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Technical Paper

Two-Photon Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide in a Diesel Engine

In-cylinder concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in a diesel engine were studied using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique that employs two-photon excitation. Two-photon NO LIF images were acquired during the expansion and exhaust portions of the engine cycle providing useful NO fluorescence signal levels from 60° after top dead center through the end of the exhaust stroke. The engine was fueled with the oxygenated compound diethylene glycol diethyl ether to minimize soot within the combustion chamber. Results of the two-photon NO LIF technique from the exhaust portion of the cycle were compared with chemiluminescence NO exhaust-gas measurements over a range of engine loads from 1.4 to 16 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. The overall trend of the two-photon NO LIF signal showed good qualitative agreement with the NO exhaust-gas measurements.
Technical Paper

Study of Biodiesel Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber with Different Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Visualization in an Optical HSDI Diesel Engine Operated in Low-Temperature Combustion Mode with Bio-diesel and Diesel Fuels

An optically accessible single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) Diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common rail injection system was used to study the spray and combustion processes for European low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel, and their blends at different blending ratio. Influences of injection timing and fuel type on liquid fuel evolution and combustion characteristics were investigated under similar loads. The in-cylinder pressure was measured and the heat release rate was calculated. High-speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the liquid distribution and evolution. High-speed combustion video was also captured for all the studied cases using the same frame rate. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. The experimental results indicated that for all of the conditions the heat release rate was dominated by a premixed combustion pattern and the heat release rate peak became smaller with injection timing retardation for all test fuels.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Smokeless Combustion within a Small-Bore HSDI Diesel Engine Using a Narrow Angle Injector

Combustion processes employing different injection strategies in a High-Speed Direct Inject (HSDI) diesel engine were investigated using a narrow angle injector (70 degree). Whole-cycle combustion was visualized using a high-speed digital video camera. The liquid spray evolution process was imaged by the Mie-scattering technique. Different injection strategies were employed in this study including early pre-Top Dead Center (TDC) injection, post-TDC injection, multiple injection strategies with an early pre-TDC injection and a late post-TDC injection. Smokeless combustion was obtained under some operating conditions. Compared with the original injection angle (150 degree), some new combustion phenomena were observed for certain injection strategies. For early pre-TDC injection strategies, liquid fuel impingement is observed that results in some newly observed fuel film combustion flame (pool fires) following an HCCI-like weak flame.
Technical Paper

Performance of Alcohol Blends in Diesel Engines

A normally aspirated, four-stroke diesel engine was tested under operation with two alcohol containing fuel blends. The fuels contained ethanol, butanol, heavy virgin distillate, diesel Nos. 2 and 4, and a cetane improver. The proportions of the components were selected to give blends with properties within the range of diesel No. 2. The final blends contained 25 and 43.7 percent alchohols. Test results showed a loss in power due to the reduced heating value of the blends, and some deterioration of performance at light loads. At intermediate to heavy loads, satisfactory performance was obtained.
Technical Paper

Multicomponent Liquid and Vapor Fuel Distribution Measurements in the Cylinder of a Port-Injected, Spark-Ignition Engine

A 2.5L, V-6, port-injected, spark-ignition engine was modified for optical access by separating the head from the block and installing a Bowditch extended piston with a fused-silica top and a fused-silica liner in one of the cylinders. Two heads were employed in the study. One produced swirl and permitted modulation of the swirl level, and another produced a tumbling flow in the cylinder. Planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence, which allows the simultaneous, but separate, imaging of liquid and vapor fuel, was extended to capture components of different volatilities in a model fuel designed to simulate the distillation curve of a typical gasoline. The exciplex fluorescence technique was calibrated in a separate cell where careful control of mixture composition, temperature and pressure was possible. The results show that large-scale motion induced during intake is critical for good mixing during the intake and compression strokes.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Blow-by in a Small-Bore High-Speed Direct-Injection Optically Accessible Diesel Engine

