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Technical Paper

The Effects of Cylinder Head Deformation and Asymmetry on Exhaust Valve Thermo-Mechanical Stresses

A geometrically accurate, three-dimensional finite element model of a Diesel engine exhaust valve and cylinder head assembly has been developed to analyze the effect of cylinder head interactions on exhaust valve stresses. Results indicate that a multi-lobed stress pattern occurs around the exhaust valve head due to cylinder head deformation, stiffness variations, and thermal asymmetry. Consequently, peak valve bending and hoop stresses from the three-dimensional model are 48% and 40% higher, respectively, than for the two-dimensional, axisymmetric model. These results indicate the degree of model complexity required for more accurate analyses of exhaust valve operating stresses.
Technical Paper

Study of Biodiesel Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber with Different Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-Gasoline Blends

Bio-butanol has been widely investigated as a promising alternative fuel. However, the main issues preventing the industrial-scale production of butanol is its relatively low production efficiency and high cost of production. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, has attracted a lot of interest as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. If ABE could be directly used for clean combustion, the separation costs would be eliminated which save an enormous amount of time and money in the production chain of bio-butanol.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Inlet Port Design in a Uniflow-Scavenged Engine Using a 3-D Turbulent Flow Code

The finite volume, three-dimensional, turbulent flow code ARIS-3D is applied to the study of the complex flow field through the inlet port and within the cylinder of a uniflow-scavenged engine. The multiblock domain decomposition technique is used to accommodate this complex geometry. In this technique, the domain is decomposed into two blocks, one block being the cylinder and the other being the inlet duct. The effects of inlet duct length, geometric port swirl angle, and number of ports on swirl generating capability are explored. Trade-offs between swirl level and inherent pressure drop can thus be identified, and inlet port design can be optimized.
Technical Paper

Multicomponent Liquid and Vapor Fuel Distribution Measurements in the Cylinder of a Port-Injected, Spark-Ignition Engine

A 2.5L, V-6, port-injected, spark-ignition engine was modified for optical access by separating the head from the block and installing a Bowditch extended piston with a fused-silica top and a fused-silica liner in one of the cylinders. Two heads were employed in the study. One produced swirl and permitted modulation of the swirl level, and another produced a tumbling flow in the cylinder. Planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence, which allows the simultaneous, but separate, imaging of liquid and vapor fuel, was extended to capture components of different volatilities in a model fuel designed to simulate the distillation curve of a typical gasoline. The exciplex fluorescence technique was calibrated in a separate cell where careful control of mixture composition, temperature and pressure was possible. The results show that large-scale motion induced during intake is critical for good mixing during the intake and compression strokes.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Blow-by in a Small-Bore High-Speed Direct-Injection Optically Accessible Diesel Engine

The blow-by phenomenon is seldom acquainted with diesel engines, but for a small bore HSDI optical diesel engine, the effects are significant. A difference in peak pressure up to 25% can be observed near top-dead-center. To account for the pressure differences, a 0-D crevice flow model with a dynamic ring pack model was incorporated into the KIVA code to determine the amount of blow-by. The ring pack model will take into account the forces acting on the piston rings, the position of the piston rings, and the pressure located at each region of the crevice volume at every time step. The crevice flow model takes into consideration the flow through the circumferential gap, ring gap, and the ring side clearance. As a result, the cylinder mass, trapped mass in the crevice regions, and the blow-by values are known. Validation of the crevice model is accomplished by comparing the in-cylinder motoring pressure trace with the experimental motoring data.
Technical Paper

Model to Predict Hydraulic Pump Requirements for an Off-Road Vehicle

This paper describes and discusses a computer model that can be used to predict the hydraulic pump requirements of an excavator necessary to meet the specified productivity levels for a given set of design conditions. The model predicts the hydraulic cylinder flow rates, pressures, and power necessary to sustain a given work cycle. The study compares the results from a simulation of the excavator with actual test data obtained from a test vehicle taken during a typical work cycle.
Technical Paper

Methane Jet Penetration in a Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

