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Technical Paper

The In-Situ Measurement of the Thermal Diffusivity of Combustion Chamber Deposits in Spark Ignition Engines

1992-02-01
920513
Combustion chamber deposits in spark ignition engines act as thermal insulators and can lead to octane requirement increase. The thermal properties of deposits are not well documented, the reported thermal diffusivity values vary by two orders of magnitude. Two thermal property measurement techniques were compared, the flash and steady illumination laser methods. The steady laser method was more suitable for deposit property measurement. A comparison was made of the thermal properties of deposits grown with a base fuel with the thermal properties of deposits grown with the base fuel doped with reformer bottoms. For the clean fuel the thermal diffusivity ranged from 3.5 to 3.9-7 m2/s, at various locations around the combustion chamber. For the fuel doped with reformer bottoms the thermal diffusivity ranged from 1.1 to 1.9-7 m2/s at different locations within the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Smart Icing Systems for Aircraft Icing Safety

2003-06-16
2003-01-2100
Aircraft incidents and accidents in icing are often the result of degradation in performance and control. However, current ice sensors measure the amount of ice and not the effect on performance and control. No processed aircraft performance degradation information is available to the pilot. In this paper research is reported on a system to estimate aircraft performance and control changes due to ice, then use this information to automatically operate ice protection systems, provide aircraft envelope protection and, if icing is severe, adapt the flight controls. Key to such a safety system would be he proper communication to, and coordination with, the flight crew. This paper reviews the basic system concept, as well as the research conducted in three critical areas; aerodynamics and flight mechanics, aircraft control and identification, and human factors.
Technical Paper

Performance of Alcohol Blends in Diesel Engines

1981-04-01
810681
A normally aspirated, four-stroke diesel engine was tested under operation with two alcohol containing fuel blends. The fuels contained ethanol, butanol, heavy virgin distillate, diesel Nos. 2 and 4, and a cetane improver. The proportions of the components were selected to give blends with properties within the range of diesel No. 2. The final blends contained 25 and 43.7 percent alchohols. Test results showed a loss in power due to the reduced heating value of the blends, and some deterioration of performance at light loads. At intermediate to heavy loads, satisfactory performance was obtained.
Technical Paper

Iced-Airfoil and Wing Aerodynamics

2003-06-16
2003-01-2098
Past research on airfoil and wing aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the periods after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This section identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, rime ice, horn ice, and spanwise ridge ice. In these sections the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are reviewed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are briefly summarized.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Cyclic Fatigue Damage Modeling of Alumina

1994-03-01
940251
Cyclic loading is not as damaging as static loading of ceramics at high temperatures. Microcrack growth retardation has been established as a mechanism for increasing the durability of ceramics at high temperatures. A combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a mechanistic understanding of the deformation and failure processes in ceramic materials at high temperatures. Results demonstrate that the high temperature behavior of some ceramic material systems are controlled by the behavior of the grain boundary phase whose response is considerably different under static and cyclic loading.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Modifying an Existing Semi-Trailer Air Suspension Into an Anti-Rollover System

2001-11-12
2001-01-2733
This paper examines the feasibility of modifying an existing semi-trailer air suspension system to function as an anti-rollover system in addition to its normal suspension operation. The semi-trailer model used is a dynamic, two-dimensional system. The anti-rollover system controller is formulated using projective control theory. All other factors being equal, simulations show that use of the modified suspension system decreases the weight shift when the semi-trailer undergoes lateral acceleration. By decreasing weight shift, the modified suspension system decreases the possibility of rollover.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Tripod Constant Velocity (CV) Joint Friction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0582
Constant Velocity (CV) joints are an integral part of modern vehicles, significantly affecting steering, suspension, and vehicle vibration comfort levels. Each driveshaft comprises of two types of CV joints, namely fixed and plunging types connected via a shaft. The main friction challenges in such CV joints are concerned with plunging CV joints as their function is to compensate for the length changes due to steering motion, wheel bouncing and engine movement. Although CV joints are common in vehicles, there are aspects of their internal friction and contact dynamics that are not fully understood or modeled. Current research works on modeling CV joint effects on vehicle performance assume constant empirical friction coefficient values. Such models, however are not always accurate, especially under dynamic conditions which is the case for CV tripod joints.
Technical Paper

Estimating the Expected Effectiveness of Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning Systems in Reducing Controlled Flight Into Terrain by Aircraft Operating under Part-135

2000-04-11
2000-01-2105
In order to reduce “Controlled Flight Into Terrain” (CFIT) accidents the FAA proposed, in 1998, the regulation that Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning Systems (EGPWS) should be installed in all turbine powered aircraft with 6 or more seats for passengers, operating under Federal Aviation Regulation Part-135 (commuter and charter operations). We analyzed all Part-135 crashes of this type using NTSB aviation accident data from 1983 to 1998. There were 15 crashes involving CFIT. We asked 26 experienced pilots to examine the brief narratives of the crashes and to estimate the probability that had the aircraft been equipped with EGPWS, the crews would have avoided the crashes. Based on the ratings, the median probability that Part 135 crashes would be avoided using EGPWS was 59%. We describe the nature of the crashes, the human factors involved and the reasons why the enhanced terrain warning is only partly effective.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Biodiesel Combustion in a Low-Temperature Combustion Engine using Well-Defined Fuel Properties

