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Journal Article

Using the Reciprocal Work Identity to Evaluate the Transmission Loss of Mufflers

2013-05-13
2013-01-1888
Transmission loss (TL) is a good performance measure of mufflers since it represents the muffler's inherent capability of sound attenuation. There are several existing numerical methods, which have been widely used to calculate the TL from numerical simulation results, such as the four-pole and three-point methods. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to evaluate the transmission loss based on the reciprocal work identity. The proposed method does not assume plane wave propagation in the inlet and outlet ducts, and more importantly, does not explicitly apply the anechoic termination impedance at the outlet. As a result, it has the potential of extending TL computation above the plane wave cut-off frequency.
Technical Paper

Using Boundary Element Analysis to Analyze Multi-Component Exhaust Systems

2007-05-15
2007-01-2182
A process for predicting the transmission and insertion losses of multi-component exhaust systems is detailed in this paper. A two-tiered process incorporating boundary element analysis to evaluate multi-component systems is implemented. At the component level, the boundary element method is used to predict the transfer matrix for larger components where plane wave behavior is not expected within the component. The transfer matrix approach is then used to predict insertion loss for built-up systems with interconnecting duct or pipe work. This approach assumes plane wave behavior at the inlet and outlet of each component so it is limited to the low frequency regime. Results are compared with experimental results for HVAC systems.
Journal Article

The Application of the Vincent Circle to Vibro-Acoustic and Duct Acoustic Problems

2009-05-19
2009-01-2215
Over 30 years ago, A. H. Vincent of Westland Helicopters demonstrated that if a structure is excited harmonically, the response at another position (at a fixed frequency) will trace a circle in the complex plane as a result of a dynamic stiffness modification between two points. As either the real or imaginary part of an introduced dynamic stiffness is varied from minus infinity to plus infinity, the structural or acoustic response on any position will map a circle in the complex plane. This paper reviews the basis for this little known principle for vibro-acoustics problems and illustrates the viability for a cantilevered plate example. The applicability of the method is then considered for strictly acoustic systems like intake and exhaust systems. Specifically, it is shown that the response traces a circle in the complex plane if either the real or imaginary parts of the source or termination impedance are varied from minus to plus infinity.
Journal Article

Practical Considerations when using the Two-Load Method to Determine the Transmission Loss of Mufflers and Silencers

2013-05-13
2013-01-1881
The two-load method is commonly used to determine the transmission loss of a muffler or silencer. Several practical measurement considerations are examined in this paper. First of all, conical adapters are sometimes used to transition between impedance tubes and the muffler. It is demonstrated that the effect of adding the adapter can be quite significant at low frequencies especially if the adapter is short in length. The effect of changing the length of the adapter was examined via measurement and plane wave theory. Secondly, the effect of selecting the reference microphone was examined experimentally. It was found that measurements are improved by selecting a downstream reference. Finally, the effect of using different frequency response function estimation algorithms (H1, H2 and Hv) was compared sans flow. This had little effect on the measurement.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Diesel Particulate Filters in Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1559
This paper documents a finite element approach to predict the attenuation of muffler and silencer systems that incorporate diesel particulate filters (DPF). Two finite element models were developed. The first is a micro FEM model, where a subset of channels is modeled and transmission matrices are determined in a manner consistent with prior published work by Allam and Åbom. Flow effects are considered at the inlet and outlet to the DPF as well as viscous effects in the channels themselves. The results are then used in a macro FEM model of the exhaust system where the transmission relationship from the micro-model is used to simulate the DPF. The modeling approach was validated experimentally on an example in which the plane wave cutoff frequency was exceeded in the chambers upstream and downstream to the DPF.
Technical Paper

Load Effect on Source Impedance Measurement Accuracy

2009-05-19
2009-01-2041
The source in an intake/exhaust system is commonly modeled as a source strength and impedance combination. Both the strength and impedance are normally measured and measurement accuracy depends on selecting an appropriate acoustic load combination. An incident wave decomposition method is proposed which is based on acoustic wave decomposition concepts instead of an electric circuit analogy providing a more straightforward approach to investigating the effect of acoustic load selection. Based on studying wave reflections in the system, the uncertainty for determining source impedance is estimated.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Acoustic Performance of After Treatment Devices

