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Technical Paper

Upper Body Coordination in Reach Movements

A research scheme and preliminary results of a pilot study concerning upper body coordination in reach movements is presented. Techniques for multi-joint arm movements were used to obtain the kinematics of each body segment in reach movements to targets spatially distributed in a horizontal plane. Further understanding of the control mechanisms associated with coordination is investigated by combining the information of gaze orientation and body segment movements during reach activities. The implicit sequence of body segments in reach movement can be derived from their kinematic characteristics. Moreover, an identification of phases composing a reach movement is attempted.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Reach Kinematics of the Upper Extremity in a Dynamic Vehicle Environment

Simulation of reach movements is an essential component for proactive ergonomic analysis in digital human modeling and for numerous applications in vehicle design. Most studies on reach kinematics described human movements in static conditions. Earlier studies of reach performance in vibration environments focused mainly on fingertip deviation without considering multi-body dynamics. However, for the proper assessment of reach performance under whole-body vibration exposure, a multi-body biodynamic model needs to be developed. This study analyzes three dimensional reach kinematics of the upper extremity during in-vehicle operations, using a multi-segmental model of the upper body in the vibratory environment. The goals are to identify the characteristics of upper body reach movements and to investigate vibration-induced changes in joint kinematics. Thirteen subjects reached to four target directions in the right hemisphere.
Technical Paper

The Mg-Al-Ca Alloy System for Structural Applications at Elevated Temperatures

Solidification paths and phase stability have been investigated in the creep resistant Mg-Al-Ca based alloys for powertrain applications. The liquidus projection and isothermal sections of the Mg-Al-Ca ternary system were determined, including a ternary (Mg, Al)2Ca intermetallic compound. The solidification of the alloys in the α-Mg primary phase field involves L→α+(Mg, Al)2Ca eutectic reaction in a wide range of compositions and is terminated with invariant reactions that form Mg2Ca or Mg17Al12 phases. The (Mg, Al)2Ca is a high temperature phase and decomposes into Mg2Ca and Al2Ca phases between 773 and 673 K, but the transformation is kinetically quite slow at temperatures below 473 K. Based on this new knowledge, alloy modifications through quaternary elemental additions to improve the solid-solution strength and aging treatments to reinforce the α-Mg phase with precipitates have been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Copper Level and Solidification Rate on the Aging Behavior of a 319-Type Cast Aluminum Alloy

Compositional and microstructural variations in a casting can often result in rather significant variations in the response to a given aging treatment, leading to location dependent mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of copper content and solidification rate on the aging behavior of a type 319 cast aluminum alloy. The nominal composition of the alloy is Al-7% Si-3.5% Cu-0.25% Mg, however, typical secondary 319 aluminum specifications allow copper levels to vary from 3-4%. Solidification rates throughout a casting can vary greatly due to, among other factors, differences in section size. To determine the effect of copper level and solidification rate on the aging response, aging curves were experimentally developed for this alloy. Three different copper levels (3, 3.5, 4%) and two solidification rates were used for this study. Aging temperatures ranged from 150-290°C with nine aging times at each temperature.
Journal Article

Stress-Strain Relations for Nodular Cast Irons with Different Graphite Volume Fractions under Tension and Compression

In this paper, the results of finite element analyses for nodular cast irons with different volume fractions of graphite particles based on an axisymmetric unit cell model under uniaxial compression and tension are presented. The experimental compressive stress-strain data for a nodular cast iron with the volume fraction of graphite particles of 4.5% are available for use as the baseline material data. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relation for the matrix of the cast iron is estimated based on the experimental compressive stress-strain curve of the cast iron with the rule of mixture. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relation for graphite particles is obtained from the literature. The compressive stress-strain curve for the cast iron based on the axisymmetric unit cell model with the use of the von Mises yield function was then obtained computationally and compared well with the compressive stress-strain relation obtained from the experiment.
Journal Article

Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Dissimilar Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Steel, Magnesium, Aluminum and Copper Sheets

In this paper, the analytical stress intensity factor and J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of two dissimilar sheets based on the beam bending theory are first reviewed. The solutions are then presented in the normalized forms. Next, two-dimensional finite element analyses were selectively conducted to validate the analytical solutions based on the beam bending theory. The interface crack parameters, the stress intensity factor solutions, and the J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of different combinations of steel, aluminum, and magnesium, and the combination of aluminum and copper sheets of different thickness ratios are then presented for convenient fracture and fatigue analyses. The transition thickness ratios for critical crack locations for different combinations of dissimilar materials are then determined from the analytical solutions.
Technical Paper

Sandwich Panels with Corrugated Core - A Lightweighting Concept with Improved Stiffness