The blow-by phenomenon is seldom acquainted with diesel engines, but for a small bore HSDI optical diesel engine, the effects are significant. A difference in peak pressure up to 25% can be observed near top-dead-center. To account for the pressure differences, a 0-D crevice flow model with a dynamic ring pack model was incorporated into the KIVA code to determine the amount of blow-by. The ring pack model will take into account the forces acting on the piston rings, the position of the piston rings, and the pressure located at each region of the crevice volume at every time step. The crevice flow model takes into consideration the flow through the circumferential gap, ring gap, and the ring side clearance. As a result, the cylinder mass, trapped mass in the crevice regions, and the blow-by values are known. Validation of the crevice model is accomplished by comparing the in-cylinder motoring pressure trace with the experimental motoring data.
Technical Paper

Methane Jet Penetration in a Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

A direct-injection natural gas (DING) engine was modified for optical access to allow the use of laser diagnostic techniques to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the cylinder. The injection and mixing processes were examined using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone-seeded natural gas to obtain qualitative maps of the fuel/air ratio. Initial acetone PLIF images were acquired in a quiescent combustion chamber with the piston locked in a position corresponding to 90° BTDC. A series of single shot images acquired in 0.1 ms intervals was used to measure the progression of one of the fuel jets across the cylinder. Cylinder pressures as high as 2 MPa were used to match the in-cylinder density during injection in a firing engine. Subsequent images were acquired in a motoring engine at 600 rpm with injections starting at 30, 20, and 15° BTDC in 0.5 crank angle degree increments.
Technical Paper

Measurements of the Evaporation Behavior of the Film of Fuel Blends

The formation of fuel film in the combustion cylinder affects the mixing process of the air and the fuel, and the process of the combustion propagation in engines. Some models of film evaporation have been developed to predict the evaporation behavior of the film, but rarely experimental results have been produced, especially when the temperature is high. In this study, the evaporation behavior of the film of different species of oil and their blends at different temperature are observed. The 45 μL films of isooctane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and their blends were placed on a quartz glass substrate in the closed temperature-controlled chamber. The shape change of the film during evaporation was monitored by a high-speed camera through the window of the chamber. First, the binary blends film of isooctane and one of the other three oils were evaporated at 30 °C, 50 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Machinability of MADI™

High strength materials have desirable mechanical properties but often cannot be machined economically, which results in unacceptably high finished component cost. MADI™ (machinable austempered ductile iron) overcomes this difficultly and provides the highly desirable combination of high strength, excellent low temperature toughness, good machinability and attractive finished component cost. The Machine Tool Systems Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign performed extensive machinability testing and determined the appropriate tools, speeds and feeds for milling and drilling ( This paper provides the information necessary for the efficient and economical machining of MADI™ and provides comparative machinability data for common grades of ductile iron (EN-GJS-400-18, 400-15, 450-10, 500-7, 600-3 & 700-2) for comparison.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion within a Small Bore High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion employing single main injection strategies in an optically accessible single cylinder small-bore High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common-rail electronic fuel injection system was investigated in this work. In-cylinder pressure was taken to analyze the heat release process for different operating parameters. The whole cycle combustion process was visualized with a high-speed digital camera by imaging natural flame luminosity. The flame images taken from both the bottom of the optical piston and the side window were taken simultaneously using one camera to show three dimensional combustion events within the combustion chamber. The engine was operated under similar Top Dead Center (TDC) conditions to metal engines. Because the optical piston has a realistic geometry, the results presented are close to real metal engine operations.
Technical Paper

Injector Nozzle Coking With Oxygenated Diesel

The use of substances other than petroleum based fuels for power sources is not a new concept. Prior to the advent of petroleum fueled vehicles numerous other substances were used to create mobile sources of power. As the world's petroleum supply dwindles, alternative fuel sources are sought after to replace petroleum fuels. Many industries are particularly interested in the development of renewable fuel sources, or biologically derived fuel sources, which includes ethanol. The use of No. 2 diesel as well as many alternative fuels in compression ignition engines result in injector coking. Injector coking can severely limit engine performance by limiting the amount of fuel delivered to the combustion chamber and altering the spray pattern. Injector tip coking is also one of the most sensitive measures of diesel fuel quality [1]. A machine vision system was implemented to quantify injector coking accumulation when a compression ignition engine was fueled with oxydiesel.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Liquid Fuel During the Intake Stroke of a Port-Injected Spark Ignition Engine