2011-05-17
2011-01-1562
Diesel engines produce harmful exhaust emissions and high exhaust noise levels. One way of mitigating both exhaust emissions and noise is via the use of after treatment devices such as Catalytic Converters (CC), Selective Catalytic Reducers (SCR), Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC), and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). The objective of this investigation is to characterize and simulate the acoustic performance of different types of filters so that maximum benefit can be achieved. A number of after treatment device configurations for trucks were selected and measured. A measurement campaign was conducted to characterize the two-port transfer matrix of these devices. The simulation was performed using the two-port theory where the two-port models are limited to the plane wave range in the filter cavity.
Technical Paper

Development of a Muffler Insertion Loss Flow Rig

2019-06-05
2019-01-1482
Bench tests are an important step to developing mufflers that perform adequately with acceptable pressure drop. Though the transmission loss of a muffler without flow is relatively simple to obtain using the two-load method, the presence of mean flow modifies the muffler behavior. The development of an insertion loss test rig is detailed. A blower produces the flow, and a silencer quiets the flow. Acoustic excitation is provided by a loudspeaker cluster right before the test muffler. The measurement platform allows for the measurement of flow-induced noise in the muffler. Also, the insertion loss of the muffler can be determined, and this capability was validated by comparison to a one-dimensional plane wave model.
Technical Paper

BEM Modeling of Mufflers with Diesel Particulate Filters and Catalytic Converters

2009-05-19
2009-01-2225
In this paper, the transmission loss (TL) of mufflers with a built-in catalytic converter (CC) and/or a diesel particulate filter (DPF) is predicted using the boundary element method (BEM) by either modeling the CC or DPF as a block of bulk-reacting material or by using the “element-to-element four-pole connection” between two BEM substructures. The four-pole parameters of the CC or DPF can be obtained by a measurement procedure that involves using the two-source method on a test rig with a pair of transition cones followed by a few 1-D four-pole matrix inverse operations to extract the parameters. A 3-D BEM based optimization may be further applied to fine-tune the extracted four-pole parameters. To use the bulk-reacting material modeling in BEM, the four-pole parameters will have to be converted into an equivalent set of bulk-reacting material properties. Test cases including a muffler with a series connection of CC and DPF are presented in this paper.
Journal Article

Adding Bypass Ducts to Enhance Muffler Performance without Increasing Size

2013-05-13
2013-01-1882
It was demonstrated that a bypass duct similar to a Herschel- Quincke tube could be used to increase the transmission loss of mufflers at selected frequencies. In many cases, the duct can be short and thought of as a leak. It was shown that the optimal length and cross-sectional area could be determined by using a simple optimization technique known as the Vincent Circle. Most importantly, it was demonstrated that the attenuation at low frequencies could be improved by as much as 15 dB. To prove the concept, a muffler was designed and optimized using transfer matrix theory. Then, the optimized muffler was constructed and the transmission loss measured using the two-load method. The measured results compared well with prediction from transfer matrix theory. Boundary element simulation was then used to further study the attenuation mechanism.
Technical Paper

Accurate Measurement of Small Absorption Coefficients

2007-05-15
2007-01-2224
In this paper procedures for estimating the sound absorption coefficient when the specimen has inherently low absorption are discussed. Examples of this include the measurement of the absorption coefficient of pavements, closed cell foams and other barrier materials whose absorption coefficient is nevertheless required, and the measurement of sound absorption of muffler components such as perforates. The focus of the paper is on (1) obtaining an accurate phase correction and (2) proper correction for tube attenuation when using impedance tube methods. For the latter it is shown that the equations for tube attenuation correction in the standards underestimate the actual tube attenuation, leading to an overestimate of the measured absorption coefficient. This error could be critical, for example, when one is attempting to qualify a facility for the measurement of pass-by noise.
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