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Technical Paper

Visualization of the Gas Flow Field within a Diesel Particulate Filter Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

In recent years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be an attractive method for fluid flow visualization. In this work, we show how MRI velocimetry techniques can be used to non-invasively investigate and visualize the hydrodynamics of exhaust gas in a diesel particulate filter (DPF), both when clean and after loading with diesel engine exhaust particulate matter. The measurements have been used to directly measure the gas flow in the inlet and outlet channels of the DPF, both axial profiles along the length and profiles across the channel diameter. Further, from this information we show that it is possible to indirectly ascertain the superficial wall-flow gas velocity and the soot loading profiles along the filter channel length.
Technical Paper

The Fast FID as a Velocimeter for Flow Measurements in an Automotive Catalyst

The gas velocity through an automotive catalyst has been determined by measuring the time of flight of a pulse of propane injected at the inlet plane of the catalyst. The arrival time at the exit plane was detected by a fast flame ionization detector. By synchronizing and delaying the injection of propane with respect to the engine crankshaft position, the fluctuations of the exhaust gas velocity during the engine cycle were investigated. A number of tests at different engine load and speed points were carried out. The results show a complex velocity/time characteristic, including flow reversals. The technique is shown to be a viable option for flow measurement in this harsh environment.
Technical Paper

Studying the Influence of Direct Injection on PCCI Combustion and Emissions at Engine Idle Condition Using Two Dimensional CFD and Stochastic Reactor Model

A detailed chemical model was implemented in the KIVA-3V two dimensional CFD code to investigate the effects of the spray cone angle and injection timing on the PCCI combustion process and emissions in an optical research diesel engine. A detailed chemical model for Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) consisting of 157 species and 1552 reactions was used to simulate diesel fuel chemistry. The model validation shows good agreement between the predicted and measured pressure and emissions data in the selected cases with various spray angles and injection timings. If the injection is retarded to -50° ATDC, the spray impingement at the edge of the piston corner with 100° injection angle was shown to enhance the mixing of air and fuel. The minimum fuel loss and more widely distributed fuel vapor contribute to improving combustion efficiency and lowering uHC and CO emissions in the engine idle condition.
Technical Paper

Study of Steady State and Transient EGR Behaviour of a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

It is well known that accurate EGR control is paramount to controlling engine out emissions during steady state and transient operation of a diesel engine. The direct measurement of EGR is however non-trivial and especially difficult in engines with no external EGR control where the intake manifold CO2 levels can be measured more readily. This work studies the EGR behaviour in a medium duty diesel engine with a passive EGR rebreathing strategy for steady state and transient operation. High speed (response time ∼1ms) in-cylinder sampling using modified GDI valves is coupled with high frequency response analysers to measure the cyclic in-cylinder CO2, from which the EGR rate is deduced. It was found that controlling the EGR using the passive rebreathing strategy during certain combined speed and load transients is challenging, causing high smoke and NO emissions.
Technical Paper

Simulating a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with a DEE/EtOH Blend

We numerically simulate a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with a blend of ethanol and diethyl ether by means of a stochastic reactor model (SRM). A 1D CFD code is employed to calculate gas flow through the engine, whilst the SRM accounts for combustion and convective heat transfer. The results of our simulations are compared to experimental measurements obtained using a Caterpillar CAT3401 single-cylinder Diesel engine modified for HCCI operation. We consider emissions of CO, CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons as functions of the crank angle at 50% heat release. In addition, we establish the dependence of ignition timing, combustion duration, and emissions on the mixture ratio of the two fuel components. Good qualitative agreement is found between our computations and the available experimental data.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Fraction Measurement and Estimation on a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Utilizing the Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

This paper is concerned with the Residual Gas Fraction measurement and estimation on a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. A novel in-cylinder gas sampling technique was employed to obtain cyclic dynamic measurements of CO2 concentration in the compression stroke and in combination with CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stroke, cyclic Residual Gas Fraction was measured. The measurements were compared to estimations from a physical, 4-cylinder, single-zone model of the HCCI cycle and good agreement was found in steady engine running conditions. Some form of oscillating behaviour that HCCI exhibits because of exhaust gas coupling was studied and the model was modified to simulate this behaviour.
Technical Paper

