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Technical Paper

Virtual Powertrain Calibration at GM Becomes a Reality

GM's R oad-to- L ab-to- M ath (RLM) initiative is a fundamental engineering strategy leading to higher quality design, reduced structural cost, and improved product development time. GM started the RLM initiative several years ago and the RLM initiative has already provided successful results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the specific RLM efforts at GM related to powertrain controls development and calibration. This paper will focus on the current state of the art but will also examine the history and the future of these related activities. This paper will present a controls development environment and methodology for providing powertrain controls developers with virtual (in the absence of ECU and vehicle hardware) calibration capabilities within their current desktop controls development environment.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Drive Cycle Simulation of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter

A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its light-off temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
Technical Paper

Validation of the Human Motion Simulation Framework: Posture Prediction for Standing Object Transfer Tasks

The Human Motion Simulation Framework is a hierarchical set of algorithms for physical task simulation and analysis. The Framework is capable of simulating a wide range of tasks, including standing and seated reaches, walking and carrying objects, and vehicle ingress and egress. In this paper, model predictions for the terminal postures of standing object transfer tasks are compared to data from 20 subjects with a wide range of body dimensions. Whole body postures were recorded using optical motion capture for one-handed and two-handed object transfers to target destinations at three angles from straight ahead and three heights. The hand and foot locations from the data were input to the HUMOSIM Framework Reference Implementation (HFRI) in the Jack human modeling software. The whole-body postures predicted by the HFRI were compared to the measured postures using a set of measures selected for their importance to ergonomic analysis.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Tracked 3-Dimensional Acoustic Probe in the Development of an Automotive Front-of-Dash

During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Neural Networks for Representing the Air Flow Rate through a 2.4 Liter VVT Engine

The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.
Journal Article

Understanding the Dynamic Evolution of Cyclic Variability at the Operating Limits of HCCI Engines with Negative Valve Overlap

An experimental study is performed for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion focusing on late phasing conditions with high cyclic variability (CV) approaching misfire. High CV limits the feasible operating range and the objective is to understand and quantify the dominating effects of the CV in order to enable controls for widening the operating range of HCCI. A combustion analysis method is developed for explaining the dynamic coupling in sequences of combustion cycles where important variables are residual gas temperature, combustion efficiency, heat release during re-compression, and unburned fuel mass. The results show that the unburned fuel mass carries over to the re-compression and to the next cycle creating a coupling between cycles, in addition to the well known temperature coupling, that is essential for understanding and predicting the HCCI behavior at lean conditions with high CV.
Technical Paper

Two-Point Spatial Velocity Correlations in the Near-Wall Region of a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

Developing a complete understanding of the structure and behavior of the near-wall region (NWR) in reciprocating, internal combustion (IC) engines and of its interaction with the core flow is needed to support the implementation of advanced combustion and engine operation strategies, as well as predictive computational models. The NWR in IC engines is fundamentally different from the canonical steady-state turbulent boundary layers (BL), whose structure, similarity and dynamics have been thoroughly documented in the technical literature. Motivated by this need, this paper presents results from the analysis of two-component velocity data measured with particle image velocimetry near the head of a single-cylinder, optical engine. The interaction between the NWR and the core flow was quantified via statistical moments and two-point velocity correlations, determined at multiple distances from the wall and piston positions.
Journal Article

Two-Phase MRF Model for Wet Clutch Drag Simulation

Wet clutch packs are widely used in today’s automatic transmission systems for gear-ratio shifting. The frictional interfaces between the clutch plates are continuously lubricated with transmission fluid for both thermal and friction management. The open clutch packs shear transmission fluid across the rotating plates, contributing to measurable energy losses. A typical multi-speed transmission includes as many as 5 clutch packs. Of those, two to three clutches are open at any time during a typical drive cycle, presenting an opportunity for fuel economy gain. However, reducing open clutch drag is very challenging, while meeting cooling requirements and shift quality targets. In practice, clutch design adjustment is performed through trial-and-error evaluation of hardware on a test bench. The use of analytical methodologies is limited for optimizing clutch design features due to the complexity of fluid-structure interactions under rotating conditions.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Matching for a 4-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using a 1D Engine Simulation

