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Technical Paper

Wear Rates of Gears By the Radioactive Method

A METHOD is described in this paper by which the rates of gear wear under different conditions can be determined by the use of the radioactive tracer technique. With this method one can measure the minutest amount of wear at loads and speeds much below critical destructive conditions. This method makes possible the continuous determination of rates of gear wear at all loads and speeds in actual full-scale units. In this investigation, the radioactive tracer technique has been used to determine the rates of gear wear when using a straight mineral oil and when using an extreme-pressure gear lubricant.
Technical Paper

Voronoi Partitions for Assessing Fuel Consumption of Advanced Technology Engines: An Approximation of Full Vehicle Simulation on a Drive Cycle

This paper presents a simple method of using Voronoi partitions for estimating vehicle fuel economy from a limited set of engine operating conditions. While one of the overarching goals of engine research is to continually improve vehicle fuel economy, evaluating the impact of a change in engine operating efficiency on the resulting fuel economy is a non-trivial task and typically requires drive cycle simulations with experimental data or engine model predictions and a full suite of engine controllers over a wide range of engine speeds and loads. To avoid the cost of collecting such extensive data, proprietary methods exist to estimate fuel economy from a limited set of engine operating conditions. This study demonstrates the use of Voronoi partitions to cluster and quantize the fuel consumed along a complex trajectory in speed and load to generate fuel consumption estimates based on limited simulation or experimental results.
Technical Paper

Vibratory Loosening of Bolts

In this paper, the effects of fluctuating torque on loosening of a tightly seated bolt are investigated. Tests over a wide range of bolt stresses and loosening torques are reported and equipment developed for determination of such effects is described. It is shown that a definite functional relationship exists between the stress on a typical bolt, the oscillatory loosening torque that is applied, and the number of cycles before the bolt becomes loose. The effects of these relationships follow a clearly defined law, although they are, of course, influenced by a number of additional variables.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Drive Cycle Simulation of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter

A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its light-off temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 2: Integration of Machine Learning Vehicle Velocity Prediction with Optimal Energy Management to Improve Fuel Economy

An optimal energy management strategy (Optimal EMS) can yield significant fuel economy (FE) improvements without vehicle velocity modifications. Thus it has been the subject of numerous research studies spanning decades. One of the most challenging aspects of an Optimal EMS is that FE gains are typically directly related to high fidelity predictions of future vehicle operation. In this research, a comprehensive dataset is exploited which includes internal data (CAN bus) and external data (radar information and V2V) gathered over numerous instances of two highway drive cycles and one urban/highway mixed drive cycle. This dataset is used to derive a prediction model for vehicle velocity for the next 10 seconds, which is a range which has a significant FE improvement potential. This achieved 10 second vehicle velocity prediction is then compared to perfect full drive cycle prediction, perfect 10 second prediction.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 1: Deterministic and Stochastic Vehicle Velocity Prediction Using Machine Learning

There is a pressing need to develop accurate and robust approaches for predicting vehicle speed to enhance fuel economy/energy efficiency, drivability and safety of automotive vehicles. This paper details outcomes of research into various methods for the prediction of vehicle velocity. The focus is on short-term predictions over 1 to 10 second prediction horizon. Such short-term predictions can be integrated into a hybrid electric vehicle energy management strategy and have the potential to improve HEV energy efficiency. Several deterministic and stochastic models are considered in this paper for prediction of future vehicle velocity. Deterministic models include an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, a Nonlinear Auto-Regressive with eXternal input (NARX) shallow neural network and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep neural network. Stochastic models include a Markov Chain (MC) model and a Conditional Linear Gaussian (CLG) model.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Neural Networks for Representing the Air Flow Rate through a 2.4 Liter VVT Engine