A direct-injection natural gas (DING) engine was modified for optical access to allow the use of laser diagnostic techniques to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the cylinder. The injection and mixing processes were examined using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone-seeded natural gas to obtain qualitative maps of the fuel/air ratio. Initial acetone PLIF images were acquired in a quiescent combustion chamber with the piston locked in a position corresponding to 90° BTDC. A series of single shot images acquired in 0.1 ms intervals was used to measure the progression of one of the fuel jets across the cylinder. Cylinder pressures as high as 2 MPa were used to match the in-cylinder density during injection in a firing engine. Subsequent images were acquired in a motoring engine at 600 rpm with injections starting at 30, 20, and 15° BTDC in 0.5 crank angle degree increments.
Technical Paper

Measurements of the Evaporation Behavior of the Film of Fuel Blends

The formation of fuel film in the combustion cylinder affects the mixing process of the air and the fuel, and the process of the combustion propagation in engines. Some models of film evaporation have been developed to predict the evaporation behavior of the film, but rarely experimental results have been produced, especially when the temperature is high. In this study, the evaporation behavior of the film of different species of oil and their blends at different temperature are observed. The 45 μL films of isooctane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and their blends were placed on a quartz glass substrate in the closed temperature-controlled chamber. The shape change of the film during evaporation was monitored by a high-speed camera through the window of the chamber. First, the binary blends film of isooctane and one of the other three oils were evaporated at 30 °C, 50 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion within a Small Bore High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion employing single main injection strategies in an optically accessible single cylinder small-bore High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common-rail electronic fuel injection system was investigated in this work. In-cylinder pressure was taken to analyze the heat release process for different operating parameters. The whole cycle combustion process was visualized with a high-speed digital camera by imaging natural flame luminosity. The flame images taken from both the bottom of the optical piston and the side window were taken simultaneously using one camera to show three dimensional combustion events within the combustion chamber. The engine was operated under similar Top Dead Center (TDC) conditions to metal engines. Because the optical piston has a realistic geometry, the results presented are close to real metal engine operations.
Technical Paper

Injector Nozzle Coking With Oxygenated Diesel

The use of substances other than petroleum based fuels for power sources is not a new concept. Prior to the advent of petroleum fueled vehicles numerous other substances were used to create mobile sources of power. As the world's petroleum supply dwindles, alternative fuel sources are sought after to replace petroleum fuels. Many industries are particularly interested in the development of renewable fuel sources, or biologically derived fuel sources, which includes ethanol. The use of No. 2 diesel as well as many alternative fuels in compression ignition engines result in injector coking. Injector coking can severely limit engine performance by limiting the amount of fuel delivered to the combustion chamber and altering the spray pattern. Injector tip coking is also one of the most sensitive measures of diesel fuel quality [1]. A machine vision system was implemented to quantify injector coking accumulation when a compression ignition engine was fueled with oxydiesel.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Liquid Fuel During the Intake Stroke of a Port-Injected Spark Ignition Engine

The presence and distribution of liquid fuel within an engine cylinder at cold start may adversely affect the hydrocarbon emissions from port-injected, spark ignition engines. Therefore, high speed videos of the liquid fuel entry into the cylinder of an optical engine were recorded in order to assess the effect of various engine operating parameters on the amount of liquid fuel inducted into the cylinder, the sizes of liquid drops present and the distribution of the fuel within the cylinder. A 2.5L, V-6, port-injected, spark ignition engine was modified so that optical access is available throughout the entire volume of one of the cylinders. A fused silica cylinder is sandwiched between the separated block and head of the engine and a “Bowditch-type” piston extension is mounted to the production piston. The Bowditch piston has a fused silica crown so that visualization is possible through the top of the piston as well as through the transparent cylinder.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stability of a Cotton Picker During its Unloading Cycle