Sandwich panels with high modulus/high strength skin material and low density/low modulus core material have higher stiffness-to-weight ratio than monolithic panels. In this paper, sandwich panels with corrugated core are explored as a lightweighting concept for improved stiffness. The skin and the core materials are a high strength steel, aluminum alloy or carbon fiber-epoxy composite. The core has a triangular corrugation, a trapezoidal corrugation and a rectangular corrugation. The stiffness of the sandwich panels is analytically determined and compared with monolithic panels of equal mass. It is shown that the stiffness of the sandwich panels is 5 to 7 times higher than that of the monolithic panels.
Technical Paper

Permanent Mold Casting and Creep Behavior of Mg - 4 Al - 4 X: (Ca, Ce, La, Sr) Alloys

Creep-resistant magnesium alloys for automotive powertrain applications offer significant potential for vehicle weight reduction. In this study permanent mold casting, microstructure and creep behavior have been investigated for a series of ternary magnesium alloys (Mg-4Al-4X (X: Ca, Ce, La, Sr) wt%) and AXJ530 (Mg-5Al-3Ca-0.15Sr, wt%). A permanent mold was instrumented with twelve thermocouples and mold temperature was monitored during the casting process. Average mold temperature increased from 200°C to 400°C during a typical alloy casting series (fifteen to twenty castings). The cast microstructure for all alloys consists of primary α-Mg globular phase surrounded by eutectic structure which is composed of intermetallic(s) and α-Mg magnesium phases. The primary cell size of the AXJ530 increased from 18 to 24 μm with increasing mold temperature and a similar trend is expected for all alloys.
Technical Paper

NH3 Storage in Sample Lines

Ammonia, often present in exhaust gas samples, is a polar molecule gas that interacts with walls of the gas sampling and analysis equipment resulting in delayed instrument response. A set of experiments quantified various materials and process parameters of a heated sample line system for ammonia (NH3) response using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Response attenuation rates are due to mixing and diffusion during transport as well as NH3 wall storage. Mixing/diffusion effects cause attenuation with a time constant 1-10 seconds. Wall storage attenuation has a time constant 10-200 seconds. The effects of sample line diameter and length, line temperature, line material, hydrated versus dry gas, and flow rate were examined. All of these factors are statistically significant to variation of at least one of the time constants. The NH3 storage on the sample system walls was calculated as a function of the experimental test as well.
Technical Paper

Muscle Forces and Fatigue in a Digital Human Environment

Since muscles act to translate an electrical impulse from the central nervous system into motion, it is essential to have a suitable mathematical model for muscles and groups of muscles for a virtual soldier environment. This paper presents a methodology in which the muscle contraction is broken down into three distinct physiological processes: calcium release and re-absorption by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the rate at which calcium binds and unbinds to troponin, and the generation of force due to cross-bridge cycling and the elasticity of the muscle fibers. These processes have been successfully modeled by Ding and Wexler as a system of coupled differential and algebraic equations. These equations give the calcium-time history and the force time history of the muscle. By varying the electrical stimulation rates, the muscles can produce forces of varying magnitude and duration over which the force can be maintained.
Technical Paper

Microstructures and Failure Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 5754 Sheets

Microstructures and failure mechanisms of spot friction welds (SFW) in aluminum 5754 lap-shear specimens were investigated. In order to study the effect of tool geometry on the joint strength of spot friction welds, a concave tool and a flat tool were used. In order to understand the effect of tool penetration depth on the joint strength, spot friction welds were prepared with two different penetration depths for each tool. The results indicated that the concave tool produced slightly higher joint strength than the flat tool. The joint strength did not change for the two depths for the flat tool whereas the joint strength slightly increases as the penetration depth increases for the concave tool. The experimental results show that the failure mechanism is necking and shearing for the spot friction welds made by both tools. The failure was initiated and fractured through the upper sheet under the shoulder indentation near the crack tip.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Strength and Failure Mode of Flow Drill Screw Joints in Coach-Peel Specimens of Aluminum 6082-T6 Sheets of Different Thicknesses and Processing Conditions

The mechanical strength and failure mode of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in coach-peel specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets of three different thicknesses of 2.5, 2.8 and 3.0 mm and three different processing conditions under quasi-static loading conditions are investigated by experiments. The experimental results indicate that the mechanical strength and failure mode of FDS joints in coach-peel specimens are affected by the specimen thickness, clearance hole and stripping. The maximum load of a coach-peel specimen with an FDS joint with clearance hole increases as the thickness increases. For each of the thickness groups of 2.5, 2.8 and 3.0 mm, the maximum load of a coach-peel specimen with an FDS joint without clearance hole is lower than that with clearance hole. For the thickness group of 2.8 mm, the maximum load of a coach-peel specimen with a stripped FDS joint with clearance hole is lower than those of non-stripped ones with and without clearance hole.
Journal Article