The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.
Technical Paper

Understanding and Modeling NOx Emissions from Air Conditioned Automobiles

The emission of excessive quantities of NOx when the automobile air conditioner is turned on has received a fair amount of attention in recent years. Since NOx is a smog precursor, it is important to understand the reasons for this jump in emissions especially on hot sunny days when air conditioner usage is at a maximum. A simple thermodynamic model is used to demonstrate how the torque from a typical air conditioner compressor is mainly related to the ambient temperature. The compressor's on-off cycling patterns are also characterized. Since the compressor significantly loads the engine, it affects fuel economy and emissions. The key independent variable that we employ to represent engine load is fuel rate. The correlations between engine-out NOx emissions and fuel rate are shown for a number of light duty vehicles and trucks. From these, a physical model for engine-out NOx emissions (with and without air conditioning) is presented.
Journal Article

Uncertainty Propagation in Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Undersea Vehicles

In this paper the development of statistical metamodels and statistical fast running models is presented first. They are utilized for propagating uncertainties in a multi-discipline design optimization process. Two main types of uncertainty can be considered in this manner: uncertainty due to variability in design variables or in random parameters; uncertainty due to the utilization of metamodels instead of the actual simulation models during the optimization process. The value of the new developments and their engagement in multi-discipline design optimization is demonstrated through a case study. An underwater vehicle is designed under four different disciplines, namely, noise radiation, self-noise due to TBL excitation, dynamic response due to propulsion impact loads, and response to an underwater detonation.
Journal Article

Two-Phase MRF Model for Wet Clutch Drag Simulation

Wet clutch packs are widely used in today’s automatic transmission systems for gear-ratio shifting. The frictional interfaces between the clutch plates are continuously lubricated with transmission fluid for both thermal and friction management. The open clutch packs shear transmission fluid across the rotating plates, contributing to measurable energy losses. A typical multi-speed transmission includes as many as 5 clutch packs. Of those, two to three clutches are open at any time during a typical drive cycle, presenting an opportunity for fuel economy gain. However, reducing open clutch drag is very challenging, while meeting cooling requirements and shift quality targets. In practice, clutch design adjustment is performed through trial-and-error evaluation of hardware on a test bench. The use of analytical methodologies is limited for optimizing clutch design features due to the complexity of fluid-structure interactions under rotating conditions.
Technical Paper

Transmission Shift Strategies for Electrically Supercharged Engines

This work investigates the potential improvements in vehicle fuel economy possible by optimizing gear shift strategies to leverage a novel boosting device, an electrically assisted variable speed supercharger (EAVS), also referred to as a power split supercharger (PSS). Realistic gear shift strategies, resembling those commercially available, have been implemented to control upshift and downshift points based on torque request and engine speed. Using a baseline strategy from a turbocharged application of a MY2015 Ford Escape, a vehicle gas mileage of 34.4 mpg was achieved for the FTP75 drive cycle before considering the best efficiency regions of the supercharged engine.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Practical Benefits of Waste Energy Recovery Using an Electric Turbo-Generator Under Different Boosting Methods

This paper provides insight into the tradeoffs between exhaust energy recovery and increased pumping losses from the flow restriction of the electric turbo-generator (eTG) assessed using thermodynamic principles and with a detailed GT-Power engine model. The GT-Power engine model with a positive displacement expander model was used to predict the influence of back pressure on in-cylinder residuals and combustion. The eTG is assessed for two boosting arrangements: a conventional turbocharger (TC) and an electrically assisted variable speed (EAVS) supercharger (SC). Both a low pressure (post-turbine) and high pressure (pre-turbine) eTG are considered for the turbocharged configuration. The reduction in fuel consumption (FC) possible over various drive cycles is estimated based on the steady-state efficiency of frequently visited operating points assuming all recovered energy can be reused at an engine efficiency of 30% with 10% losses in the electrical path.
Technical Paper

Theoretical, Computational and Experimental Investigation of Helmholtz Resonators: One-Dimensional versus Multi-Dimensional Approach

Helmholtz resonators are widely used for the noise reduction in vehicle induction and exhaust systems. This study investigates the effect of specific cavity dimensions of these resonators theoretically, computationally and experimentally. By considering one-dimensional wave propagation through distributed masses in the connector and cavity, a closed-form expression for the transmission loss of axisymmetric configurations is presented, thereby partially eliminating the limitations of a lumped-parameter analysis. Eight resonators of fixed neck geometry and cavity volume with length-to-diameter ratios of the volume varying from 0.32 to 23.92 are studied both computationally and experimentally. The first of the two computational approaches employed in the study implements a finite difference time domain technique to solve the nonlinear governing equations of one-dimensional compressible flow.
Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Technical Paper