Naturally aspirated HCCI operation is typically limited to medium load operation (∼ 5 bar net IMEP) by excessive pressure rise rate. Boosting can provide the means to extend the HCCI range to higher loads. Recently, it has been shown that HCCI can achieve loads of up to 16.3 bar of gross IMEP by boosting the intake pressure to more than 3 bar, using externally driven compressors. However, investigating HCCI performance over the entire speed-load range with real turbocharger systems still remains an open topic for research. A 1 - D simulation of a 4 - cylinder 2.0 liter engine model operated in HCCI mode was used to match it with off-the-shelf turbocharger systems. The engine and turbocharger system was simulated to identify maximum load limits over a range of engine speeds. Low exhaust enthalpy due to the low temperatures that are characteristic of HCCI combustion caused increased back-pressure and high pumping losses and demanded the use of a small and more efficient turbocharger.
Journal Article

Truck Utility & Functionality in the GM 2-Mode Hybrid

The present production General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid system for full-size SUVs and pickup trucks integrates truck utility functions with a full hybrid system. The 2-mode hybrid system incorporates two electro-mechanical power-split operating modes with four fixed-gear ratios. The combination provides fuel savings from electric assist, regenerative braking and low-speed electric vehicle operation. The combination of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that is converted to electric power for continuously variable transmission operation, meeting the utility required for SUVs and trucks. This paper describes how fuel economy functionality was blended with full-size truck utility functions. Truck functions described include: Manual Range Select, Cruise Control, 4WD-Low and continuous high load operation.
Technical Paper

Transmission Shift Strategies for Electrically Supercharged Engines

This work investigates the potential improvements in vehicle fuel economy possible by optimizing gear shift strategies to leverage a novel boosting device, an electrically assisted variable speed supercharger (EAVS), also referred to as a power split supercharger (PSS). Realistic gear shift strategies, resembling those commercially available, have been implemented to control upshift and downshift points based on torque request and engine speed. Using a baseline strategy from a turbocharged application of a MY2015 Ford Escape, a vehicle gas mileage of 34.4 mpg was achieved for the FTP75 drive cycle before considering the best efficiency regions of the supercharged engine.
Journal Article

Transmission Output Chain Spin Loss Study

Transmission spin loss has significant influence on the vehicle fuel economy. Transmission output chain may contribute up to 10~15% of the total spin loss. However, the chain spin loss information is not well documented. An experimental study was carried out with several transmission output chains and simulated transmission environment in a testing box. The studies build the bases for the chain spin loss modeling and depicted the influences of the speed, the sprocket sizes, the oil levels, the viscosity, the temperatures and the baffle. The kriging method was employed for the parameter sensitivity study. A closed form of empirical model was developed. Good correlation was achieved.
Technical Paper

Traditional and Electronic Solutions to Mitigate Electrified Vehicle Driveline Noises

Hybrid powertrain vehicles inherently create discontinuous sounds during operation. The discontinuous noise created from the electrical motors during transition states are undesirable since they can create tones that do not correlate with the dynamics of the vehicle. The audible level of these motor whines and discontinuous tones can be reduced via common noise abatement techniques or reducing the amount of regeneration braking. One electronic solution which does not affect mass or fuel economy is Masking Sound Enhancement (MSE). MSE is an algorithm that uses the infotainment system to mask the naturally occurring discontinuous hybrid drive unit and driveline tones. MSE enables a variety of benefits, such as more aggressive regenerative braking strategies which yield higher levels of fuel economy and results in a more pleasing interior vehicle powertrain sound. This paper will discuss the techniques and signals used to implement MSE in a hybrid powertrain equipped vehicle.
Journal Article

Toothed Chain CVT: Opportunities and Challenges

A toothed chain continuously variable transmission concept is studied. By designing positive engagement at top overdrive ratio, we explored the potential to improve CVT mechanical efficiency. The low cost solution could improve fuel economy by 0.7% in FTP composite cycle. Preliminary multi-body dynamic simulation is also completed using VL-Motion to concept-proof the technical feasibility of disengagement and engagement. To address the noise issue resulted from abandoning the random pitch design in production chain, we proposed an alternate chain pitch sequence but more experimental data is required to validate the design.
Journal Article