Premixed Turbulent Combustion Flowfield Measurements Using PIV and LST and Their Application to Flamelet Modelling of Engine Combustion

Flamelet modelling of premixed turbulent combustion can be applied to spark-ignition engine combustion. To address and validate several modelling criteria, two measurement techniques are used in a burner flame to study the interaction between turbulent flowfields and combustion for subsequent application to engine combustion. Particle Image Velocimetry and Light Sheet Tomography are used together to measure conditional velocities simultaneously in reactant and product mixtures. Correlations of velocity and reaction scalar fluctuations indicate that counter-gradient turbulent diffusion must be accounted for when modelling this flowfield. Comparisons of spatial averaging of instantaneous and ensemble-averaged data are made and the application of similar techniques to engine combustion is discussed.
Technical Paper

Performance Improvement of an Asymmetric Twin Scroll Turbocharger Turbine through Secondary Flow Injection

A powerful and efficient turbocharger turbine benefits the engine in many aspects, such as better transient response, lower NOx emissions and better fuel economy. The turbine performance can be further improved by employing secondary flow injection through an injector over the shroud section. A secondary flow injection system can be integrated with a conventional turbine without affecting its original design parameters, including the rotor, volute, and back disk. In this study, a secondary flow injection system has been developed to fit for an asymmetric twin-scroll turbocharger turbine, which was designed for a 6-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine, aiming at improving the vehicle’s performance at 1100 rpm under full-loading conditions. The shape of the flow injector is similar to a single-entry volute but can produce the flow angle in both circumferential and meridional directions when the flow leaves the injector and enters the shroud cavity.
Technical Paper

Parameterization and Transient Validation of a Variable Geometry Turbocharger for Mean-Value Modeling at Low and Medium Speed-Load Points

The parameterization of variable geometry turbochargers for mean-value modeling is typically based on compressor and turbine flow and efficiency maps provided by the supplier. At low turbocharger speeds, and hence low airflows, the heat exchange via the turbocharger housing affects the temperature-based measurements of the efficiencies. Therefore, the low-speed operating regime of the turbocharger is excluded from the supplied maps and mean-value models mainly rely on extrapolation into this region, which is regularly met in emission drive cycles, and hence of significance. This paper presents experimental data from a 2.0-liter turbocharged common-rail diesel engine. While the flow maps extend from the high-speed region in a natural way, the efficiency maps are severely affected by the heat transfer effect. It is argued that this effect should be included in the mean-value model.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Injection Strategy, Combustion Characteristics and Emissions for IC Engines Using Advanced Simulation Technologies

Regulations concerning emissions from diesel- and gasoline-fuelled engines are becoming ever more stringent in all parts of the world. Historically these targets have been achieved through on-going technological development using an iterative process of computational modeling, design, build and test. Computational modeling is certainly the cheapest aspect within this process and if employed to meet more of the challenges associated with development, has the potential to significantly reduce developmental cost and time scales. Furthermore, computational models are an effective means to retain and apply often highly focused technical knowledge of complex processes within development teams thus delivering greater insight into processes.
Journal Article

Multi-dimensional Conditional Moment Closure Modelling Applied to a Heavy-duty Common-rail Diesel Engine

A multi-dimensional combustion code implementing the Conditional Moment Closure turbulent combustion model interfaced with a well-established RANS two-phase flow field solver has been employed to study a broad range of operating conditions for a heavy duty direct-injection common-rail Diesel engine. These conditions include different loads (25%, 50%, 75% and full load) and engine speeds (1250 and 1830 RPM) and, with respect to the fuel path, different injection timings and rail pressures. A total of nine cases have been simulated. Excellent agreement with experimental data has been found for the pressure traces and the heat release rates, without adjusting any model constants. The chemical mechanism used contains a detailed NOx sub-mechanism. The predicted emissions agree reasonably well with the experimental data considering the range of operating points and given no adjustments of any rate constants have been employed.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of a Kinetics-Based HCCI Model Using Engine Data