Basket motion of a cotton picker during the unloading cycle can produce unstable conditions that result in overturning the machine. The potential for overturning increases while operating the machine on a side slope with the basket dumping on the down-hill side. In this paper the writers investigate the influence of tire ballast, wheel weights and operator control of the hydraulic cylinder on the dynamic stability of the machine during the unloading cycle while operating on a side slope. Operator control at the beginning of the unloading cycle and near the end of the cylinder stroke promotes stable operation of the machine on a side slope.
Technical Paper

Dual-Pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Measurements in a Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

Single-laser-shot measurements of the fuel/air ratio in the cylinder of a motored direct-injection natural gas (DING) engine were obtained using a dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) technique capable of simultaneously probing N2 and CH4. The DING engine was modified for optical access and CARS was used to probe the region near the glow plug. Measurements were acquired at eight different probe volume locations with one crank angle degree resolution for injections starting at 30° and 20° BTDC. The CARS data clearly show the arrival of the fuel jet at the probe volume and, from traversing the probe volume, the location of the centerlines of two fuel jets in the vicinity of the glow plug. The CARS measurements also show large fluctuations in fuel concentration on a shot-to-shot basis indicating the presence of large-scale mixing structures within the fuel jets.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Acquisition and Heat Release Analysis on a Personal Computer

The availability and low price of personal computers with suitable interface equipment has made it practical to use such a system for cylinder pressure data acquisition. With this objective, procedures have been developed to measure and record cylinder pressure on an individual crank angle basis and obtain an average cylinder pressure trace using an Apple II Plus personal computer. These procedures as well as methods for checking the quality of cylinder pressure data are described. A simplified heat release analysis technique for an approximate first look at the data quality is presented. Comparisons are made between the result of this analysis, the Krieger-Borman heat release analysis which uses complete chemical equilibrium. The comparison is made to show the suitability of the simplified analysis in judging the quality of the pressure data.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Biodiesel Combustion in a Low-Temperature Combustion Engine using Well-Defined Fuel Properties

Biodiesel fuel can be produced from a wide range of source materials that affect the properties of the fuel. The diesel engine has become a highly tuned power source that is sensitive to these properties. The objectives of this research were to measure and predict the key properties of biodiesel produced from a broad range of source materials to be used as inputs for combustion modeling; and second to compare the results of the model with and without the biodiesel fuel definition. Substantial differences in viscosity, surface tension, density and thermal conductivity were obtained relative to reference diesel fuels and among the different source materials. The combustion model revealed differences in the temperature and emissions of biodiesel when compared to reference diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparison Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of ABE/IBE-Diesel Blends in a Common-Rreail Diesel Engine

Bio-butanol has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its advantageous physicochemical properties. However, the further development of bio-butanol is inhibited by its high recovery cost and low production efficiency. Hence, the goal of this study is to evaluate two upstream products from different fermentation processes of bio-butanol, namely acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and isopropanol-butanol-ethanol (IBE), as alternative fuels for diesel. The experimental comparison is conducted on a single-cylinder and common-rail diesel engine under various main injection timings (MIT) and equivalent engine load (EEL) conditions. The experimental results show that ABE and IBE significantly affect the combustion phasing. The start of combustion (SOC) is retarded when ABE and IBE are mixed with diesel. Furthermore, the ABE/IBE-diesel blends are more sensitive to the changes in MIT compared with that of pure diesel.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Operation of an HSDI Engine Using Multiple Injection Schemes with Soybean Biodiesel, Diesel and Their Blends

The KIVA-3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, with modifications that improve its capability with biodiesel simulations was used to model the operation of an HSDI engine using blends of soybean biodiesel and diesel. Biodiesel and their blends with diesel are frequently used to reduce emissions from diesel engines, although previous studies showed that biodiesel may increase NOx emission. The paradox may be resolved by running the engine in low temperature combustion mode with biodiesel/diesel blends, as low temperature combustion simultaneously reduced NOx and soot. The modified KIVA code predicts the major combustion characteristics: peak combustion pressure, heat release rate and ignition timing accurately when compared with experimental measurements. It also correctly predicts the trend of NOx emissions. It was observed that the cylinder temperature distribution has a strong effect on emission levels.