Three-Dimensional Three-Component Air Flow Visualization in a Steady-State Engine Flow Bench Using a Plenoptic Camera

Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the camera sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images. With the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow in a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera and a dual-cavity pulsed laser. The accuracy of the plenoptic PTV system was assessed using a dot target moved by a known displacement between two PTV frames.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Practical Benefits of Waste Energy Recovery Using an Electric Turbo-Generator Under Different Boosting Methods

This paper provides insight into the tradeoffs between exhaust energy recovery and increased pumping losses from the flow restriction of the electric turbo-generator (eTG) assessed using thermodynamic principles and with a detailed GT-Power engine model. The GT-Power engine model with a positive displacement expander model was used to predict the influence of back pressure on in-cylinder residuals and combustion. The eTG is assessed for two boosting arrangements: a conventional turbocharger (TC) and an electrically assisted variable speed (EAVS) supercharger (SC). Both a low pressure (post-turbine) and high pressure (pre-turbine) eTG are considered for the turbocharged configuration. The reduction in fuel consumption (FC) possible over various drive cycles is estimated based on the steady-state efficiency of frequently visited operating points assuming all recovered energy can be reused at an engine efficiency of 30% with 10% losses in the electrical path.
Technical Paper

Theoretical, Computational and Experimental Investigation of Helmholtz Resonators: One-Dimensional versus Multi-Dimensional Approach

Helmholtz resonators are widely used for the noise reduction in vehicle induction and exhaust systems. This study investigates the effect of specific cavity dimensions of these resonators theoretically, computationally and experimentally. By considering one-dimensional wave propagation through distributed masses in the connector and cavity, a closed-form expression for the transmission loss of axisymmetric configurations is presented, thereby partially eliminating the limitations of a lumped-parameter analysis. Eight resonators of fixed neck geometry and cavity volume with length-to-diameter ratios of the volume varying from 0.32 to 23.92 are studied both computationally and experimentally. The first of the two computational approaches employed in the study implements a finite difference time domain technique to solve the nonlinear governing equations of one-dimensional compressible flow.
Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Technical Paper

The Mg-Al-Ca Alloy System for Structural Applications at Elevated Temperatures

Solidification paths and phase stability have been investigated in the creep resistant Mg-Al-Ca based alloys for powertrain applications. The liquidus projection and isothermal sections of the Mg-Al-Ca ternary system were determined, including a ternary (Mg, Al)2Ca intermetallic compound. The solidification of the alloys in the α-Mg primary phase field involves L→α+(Mg, Al)2Ca eutectic reaction in a wide range of compositions and is terminated with invariant reactions that form Mg2Ca or Mg17Al12 phases. The (Mg, Al)2Ca is a high temperature phase and decomposes into Mg2Ca and Al2Ca phases between 773 and 673 K, but the transformation is kinetically quite slow at temperatures below 473 K. Based on this new knowledge, alloy modifications through quaternary elemental additions to improve the solid-solution strength and aging treatments to reinforce the α-Mg phase with precipitates have been demonstrated.
Journal Article

The Key Role of the Closed-loop Combustion Control for Exploiting the Potential of Biodiesel in a Modern Diesel Engine for Passenger Car Applications

The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the capability of GM Combustion Closed-Loop Control (CLCC) in enabling seamless operation with high biodiesel blending levels in a modern diesel engine for passenger car applications. As a matter of fact, fuelling modern electronically-controlled diesel engines with high blends of biodiesel leads to a performance reduction of about 12-15% at rated power and up to 30% in the low-end torque, while increasing significantly the engine-out NOx emissions. These effects are both due to the interaction of the biodiesel properties with the control logic of the electronic control unit, which is calibrated for diesel operation. However, as the authors previously demonstrated, if engine calibration is re-tuned for biodiesel fuelling, the above mentioned drawbacks can be compensated and the biodiesel environmental inner qualities can be fully deployed.