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Technical Paper

‘ElderTech’ - Enhancing the Independence of Elderly Through the Use of Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-1368
Longevity is one of the great achievements of the twentieth century. This paper will explore ways that elderly people can employ technology to enhance their independence, loosely termed “ElderTech.” ElderTech is designed to establish a sustained, long-term investment in research and development (R&D) for technologies that can provide the largest growing population, Americans over the age of 65, with the tools to ensure active aging (maintaining independence, self-reliance, and an enhanced quality of life). It will also promote aging in place (in the home); and will address and ease Medicare's financial burden on the federal government. ElderTech is aimed to establish a technology framework that will ensure that the United States (U.S.) is ready to meet the needs of its older Americans.
Technical Paper

Voronoi Partitions for Assessing Fuel Consumption of Advanced Technology Engines: An Approximation of Full Vehicle Simulation on a Drive Cycle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0317
This paper presents a simple method of using Voronoi partitions for estimating vehicle fuel economy from a limited set of engine operating conditions. While one of the overarching goals of engine research is to continually improve vehicle fuel economy, evaluating the impact of a change in engine operating efficiency on the resulting fuel economy is a non-trivial task and typically requires drive cycle simulations with experimental data or engine model predictions and a full suite of engine controllers over a wide range of engine speeds and loads. To avoid the cost of collecting such extensive data, proprietary methods exist to estimate fuel economy from a limited set of engine operating conditions. This study demonstrates the use of Voronoi partitions to cluster and quantize the fuel consumed along a complex trajectory in speed and load to generate fuel consumption estimates based on limited simulation or experimental results.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Drive Cycle Simulation of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter

2016-04-05
2016-01-0967
A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its light-off temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
Technical Paper

Varying Levels of Reality in Human Factors Testing: Parallel Experiments at Mcity and in a Driving Simulator

2017-03-28
2017-01-1374
Mcity at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor provides a realistic off-roadway environment in which to test vehicles and drivers in complex traffic situations. It is intended for testing of various levels of vehicle automation, from advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to fully self-driving vehicles. In a recent human factors study of interfaces for teen drivers, we performed parallel experiments in a driving simulator and Mcity. We implemented driving scenarios of moderate complexity (e.g., passing a vehicle parked on the right side of the road just before a pedestrian crosswalk, with the parked vehicle partially blocking the view of the crosswalk) in both the simulator and at Mcity.
Journal Article

Validation Metric for Dynamic System Responses under Uncertainty

2015-04-14
2015-01-0453
To date, model validation metric is prominently designed for non-dynamic model responses. Though metrics for dynamic responses are also available, they are specifically designed for the vehicle impact application and uncertainties are not considered in the metric. This paper proposes the validation metric for general dynamic system responses under uncertainty. The metric makes use of the popular U-pooling approach and extends it for dynamic responses. Furthermore, shape deviation metric was proposed to be included in the validation metric with the capability of considering multiple dynamic test data. One vehicle impact model is presented to demonstrate the proposed validation metric.
Technical Paper

Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

2017-11-17
2017-01-5020
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Flow Control Devices in Support of Vehicle Drag Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0713
Flow control devices can enable vehicle drag reduction through the mitigation of separation and by modifying local and global flow features. Passive vortex generators (VG) are an example of a flow control device that can be designed to re-energize weakly-attached boundary layers to prevent or minimize separation regions that can increase drag. Accurate numerical simulation of such devices and their impact on the vehicle aerodynamics is an important step towards enabling automated drag reduction and shape optimization for a wide range of vehicle concepts. This work demonstrates the use of an open-source computational-fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to enable an accurate and robust evaluation of passive vortex generators in support of vehicle drag reduction. Specifically, the backlight separation of the Ahmed body with a 25° slant is used to evaluate different turbulence models including variants of the RANS, DES, and LES formulations.
Technical Paper

Rolling Resistance Measurements of New and Retreaded Truck Tires

1982-02-01
821268
Rolling resistance measurements were made on a sample of twenty-four retreaded and four new truck tires spanning a variety of constructions, tread patterns and tread depths. Examination of the results showed some relationship between three construction features and the resulting rolling resistance values. These are (a) Radial or bias carcass construction, (b) Tread pattern, and (c) Tread depth. The latter two characteristics can over-ride radial or bias construction effects. The effect of tread compound could not be analyzed in this limited test program. Good quality retreaded truck tires can exhibit comparable rolling resistance with new truck tires.
Journal Article