The presence and distribution of liquid fuel within an engine cylinder at cold start may adversely affect the hydrocarbon emissions from port-injected, spark ignition engines. Therefore, high speed videos of the liquid fuel entry into the cylinder of an optical engine were recorded in order to assess the effect of various engine operating parameters on the amount of liquid fuel inducted into the cylinder, the sizes of liquid drops present and the distribution of the fuel within the cylinder. A 2.5L, V-6, port-injected, spark ignition engine was modified so that optical access is available throughout the entire volume of one of the cylinders. A fused silica cylinder is sandwiched between the separated block and head of the engine and a “Bowditch-type” piston extension is mounted to the production piston. The Bowditch piston has a fused silica crown so that visualization is possible through the top of the piston as well as through the transparent cylinder.
Technical Paper

High-Load Compression-Ignition Engine Emissions Reduction with Inverted Phi-Sensitivity Fuel Using Multiple Injection Strategies

Inverted phi (ϕ)-sensitivity is a new approach of NOx reduction in compression-ignition (C.I.) engines. Previously, pure ethanol (E100) was selected as the preliminary test fuel in a single injection compression-ignition engine, and was shown to have good potential for low engine-out NOx emissions under low and medium load conditions due to its inverted ignition sequence. Under high load, however, the near-stoichiometric and non-homogeneous fuel/air distribution removes the effectiveness of the inverted ϕ-sensitivity. Therefore, it is desirable to recover the combustion sequence in the chamber such that the leaner region is burned before the near-stoichiometric region. When the combustion in near-stoichiometric region is inhibited, the temperature rise of that region is hindered and the formation of NOx is suppressed.
Journal Article

Flow Visualization and Experimental Measurement of Compressor Oil Separator

This article presents basic separation mechanisms with coalescing/impinging separators studied as the add-on to current popular centrifugal designs. The coalescence and impingement of oil on wire mesh and wave-plates are visualized and tested to investigate the impact of geometry and flow conditions on oil separation efficiency. Re-entrainment phenomenon is explained based on the mass balance. Oil mist flow at the swashplate reciprocating compressor discharge is quantified by video processing method to provide detailed information of the oil droplets. The physics behind oil separator is illustrated by visualization and measurement in this study, which gives useful guidelines for oil separator design and operation. The flow visualization shows the details of oil passing through different oil separation structures. Videos are quantified to provide information like droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction.
Technical Paper

FIND: Framework for Intelligent Design

A novel framework for intelligent design of engine systems is introduced. Existing models of engine components and processes are integrated into a multi-purpose, flexible configuration framework. Fundamental thermodynamic elements, including zero-dimensional control volumes, one-dimensional pulsating fluid lines, and continuous flow machines are identified as the constituting components of engine systems. Models of the behavior of these elements, with various degrees of thermodynamic resolution, have been implemented into the framework. The task of the engine designer is, thus, reduced into selecting appropriate thermodynamic elements to model his engine system based on his design objectives. The applicability of the present framework to a wide range of simulation problems is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oxygenated Compounds on Combustion and Soot Evolution in a DI Diesel Engine:Broadband Natural Luminosity Imaging

The detailed mechanisms by which oxygenated diesel fuels reduce engine-out soot emissions are not well understood. The literature contains conflicting results as to whether a fuel's overall oxygen content is the only important parameter in determining its soot-reduction potential, or if oxygenate molecular structure or other variables also play significant roles. To begin to resolve this controversy, experiments were conducted at a 1200-rpm, moderate-load operating condition using a modern-technology, 4-stroke, heavy-duty DI diesel engine with optical access. Images of broadband natural luminosity (i.e., light emission without spectral filtering) from the combustion chamber, coupled with heat-release and efficiency analyses, are presented for three test-fuels. One test-fuel (denoted GE80) was oxygenated with tri-propylene glycol methyl ether; the second (denoted BM88) was oxygenated with di-butyl maleate. The overall oxygen contents of these two fuels were matched at 26% by weight.
Technical Paper

Developing Flow Map for Two-Phase R134a after Expansion Device

This paper presents a mapping of developing adiabatic two-phase R134a flow directly after the expansion valve until the flow is “fully developed” in a 15.3mm inner diameter pipe. Flow characteristics of separation distance, flow type in the homogenous region, void fraction as a function of tube length, and fully developed flow region void fraction and regime were quantified and described.