive control applications. ST-Lib consists of basic modules known as signal templates. Informally, these specify a characteristic signal shape and provide numerical parameters to tune the shape.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Manipulated Electronic Control Units

Combatting the modification of automotive control systems is a current and future challenge for OEMs and suppliers. ‘Chip-tuning’ is a manifestation of manipulation of a vehicle's original setup and calibration. With the increase in automotive functions implemented in software and corresponding business models, chip tuning will become a major concern. Recognizing and reporting of tuned control units in a vehicle is required for technical as well as legal reasons. This work approaches the problem by capturing the behavior of relevant control units within a machine learning system called a recognition module. The recognition module continuously monitors vehicle's sensor data. It comprises a set of classifiers that have been trained on the intended behavior of a control unit before the vehicle is delivered. When the vehicle is on the road, the recognition module uses the classifier together with current data to ascertain that the behavior of the vehicle is as intended.
Technical Paper

Reactive Regulation of Single-Lane Vehicle-Road Interactions

This paper presents a driver assistance system designed to minimize the effect of driver reaction time on lane and speed maintenance operations. Nearly-instantaneous correcting actions are provided through a hierarchical arrangement of behaviors, by avoiding the time lag associated with deliberative or planning steps found in many control algorithms. Concepts originating in the field of robotics, including artificial potential fields and behavior-based systems, are interpreted for application to automotive control, where vehicle dynamics places considerable practical constraints on implementation. Ideas found in the study of emergent behavior in nature provide continuous, non-stepwise control signals, suitable for additive corrective inputs at highway velocities. This approach is effective for a substantial subset of road automobiles operating over a variety of speeds.
Journal Article

Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Automotive Control Units

Intellectual property rights and their protection is a cornerstone of the automotive value chain. The automotive industry is composed by a meshwork of tightly integrated organizations that cooperate and compete in a hierarchical marketplace. Trading know-how and other virtual assets between participants is an essential part of this business. Thereby, software as a medium to transport ideas, innovations, and technologies plays a particular role. Protection of virtual goods and their associated rights is a current issue whose solution will determine how business will be done in the future automotive market. Automotive experts and researchers agree that ICT security technologies are a vital part to implement such a market. In this paper we examine the software life cycle of an automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and discuss potential threats and countermeasures for each stage.
Technical Paper

Potential for Closed Loop Air-Fuel Ratio Management of a Diesel Engine

The potential for improving the efficiency of a heavy duty turbocharged diesel engine by closed loop Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) management has been evaluated. Testing conducted on a 12 liter diesel engine, and subsequent data evaluation, has established the feasibility of controlling the performance through electronic control of air management hardware. Furthermore, the feasibility of using direct in-cylinder pressure measurement for control feedback has been established. A compact and robust fiber optics sensor for measuring real time in-cylinder pressure has been demonstrated on a test engine. A preferred method for reducing the cylinder pressure data for control feedback has been established for continued development.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design of Reliable Control Systems

In practical applications, failures in the components of the control system can lead to improper, or even unstable, operation of the control loop. These failures can be associated with the process (abrupt change in the process dynamics), the measuring and manipulating devices (sensors, actuators) or the controller itself. It is therefore desired to design control system capable of handling such events in the sense that stability is guaranteed and performance degradation is minimized. The proposed formulation of the reliable performance problem involves the simultaneous minimization of the performance index for all considered failure scenarios. Employing the fractional representation theory, the reliable performance problem is formulated as a quadratically constrained control problem. The solution to this problem is discussed in this paper and an illustrative example is presented.
Technical Paper

Model for Control of Combustion in a Piston Engine

Significant improvement of engine performance can be achieved by ushering in a micro-electronic system to control the execution of combustion - an exothermic process whose sole purpose is to generate pressure. Hence, the primary feedback for the controller is provided by a pressure transducer. The activators are piezo-electrically activated pintle valves of MEMS type. The task of the micro-electronic processor is to provide an accurate feed-forward signal for the actuators on the basis of the information obtained from the feedback signal, within a time interval between consecutive cycles. Furnished here for this purpose is an algorithm for an interface module between the pressure sensor and the governor. Concomitantly, the gains thus attainable in the reduction of fuel consumption and curtailment of pollutant formation are thereby assessed. The implementation of this method of approach is illustrated by application to a HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Model and Control of Heat Release in Engines

The concept of the paper stems from the premise that the process of “heat release” in engines involves in essence the evolution and deposition of exothermic energy generated by combustion-events that can be governed promptly by a feedback, adaptive micro-electronic control system. The key to its realization is the principle of DISC (Direct Injection Stratified Charge) engine, implemented by a multi-jet system. The background and the salient features of such a system, referred to as a CCE (Controlled Combustion Engine), have been described in a companion paper (SAE 951961). Presented here are fundamental aspects of the model of the exothermic process and the intrinsic properties of its control system.
Technical Paper

Meeting Both ZEV and PNGV Goals with a Hybrid Electric Vehicle - An Exploration

This paper is written to provide information on the fuel efficiency, emissions and energy cost of vehicles ranging from a pure electric (ZEV) to gasoline hybrid vehicles with electric range varying from 30 mi (50km) to 100 mi (160km). The Federal government s PNGV and CARB s ZEV have different goals, this paper explores some possibilities for hybrid-electric vehicle designs to meet both goals with existing technologies and batteries. The SAE/CARB testing procedures for determining energy and emission performance for EV and HEV and CARB s HEV ruling for ZEV credit are also critically evaluated. This paper intends to clarify some confusion over the comparison, discussion and design of electric- hybrid- and conventional- vehicles as well.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Testing of a Continuous Emissions Monitor for Trace Level Sulfur Dioxide