2007-04-16
2007-01-0617
Biodiesel fuel can be produced from a wide range of source materials that affect the properties of the fuel. The diesel engine has become a highly tuned power source that is sensitive to these properties. The objectives of this research were to measure and predict the key properties of biodiesel produced from a broad range of source materials to be used as inputs for combustion modeling; and second to compare the results of the model with and without the biodiesel fuel definition. Substantial differences in viscosity, surface tension, density and thermal conductivity were obtained relative to reference diesel fuels and among the different source materials. The combustion model revealed differences in the temperature and emissions of biodiesel when compared to reference diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear Roll Dynamics Properties for Various Vehicle Configurations

1992-02-01
920053
The ability to categorize, compare and segregate the roll dynamical behavior of various vehicles from one another is a subject of considerable research interest. A number of comparison paradigms have been developed (static stability index, roll couple methods, etc.), but all suffer from lack of robustness: results developed on the basis of a particular comparison metric are often not able to be generalized across vehicle lines and types, etc., or they simply do not segregate vehicles at all. In addition, most models do not describe vehicle dynamics in sufficient detail, and some contain no dynamics at all (e.g., static stability index = t/2h). In the present work, static stability index, a two-degree-of-freedom roll model and a three-degree-of-freedom roll and handling model were used to locate eigenvalues for a sample of 43 vehicles consisting of (1) passenger cars, (2) light trucks, (3) sport/utility vehicles and (4) minivans.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Realism Versus Algorithmic Efficiency: A Trade-off in Human Motion Simulation Modeling

2001-06-26
2001-01-2090
The purpose this paper is to delineate why there exists a trade-off between biomechanical realism and algorithmic efficiency for human motion simulation models, and to illustrate how empirical human movement data and findings can be integrated with novel modeling techniques to overcome such a realism-efficiency tradeoff. We first review three major classes of biomechanical models for human motion simulation. The review of these models is woven together by a common fundamental problem of redundancy—kinematic and/or muscle redundancy. We describe how this problem is resolved in each class of models, and unveil how the trade-off arises, that is, how the computational demand associated with solving the problem is amplified as a model evolves from small scale to large scale, or from less realism to more realism.
Technical Paper

Analytical Descriptions of Service Loading Suitable for Fatigue Analysis

1997-04-08
971535
Service loading histories have the same general character for an individual route and the magnitudes vary from driver to driver. Both the magnitude and character of the loading history change from route to route and a linear scaling of one loading history does not characterize the variability of usage over a wide range of operating conditions. In this paper a technique for measuring and extrapolating cumulative exceedance diagrams to quantify the distribution of service loading in a vehicle is described. Monte Carlo simulations are coupled with the local stress strain approach for fatigue to obtain distributions of service loading. Fatigue life estimates based on the original loading histories are compared to those obtained from statistical descriptions of exceedance diagrams.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Residual Stresses and Cyclic Deformation for Induction Hardened Components

1995-02-01
950707
Induction hardening of mild steel components often results in significant improvements in the static and cyclic load capability, with comparatively small increases in cost. Members subjected primarily to torsional loading are a relevant subset of the broad range of induction hardened components. Due to the variation of material properties and residual stresses, failures are “initiated” at the traditional geometric locations predicted for homogeneous materials and also at subsurface sites. The introduction of shear based fatigue parameters has necessitated the consideration of the residual stress as a three dimensional quantity, especially when analyzing subsurface failures. Not considering the tensoral nature of the residual stress can lead to serious errors when estimating fatigue life, and for larger magnitude loadings, the residual stress field may relax.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Analytical Study of the Fatigue Life of Weldments with Longitudinal Attachments

2001-03-05
2001-01-0085
Both the experimental results and the analytical predictions of this study confirm that the poor fatigue performance of weldments with longitudinal attachments is due to poor weld quality which in turn leads to either a cold-lap or a very small weld toe radius. as well as to the combination of a very high 3-D stress concentration, and very high tensile residual stresses. Consequently, a specially designed stress-concentration-reducing part termed “stress diffuser” incorporated in the wrap-around welds at the ends of the longitudinal attachments increased the fatigue strength of longitudinal attachments to equal that of transverse attachments but only when cold-laps were eliminated. The fatigue life predictions made using the a two-stage Initiation-Propagation (IP) Model were in good agreement with the experimental results. Procedures for correcting for the curved shape of the crack path are investigated.
Technical Paper

An Empirical Method for Estimating the Fatigue Resistance of Tensile-Shear Spot Welds

1983-02-01
830035
An empirical method which is based principally on estimates of the fatigue crack initiation life (NI) has been developed which predicts the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds in the long life regime. The method uses Basquin’s law and Peterson’s equation to estimate NI and thus is founded on the fatigue behavior of smooth specimens and modelling of the fatigue notch size effect. The fatigue notch factor (Kf) required in this analysis was obtained from Pook’s relationships for the stress intensity factors of tensile-shear spot welds. Estimates of NI are added to estimates of the fatigue crack propagation life NP to obtain the total fatigue life (NT) but in the long life regime NP can usually be neglected. The improvement of tensile-shear spot weld fatigue resistance through manipulation of geometry and material property variables are discussed with the aid of the model.
Technical Paper

A Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Tensile-Shear Spot Welds

1985-02-01
850370
An empirical Three Stage Initiation-Propagation (TSIP) model has been developed which predicts the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds under constant amplitude loading. The improvements of tensile-shear spot weld fatigue resistance caused by changes in weld geometry, residual stresses and material properties variables are discussed with the aid of the model. The TSIP model suggests that, in addition to the influence of geometry, residual stresses at the site of crack initiation greatly influence the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds. The TSIP model predicts that material properties play a subtle role in determining the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds.
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