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Technical Paper

Transient and Steady State Performance Characteristics of a Two-Wheel-Steer and Four-Wheel-Steer Vehicle Model

Using a three-degree-of-freedom vehicle model (side-slip, yaw and roll degrees of freedom) and a nonlinear, saturating rire model, the behavior of a typical exemplar vehicle (1986 Dodge Lancer Turbo) was simulated. Steady state performance was examined through simulating a skidpad lateral accelerarion maneuver. A lane change maneuver was used to reprcsenr transient performance characteristics. A few simple experiments were conducted wirh rhe exemplar vehicle to establish parameters and verify some performance properties. Results of both steady srare and rransienr simulations showed that four -wheel steer offers lirrle or no demonstrated performance advanrages over two-wheel steer.
Technical Paper

Oversteer/Understeer Characteristics of a Locked Differential

The type of differential used in a vehicle has an important and often-neglected effect on handling performance. This is particularly important in racing applications, such as in IndyCar racing, in which the type of differential chosen depends on the course being raced (superspeedway ovals, short ovals, temporary street courses and permanent road courses). In the present work, we examine the effect of a locked rear differential on oversteer/understeer behavior. Using a linear tire model, it is shown that employing a locked differential adds a constant understeer offset to the steering wheel angle (SWA) -v- lateral acceleration vehicle signature. A computer simulation of steady-state cornering behavior showed that the actual effect is much more complicated, and is strongly influenced by static weight distribution, front/rear roll couple distribution, available traction and the radius of the turn being negotiated.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Approach to Landfill Compaction

Environmental concerns have obstructed development of new landfill sites making it essential to efficiently use currently available space. Finite element methods are evaluated for predicting densification by compactors with the intent of eventually optimizing vehicle design with respect to compaction. A geometrically non-linear, plane strain, quasistatic analysis is used to capture the effects of a single rigid wheel. Future work will include multiple wheels and successive passes, three-dimensional simulations, and realistic material characterization.
Technical Paper

Dynamics and Roll Stability of a Loaded Class 8 Tractor-Livestock Semi-Trailer

The transporting of live cattle involves the use of Class 8 tractors and livestock semi-trailers for transportation from farms and feedlots to processing plants. This travel may include unimproved roads, local streets, two lane highways, as well as interstate highways. Typically, cattle are compartmentalized in a “double deck” fashion as it provides utility and comports with size and weight limits for commercial Class 8 vehicles. Concern has been expressed for the effect of cattle movement upon the dynamic performance of the loaded Class 8 tractor-livestock trailer assembly. Loading guidelines exist for cattle that attempt to prevent injury or debilitation during transit, and literature exists on the orientation and some kinematics of loaded cattle. Considerable literature exists on the effect of liquid slosh in tankers and swinging beef carcasses suspended from hooks in refrigerated van trailers on the dynamic response and roll stability of those vehicles.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear Roll Dynamics Properties for Various Vehicle Configurations

The ability to categorize, compare and segregate the roll dynamical behavior of various vehicles from one another is a subject of considerable research interest. A number of comparison paradigms have been developed (static stability index, roll couple methods, etc.), but all suffer from lack of robustness: results developed on the basis of a particular comparison metric are often not able to be generalized across vehicle lines and types, etc., or they simply do not segregate vehicles at all. In addition, most models do not describe vehicle dynamics in sufficient detail, and some contain no dynamics at all (e.g., static stability index = t/2h). In the present work, static stability index, a two-degree-of-freedom roll model and a three-degree-of-freedom roll and handling model were used to locate eigenvalues for a sample of 43 vehicles consisting of (1) passenger cars, (2) light trucks, (3) sport/utility vehicles and (4) minivans.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Residual Stresses and Cyclic Deformation for Induction Hardened Components

Induction hardening of mild steel components often results in significant improvements in the static and cyclic load capability, with comparatively small increases in cost. Members subjected primarily to torsional loading are a relevant subset of the broad range of induction hardened components. Due to the variation of material properties and residual stresses, failures are “initiated” at the traditional geometric locations predicted for homogeneous materials and also at subsurface sites. The introduction of shear based fatigue parameters has necessitated the consideration of the residual stress as a three dimensional quantity, especially when analyzing subsurface failures. Not considering the tensoral nature of the residual stress can lead to serious errors when estimating fatigue life, and for larger magnitude loadings, the residual stress field may relax.
Technical Paper

An Interactive Program for the Simulation of Roll Bar Testing

ROPS-TEST is a newly developed, interactive, graphics program that may be used to simulate testing of roll bars. Cross-sections that it currently supports include solid rectangular, rectangular tubing, and circular tubing. ROPS-TEST can be used to simulate testing for crush, rear and side loading. Output from ROPS-TEST includes load-deflection and strain energy-deflection plots. ROPS-TEST does not replace actual testing of prototype roll bars. Rather it serves as a design tool to select the best design options for a particular application prior to actual testing of the prototype roll bars.
Technical Paper

An Energy Approach to Nonlinear Analysis of Roll Bars

Roll bars are currently a primary source of operator protection for recreational vehicles, for certain lawn and garden tractors and for small agricultural tractors. In this paper we describe a family of nonlinear models to predict the large deflection response of a roll bar due to yielding of the material. This yielding permits the structure to absorb energy. The stress-strain relationship employs a power law model. Subsequent calculation of the complementary energy stored in the structure and application of Castigliano's second theorem yield the deflection at the point of loading. To demonstrate the feasibility of this energy method in the simulation of testing of roll bars, we present numerical results for the side, vertical, and fore-aft loading cases. Results include the load-deflection response for each load case as well as the strain energy stored in the roll bar as it deforms.