The measurement of SO2 levels in vehicle exhaust can provide important information in understanding the relative contribution of sulfur and sulfate from fuel vs. oil source to PM. For this study, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) that can measure SO2 down to 20 ppbV in real-time was built and evaluated. The DOAS consisted of an extractive sampling train, a cylindrical sampling cell with a single-path design to minimize cell volume, a spectrometer, and a deuterium lamp light source with a UVC range of ∼200-230 nanometer (nm). Laboratory tests showed detection limits were approximately in the range of 12 to 15 ppbV and showed good linearity over SO2 concentration ranges of 20 to 953 ppbV. Interference tests showed some interference by NO and by NH3, at levels of 300 ppmV and 16.6 ppmV, respectively.
Journal Article

Evaluation and Modification of Constant Volume Sampler Based Procedure for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHVs) consume both fossil fuel and grid electricity, which imposes emission testing challenges on the current constant volume sampler (CVS) test method. One reason is that in the charge-depleting cycle, PHVs having all-electric range operate the engine for a small portion of the traction energy need, causing the CVS to overdilute the exhaust gas. The other reason is that the dilution factor (DF) in the EPA calculation has an error caused by ignoring the CO₂ concentration in ambient air. This paper evaluates these challenges by testing a Toyota PHV on the industry standard CVS system combined with additional continuous sampling methodology for continuous diluents, smooth approach orifice (SAO) measurement for ambient air flow, and fuel flow meter (FFM) measurement for fuel consumption. The current EPA DF can produce an error resulting in higher mass calculation.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Particulate Emissions from a Flexible Fuel Vehicle with Direct Injection when Operated on Ethanol and Iso-butanol Blends

The relationship between ethanol and iso-butanol fuel concentrations and vehicle particulate matter emissions was investigated. This study utilized a gasoline direct injection (GDI) flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) with wall-guided fueling system tested with four fuels, including E10, E51, E83, and an iso-butanol blend at a proportion of 55% by volume. Emission measurements were conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer with an emphasis on the physical and chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results indicated that the addition of higher ethanol blends and the iso-butanol blend resulted in large reductions in PM mass, soot, and total and solid particle number emissions. PM emissions for the baseline E10 fuel were characterized by a higher fraction of elemental carbon (EC), whereas the PM emissions for the higher ethanol blends were more organic carbon (OC) in nature.
Journal Article

Electrical Architecture Optimization and Selection - Cost Minimization via Wire Routing and Wire Sizing

In this paper, we propose algorithms for cost minimization of physical wires that are used to connect electronic devices in the vehicle. The wiring cost is one of the most important drivers of electrical architecture selection. Our algorithms perform wire routing from a source device to a destination device through harnesses, by selecting the optimized wire size. In addition, we provide optimized splice allocation with limited constraints. Based on the algorithms, we develop a tool which is integrated into an off-the-shelf optimization and workflow system-level design tool. The algorithms and the tool provide an efficient, flexible, scalable, and maintainable approach for cost analysis and architecture selection.
Technical Paper

Easily Verifiable Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller Design with Application to Automotive Engines

Verification and validation (V&V) are essential stages in the design cycle of industrial controllers to remove the gap between the designed and implemented controller. In this study, a model-based adaptive methodology is proposed to enable easily verifiable controller design based on the formulation of a sliding mode controller (SMC). The proposed adaptive SMC improves the controller robustness against major implementation imprecisions including sampling and quantization. The application of the proposed technique is demonstrated on the engine cold start emission control problem in a mid-size passenger car. The cold start controller is first designed in a single-input single-output (SISO) structure with three separate sliding surfaces, and then is redesigned based on a multiinput multi-output (MIMO) SMC design technique using nonlinear balanced realization.
Technical Paper

Development of a Carbon/Epoxy Body for a High Performance Vehicle

Considerations follow [1] on the development of the carbon/epoxy body of the Lamborghini Murcièlago. Laminate lay-up and material selection for stiffness criteria are reviewed. Engineering solutions for tooling operations in order to achieve class A surface certification are analyzed. Design for environmental aging is also discussed and accelerated degradation testing methods are described. Finally, the program that lead to the adoption of hybrid adhesive bonding as sole method of joining the composite body components to the tubular steel frame is reviewed.
Technical Paper

Controlled Combustion Engines (CCE)

The fact that, in our times, the execution of the exothermic process of combustion (‘heat release”) remains virtually uncontrolled is astonishing. Upon an attempt to rationalize this anomaly on historical grounds, technological means to rectify this astounding state of affairs are presented. They are based on the premise that, in the course of this process, the cylinder-piston enclosure is, in effect, a full-fledged chemical reactor. The salient feature of control is then active intervention into chemical reaction by turbulent jets. Principal elements of the control system are, as in any feedback mechanism, (1) sensors, (2) actuators and (3) a governor. The object of the first is to measure the profile of pressure - the useful output of the process. The second consists of a set of turbulent jet generators for injection of fuel and its mixing with air, as well as for ignition.
Technical Paper

Automotive Electronics: Trends and Challenges

The car as a self-contained microcosm is undergoing radical changes due to the advances of electronic technology. We need to rethink what a "car'' really is and the role of electronics in it. Electronics is now essential to control the movements of a car, of the chemical and electrical processes taking place in it, to entertain the passengers, to establish connectivity with the rest of the world, to ensure safety. What will an automobile manufacturer's core competence become in the next few years? Will electronics be the essential element in car manufacturing and design? We will address some of these issues and we will present some important developments in the area of system design that can strongly impact the way in which a car is designed.