Mechanical Behavior and Failure Mechanism of Nb-Clad Stainless Steel Sheets

Because niobium-clad 304L stainless steel sheets are considered for use as bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, their mechanical behavior and failure mechanism are important to be examined. As-rolled and annealed specimens were tested in tension, bending and flattening. The effects of annealing temperature and time on the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism were investigated. Micrographic analyses of bent and flattened specimens showed that the as-rolled specimens have limited ductility and that the annealed specimens can develop an intermetallic layer of thickness of a few microns. The annealed specimens failed due to the breakage of intermetallic layer causing localized necking and the subsequent failure of Nb layer. The springback angles of the as-rolled and annealed specimens were also obtained from guided-bend tests.
Technical Paper

Life-Cycle Assessment of a Powertrain Structural Component: Diecast Aluminum vs. Hypothetical Thixomolded® Magnesium

This study is a life-cycle assessment (LCA) comparing two types of a powertrain structural component: one made of diecast primary aluminum and another hypothetical part made of semi-solid injection molded primary magnesium (Thixomolded®). The LCA provides an indication of the potential environmental burdens throughout the life-cycles of both parts, ranging from raw material acquisition to product end-of-life. Preliminary results show high sensitivity to selection of primary vs. secondary metals, and to the SF6 emission factor used in the model. Opportunities exist for reducing energy consumption using secondary instead of primary metals for both parts, although the use of such is influenced by market supply and demand
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Assessment of a Transmission Case: Magnesium vs. Aluminum

This paper describes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) done to evaluate the relative environmental performance of magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) automatic transmission cases. Magnesium is considered a lighter weight substitute for aluminum in this application. Light weighting of vehicles increases fuel economy and is an important vehicle design metric. The objective of this LCA is to quantify energy and other environmental trade-offs associated with each alternative for material production, manufacturing, use, and end-of-life management stages. Key features of the inventory modeling and the data collection and analysis methods are included in this paper along with life cycle inventory profiles of aluminum and magnesium alternatives. The life cycle inventory (LCI) was interpreted using a set of environmental metrics and areas needing further research were identified. A qualitative cost assessment was done in conjunction with this LCA to highlight potential cost drivers.
Technical Paper

LCI Modeling Challenges and Solutions for a Complex Product System: A Mid-Sized Automobile

While the results are generally the most exciting aspects of an LCI study, the details of the LCI model that generates the results are equally significant; particularly when modeling the life cycle of an automobile. The modeling challenges faced in conducting the US AMP LCI of a mid-sized vehicle based on the 1995 Lumina, Intrepid and Taurus are highlighted. The number of parts (over 20,000), supply chain complexity, materials composition, and the demanding set of OEM requirements for model features required special LCI methods and solutions. The LCI model and selected results are compared with previous studies, and recommendations for improvements in the USAMP LCI model are also provided. This paper is one of six SAE publications discussing the results and execution of the USCAR AMP Generic Vehicle LCI. The papers in this series are (Overview of results 982160, 982161, 982162, 982168, 982169, 982170).
Technical Paper

Influence of Textures on Sheet Forming

This paper reviews the relationship of the anisotropy of plastic behavior of sheet metal to crystallographic textures and the effect of anisotropic plastic behavior on sheet forming processes Although the basis is crystallographic, the anisotropy of cubic metals can be approximated by a continuum yield criterion. Use of this criterion in analyses of sheet forming gives better results than the usual quadratic criterion.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Bolt Load Retention of Die-Cast Magnesium

The use of die cast magnesium for automobile transmission cases offers promise for reducing weight and improving fuel economy. However, the inferior creep resistance of magnesium alloys at high temperature is of concern since transmission cases are typically assembled and joined by pre-loaded bolts. The stress relaxation of the material could thus adversely impact the sealing of the joint. One means of assessing the structural integrity of magnesium transmission cases is modeling the bolted joint, the topic of this paper. The commercial finite element code, ABAQUS, was used to simulate a well characterized bolt joint sample. The geometry was simulated with axi-symmetric elements with the exact geometry of a M10 screw. Frictional contact between the male and female parts is modeled by using interface elements. Material creep is described by a time hardening power law whose parameters are fit to experimental creep test data.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of Friction Stir Linear Welds for Magnesium Alloys

Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet for vehicle structure applications. This paper is tried to use two different methods for the prediction of fatigue life of FSLW in vehicle structures. FSLW is represented with 2-D shell elements for the structural stress approach and is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress approach in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results for both the approaches. These S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of a front shock tower structure that was constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30. The fatigue life prediction results were then correlated with test results of the front shock tower structures.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Adaptable Insert Welds between Sheet Steel and Cast Magnesium Alloy

Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.