A multi-objective optimization scheme based on stochastic global search is developed and used to examine the performance of an HCCI model containing a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism, and to study interrelations among different model responses. A stochastic reactor model of an HCCI engine is used in this study, and dedicated HCCI engine experiments are performed to provide reference for the optimization. The results revealed conflicting trends among objectives normally used in mechanism optimization, such as ignition delay and engine cylinder pressure history, indicating that a single best combination of optimization variables for these objectives did not exist. This implies that optimizing chemical mechanisms to maintain universal predictivity across such conflicting responses will only yield a predictivity tradeoff. It also implies that careful selection of optimization objectives increases the likelihood of better predictivity for these objectives.
Journal Article

Measuring the Impact of Engine Oils and Fuels on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Downsized Engines

One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, LSPI is thought to arise from local auto-ignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement). This paper describes a method for testing the propensity of different contaminants to cause a local pre-ignition in a gasoline engine. During one cycle, a small amount of contaminant is injected into one cylinder of a 4 cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Partially Premixed Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled Gasoline and Diesel with a Mixture of

Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel. The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise. In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Technical Paper

Impact of Lubricant Composition on Low-speed Pre-Ignition

One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of pre-ignitions at low engine speed. These pre-ignitions may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, pre-ignitions are thought to arise from local autoignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement).
Technical Paper

Highly Homogeneous Compression Ignition in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Biodiesel

Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control Using Dual-Fuel Approach: Experimental and Modeling Investigations

A dual-fuel approach to control combustion in HCCI engine is investigated in this work. This approach involves controlling the combustion heat release rate by adjusting fuel reactivity according to the conditions inside the cylinder. Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder research engine fueled with different ratios of primary reference fuels and operated at different speed and load conditions, and results from these experiments showed a clear potential for the approach to expand the HCCI engine operation window. Such potential is further demonstrated dynamically using an optimized stochastic reactor model integrated within a MATLAB code that simulates HCCI multi-cycle operation and closed-loop control of fuel ratio. The model, which utilizes a reduced PRF mechanism, was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm and then compared to a wide range of engine data.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition in a Light Duty Multi Cylinder Engine: A Study of Low Load and Low Speed Operation

The objective of this study was to examine the operating characteristics of a light duty multi cylinder compression ignition engine with regular gasoline fuel at low engine speed and load. The effects of fuel stratification by means of multiple injections as well as the sensitivity of auto-ignition and burn rate to intake pressure and temperature are presented. The measurements used in this study included gaseous emissions, filter smoke opacity and in-cylinder indicated information. It was found that stable, low emission operation was possible with raised intake manifold pressure and temperature, and that fuel stratification can lead to an increase in stability and a reduced reliance on increased temperature and pressure. It was also found that the auto-ignition delay sensitivity of gasoline to intake temperature and pressure was low within the operating window considered in this study.
Journal Article

Fundamental Aspects of Jet Ignition for Natural Gas Engines

Large-bore natural gas engines may use pre-chamber ignition. Despite extensive research in engine environments, the exact nature of the jet, as it exits the pre-chamber orifice, is not thoroughly understood and this leads to uncertainty in the design of such systems. In this work, a specially-designed rig comprising a quartz pre-chamber fit with an orifice and a turbulent flowing mixture outside the pre-chamber was used to study the pre-chamber flame, the jet, and the subsequent premixed flame initiation mechanism by OH* and CH* chemiluminescence. Ethylene and methane were used. The experimental results are supplemented by LES and 0D modelling, providing insights into the mass flow rate evolution at the orifice and into the nature of the fluid there. Both LES and experiment suggest that for large orifice diameters, the flow that exits the orifice is composed of a column of hot products surrounded by an annulus of unburnt pre-chamber fluid.