Residual Stress Distributions in Rectangular Bars Due to High Rolling Loads

2016-04-05
2016-01-0424
In this paper, residual stress distributions in rectangular bars due to rolling or burnishing at very high rolling or burnishing loads are investigated by roll burnishing experiments and three-dimensional finite element analyses using ABAQUS. First, roll burnishing experiments on rectangular bars at two roller burnishing loads are presented. The results indicate the higher burnishing load induces lower residual stresses and the higher burnishing load does not improve fatigue lives. Next, in the corresponding finite element analyses, the roller is modeled as rigid and the roller rolls on the flat surface of the bar with a low coefficient of friction. The bar material is modeled as an elastic-plastic strain hardening material with a nonlinear kinematic hardening rule for loading and unloading.
Technical Paper

Research on the Driving Stability Control System of the Dual-Motor Drive Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0436
In order to improve the steering stability of the dual-motor drive electric vehicle, Taking the yaw rate and the sideslip angle as the control variables, Using the improved two degree of freedom linear dynamic model and seven degree of freedom nonlinear vehicle dynamics model, The hierarchical structure is used to establish the dual-motor drive electric vehicle steering stability control strategy which consist of the upper direct yaw moment decision-making layer based on the sliding mode controller and the lower additional yaw moment distribution layer based on the optimization theory. The Matlab/Simulink-Carsim joint simulation platform was built. The control strategy proposed in this paper was simulated and verified under the snake test condition and double-line shift test condition.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Manipulated Electronic Control Units

2015-04-14
2015-01-0202
Combatting the modification of automotive control systems is a current and future challenge for OEMs and suppliers. ‘Chip-tuning’ is a manifestation of manipulation of a vehicle's original setup and calibration. With the increase in automotive functions implemented in software and corresponding business models, chip tuning will become a major concern. Recognizing and reporting of tuned control units in a vehicle is required for technical as well as legal reasons. This work approaches the problem by capturing the behavior of relevant control units within a machine learning system called a recognition module. The recognition module continuously monitors vehicle's sensor data. It comprises a set of classifiers that have been trained on the intended behavior of a control unit before the vehicle is delivered. When the vehicle is on the road, the recognition module uses the classifier together with current data to ascertain that the behavior of the vehicle is as intended.
Technical Paper

Recent Aircraft Tire Thermal Studies

1982-02-01
821392
A method has been developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions at the wheel and runway surface. Comparisons with buried thermocouples in actual aircraft tires shows good agreement.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of a Single Engine Business Jet

1993-05-01
931253
The preliminary design of a single engine business jet is presented. The airplane is intended to fill a market niche surrounded by several types of airplanes: single engine (piston and turboprop) and entry-level twin engine airplanes (turboprop and turbofan). The Williams-Rolls FJ44 turbofan engine, with a takeoff thrust rating of 1900 pounds, is chosen as the powerplant because of its low acquisition and maintenance costs. The airplane is designed to carry four persons and baggage 1500 n.m. with VFR reserves, and is intended to meet FAR 23 standards — including the 61 knot single engine stall speed requirement. A parametric analysis of wing aspect ratio, thickness, and taper is performed to determine the best planform from the standpoint of weight, cruise speed, and cost. Maximum cruise speed is estimated to be 371 knots and the airplane purchase price is estimated to be 1.98 million. These results indicate the airplane will satisfy intended market niche.
Technical Paper

Plant Identification and Design of Optimal Clutch Engagement Controller

2006-10-31
2006-01-3539
Automated clutches for vehicle startup is being increasingly deployed in commercial trucks for benefits, which include driver comfort, gradient performance, improved clutch life, emissions and driveline vibration reduction potential. The process of designing the controller is divided into 2 parts. Firstly, the parameter estimation of previously developed driveline models is carried out. The procedure involves an off-line minimization technique based on measured and estimated speeds. Secondly, the nominal plant model is used to develop LQR based optimal control strategy, which takes into account the slip time, dissipated power and slip acceleration. Mathematical expression of the performance index is clearly developed. A variety of clutch lock up profiles can be incorporated by changing a single tuning parameter, thus providing the driver the ability to select a launch profile based on specific driving objectives.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Vehicle Life Using Life Cycle Energy Analysis and Dynamic Replacement Modeling

2000-04-26
2000-01-1499
A novel application in the field of Life Cycle Assessment is presented that investigates optimal vehicle retirement timing and design life. This study integrates Life Cycle Energy Analysis (LCEA) with Dynamic Replacement Modeling and quantifies the energy tradeoffs between operating an older vehicle versus replacing it with a new more energy efficient model. The decision to keep or replace a vehicle to minimizes life cycle energy consumption is influenced by several factors including vehicle production energy, current vehicle's fuel economy and its deterioration with age, the improvement in fuel economy technology of new model vehicles and annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Model simulations explore vehicle replacement under incremental improvements in vehicle technology and leapfrog technology improvements such as with the PNGV (Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles).
Technical Paper

Off-road Vehicle Dynamic Simulation Based on Slip-Shifted On-road Tire Handling Model

2008-04-14
2008-01-0771
In this research, off-road vehicle simulation is performed with tire-soil interaction model. The predictive semi-analytical model, which is originally developed for tire-snow interaction model by Lee [4], is applied as a tire-soil interaction model and is implemented to MSC/ADAMS, commercial multi-body dynamic software. It is applied to simulate the handling maneuver of military vehicle HMMWV. Two cases are simulated with Michigan sandy loam soil property. Each case has two maneuvers, straight-line brake and step steer (J-turn). First, tire-soil interaction model and conventional on-road tire model are simulated on the flat road of the same frictional coefficient. The proposed tire-soil interaction model provided larger force under the same slip. Second, the same maneuvers are performed with real off-road frictional coefficient. The proposed tire-soil model can be validated and the behavior of the off-road vehicle can be identified through two simulation cases.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Simulation of the Vehicle Cooling System for a Heavy Duty Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2008-10-06
2008-01-2421
The cooling system of Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles (SHEVs) is more complicated than that of conventional vehicles due to additional components and various cooling requirements of different components. In this study, a numerical model of the cooling system for a SHEV is developed to investigate the thermal responses and power consumptions of the cooling system. The model is created for a virtual heavy duty tracked SHEV. The powertrain system of the vehicle is also modeled with Vehicle-Engine SIMulation (VESIM) previously developed by the Automotive Research Center at the University of Michigan. VESIM is used for the simulation of powertrain system behaviors under three severe driving conditions and during a realistic driving cycle. The output data from VESIM are fed into the cooling system simulation to provide the operating conditions of powertrain components.
Technical Paper

Near-Term Fuel Economy Potential for Light-Duty Trucks

2002-06-03
2002-01-1900
This paper assesses the technical potential, costs and benefits of improving the fuel economy of light-duty trucks over the next five to ten years in the United States using conventional technologies. We offer an in-depth analysis of several technology packages based on a detailed vehicle system modeling approach. Results are provided for fuel economy, cost, oil savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. We examine a range of refinements to body, powertrain and electrical systems, reflecting current best practice and emerging technologies such as lightweight materials, high-efficiency IC engines, integrated starter-generator, 42 volt electrical system and advanced transmission. In this paper, multiple technological pathways are identified to significantly improve fleet average light-duty-truck fuel economy to 27.0 MPG or higher with net savings to consumers.
Technical Paper

Modal Content of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Block Vibration

1997-05-20
971948
High-fidelity overall vehicle simulations require efficient computational routines for the various vehicle subsystems. Typically, these simulations blend theoretical dynamic system models with empirical results to produce computer models which execute efficiently. Provided that the internal combustion engine is a dominant source of vehicle vibration, knowledge of its dynamic characteristics throughout its operating envelope is essential to effectively predict vehicle response. The present experimental study was undertaken to determine the rigid body modal content of engine block vibration of a modern, heavy-duty Diesel engine. Experiments were conducted on an in-line six-cylinder Diesel engine (nominally rated at 470 BHP) which is used in both commercial Class-VIII trucks, and on/off-road military applications. The engine was mounted on multi-axis force transducers in a dynamometer test cell in the standard three-point configuration.
Technical Paper

Longitudinal Vibration of Elastic Vehicle Track Systems

1997-02-24
971090
Real-time simulation of tracked vehicle dynamics demands very efficient modeling of the vehicle track. Multi-body dynamics models which model the response of each track pitch are complete, but require on the order of 100 degrees of freedom to capture lateral track dynamics and an additional 200 degrees of freedom to capture longitudinal (stretching) track dynamics. The sheer size of such models renders them difficult to use for rapid estimates of track response. This paper summarizes an efficient alternative for modeling vehicle tracks, as illustrated herein by a model for longitudinal track dynamics. The present model is a hybrid discrete/continuous model in which the track is modeled as a continuous uniform elastic rod which is kinematically coupled to discrete models for the sprocket, wheels, and rollers. Solution efficiency derives from transforming the dynamic track model to one employing modal coordinates.
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