The Effects of CO, H2, and C3H6 on the SCR Reactions of an Fe Zeolite SCR Catalyst

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts used in Lean NOx Trap (LNT) - SCR exhaust aftertreatment systems typically encounter alternating oxidizing and reducing environments. Reducing conditions occur when diesel fuel is injected upstream of a reformer catalyst, generating high concentrations of hydrogen (H₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons to deNOx the LNT. In this study, the functionality of an iron (Fe) zeolite SCR catalyst is explored with a bench top reactor during steady-state and cyclic transient SCR operation. Experiments to characterize the effect of an LNT deNOx event on SCR operation show that adding H₂ or CO only slightly changes SCR behavior with the primary contribution being an enhancement of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) decomposition into nitric oxide (NO). Exposure of the catalyst to C₃H₆ (a surrogate for an actual exhaust HC mixture) leads to a significant decrease in NOx reduction capabilities of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Location of Knock Initiation on Heat Flux Into an SI Combustion Chamber

A study has been conducted in order to investigate the effect of the location of knock initiation on heat flux in a Spark-Ignition (SI) combustion chamber. Heat flux measurements were taken on the piston and cylinder head under different knock intensity levels, induced by advancing the spark timing. Tests were performed with two engine configurations, the first with the spark-plug located on the rear side of the chamber and the other having a second non-firing spark-plug placed at the front side of the chamber. The presence of the non-firing spark-plug consistently shifted the location of autoignition initiation from the surface of the piston to its vicinity, without causing a noticeable increase in knock intensity. By localizing the initiation of knock, changes induced in the secondary flame propagation pattern affected both the magnitude and the rate of change of peak heat flux under heavy knock.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Turbulence on the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Combustion in a Constant Volume Reactor

A cylindrical combustion bomb with dynamic charging system and electro-hydraulic sampling valve is used to study the effects of turbulence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a quench layer and from artificial crevices. The turbulence level is varied by changing the delay time between induction of combustible charge and ignition. Propane-air mixtures were studied over an initial pressure range of 150 to 500 kPa and equivalence ratios of 0.7 to 1.4. Sampling valve experiments show that quench-layer fuel hydrocarbons are extensively oxidized within 5 ms of flame arrival under laminar conditions and that turbulence further reduces the already low level. Upper limit estimates of the residual wall layer HC concentration show that residual quench layer hydrocarbons are only a small fraction of the exhaust HC emission.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Some Fuel and Engine Factors on Diesel Smoke

Possible mechanisms for smoke formation in the diesel engine are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the effects of some engine and fuel factors on carbon formation during the course of combustion, including cetane number, fuel volatility, air charge temperature, and after-injection. The tests were made with a single-cylinder, open chamber research engine, with three fuels, covering a wide range of inlet air temperatures and pressures. There is evidence that smoke intensity increased with increase in the cetaine number of the fuels with inlet air temperatures near atmospheric. Increase in the air charge temperature caused an increase in smoke intensity for volatile fuels and had an opposite effect on less volatile fuels for the open chamber engine used. The smoke intensity was found to increase dramatically with after-injection, with all other parameters kept constant. The concept that flame cooling is the main cause for smoke formation is examined.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Secondary Fuel Injection on the Performance and Exhaust Emissions of An Open-Chamber Diesel Engine

Secondary injection in a diesel engine is defined as the introduction of additional fuel into the combustion chamber after the end of the main injection. It is usually caused by residual pressure waves in the high-pressure pipe line connecting the pump and injector. When these waves exceed the injector opening pressure, secondary injection occurs. Tests revealed that the U.S. Army TACOM single-cylinder engine used in this investigation, fitted with an American Bosch injection system, had secondary injection within the normal engine operating region. The pump spill ports and delivery valve were redesigned to eliminate secondary injection, in accordance with previously reported work. Comparative tests of both the conventional and modified injection systems were run on the same engine, and the effects of secondary injection on engine power, economy, and exhaust emissions were determined.
Technical Paper

Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles. For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA.