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Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Drive Cycle Simulation of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter

2016-04-05
2016-01-0967
A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its light-off temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
Technical Paper

Understanding and Modeling NOx Emissions from Air Conditioned Automobiles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0858
The emission of excessive quantities of NOx when the automobile air conditioner is turned on has received a fair amount of attention in recent years. Since NOx is a smog precursor, it is important to understand the reasons for this jump in emissions especially on hot sunny days when air conditioner usage is at a maximum. A simple thermodynamic model is used to demonstrate how the torque from a typical air conditioner compressor is mainly related to the ambient temperature. The compressor's on-off cycling patterns are also characterized. Since the compressor significantly loads the engine, it affects fuel economy and emissions. The key independent variable that we employ to represent engine load is fuel rate. The correlations between engine-out NOx emissions and fuel rate are shown for a number of light duty vehicles and trucks. From these, a physical model for engine-out NOx emissions (with and without air conditioning) is presented.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Matching for a 4-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using a 1D Engine Simulation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2143
Naturally aspirated HCCI operation is typically limited to medium load operation (∼ 5 bar net IMEP) by excessive pressure rise rate. Boosting can provide the means to extend the HCCI range to higher loads. Recently, it has been shown that HCCI can achieve loads of up to 16.3 bar of gross IMEP by boosting the intake pressure to more than 3 bar, using externally driven compressors. However, investigating HCCI performance over the entire speed-load range with real turbocharger systems still remains an open topic for research. A 1 - D simulation of a 4 - cylinder 2.0 liter engine model operated in HCCI mode was used to match it with off-the-shelf turbocharger systems. The engine and turbocharger system was simulated to identify maximum load limits over a range of engine speeds. Low exhaust enthalpy due to the low temperatures that are characteristic of HCCI combustion caused increased back-pressure and high pumping losses and demanded the use of a small and more efficient turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Tribological Characteristics of Electrolytic Coatings for Aluminum Engine Cylinder Lining Applications

2002-03-04
2002-01-0490
The friction and wear characteristics of three commercially-available, electrolytic coatings for aluminum engine cylinder bores were compared to those of cast iron liners. A Ni/SiC electrocomposite, a hard anodized treatment, and a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated. ASTM standard test method G133-95, non-firing test method, for linearly reciprocating sliding wear was modified to use segments of piston rings and cylinder liners. Tests were conducted using Mr. Goodwrench™ 5W30 as a lubricant at room temperature. The normal force was 150N, the reciprocating frequency was 15Hz, the stroke length was 8mm, and the test duration was 60 minutes. Kinetic friction coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.22, typical of boundary lubrication. The Ni/SiC and cast iron samples exhibited the lowest friction. The wear resistance of the Ni/SiC coating was superior to that of cast iron.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Emissions During Enrichment for Diesel Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

2005-04-11
2005-01-0186
Laser-induced incandescence is used to measure time-resolved diesel particulate emissions for two lean NOx trap regeneration strategies that utilize intake throttling and in-cylinder fuel enrichment. The results show that when the main injection event is increased in duration and delayed 13 crank-angle degrees, particulate emissions are very high. For a repetitive pattern of 3 seconds of rich regeneration followed by 27 seconds of NOx-trap loading, we find a monotonic increase in particulate emissions during the loading intervals that approaches twice the initial baseline particulate level after 1000 seconds. In contrast, particulate emissions during the regeneration intervals are constant throughout the test sequence.
Journal Article

Three-Dimensional Three-Component Air Flow Visualization in a Steady-State Engine Flow Bench Using a Plenoptic Camera

2017-03-28
2017-01-0614
Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the camera sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images. With the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow in a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera and a dual-cavity pulsed laser. The accuracy of the plenoptic PTV system was assessed using a dot target moved by a known displacement between two PTV frames.
Technical Paper

Thermographic Measurements of Volatile Particulate Matter

2015-09-01
2015-01-1992
Semi-volatile species in the exhaust can condense on the primary particulate matter (PM) forming significant secondary PM mass downstream1. We developed a new thermographic technique to measure the volatility of a particle population. The instrument is called vapor-particle separator (VPS)2. A two-parameter model was used to interpret the thermographic data3. These two parameters define volatilization potential and thermodynamic capacity of the particles. The volatization potential delineates the unique particle volatility, while the thermodynamic capacity illustrates the work required to eliminate the particles. The thermodynamic capacity is found much smaller for small particles than that for large particles.
Technical Paper

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0224
On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naphtha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Roles of Phosphorus and Soot on the Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0628
The deactivation of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) by soot contamination and lube-oil derived phosphorus poisoning is investigated. Pt/CeO2/γ-AI2O3 DOCs aged using three different protocols developed by the authors and six high mileage field-returned DOCs of similar formulation are evaluated for THC and CO oxidation performance using a bench-flow reactor. Collectively, these catalysts exhibit a variety of phosphorus and soot morphologies contributing to performance deactivation.
Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970067
A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Journal Article

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on the Knock Limit of “E85”

2013-04-08
2013-01-0888
Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called “E85,” underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane “E85” fuel.
Journal Article

The Effects of Temperature, Shear Stress, and Deposit Thickness on EGR Cooler Fouling Removal Mechanism - Part 2

2016-04-05
2016-01-0186
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are used on diesel engines to reduce peak in-cylinder flame temperatures, leading to less NOx formation during the combustion process. There is an ongoing concern with soot and hydrocarbon fouling inside the cold surface of the cooler. The fouling layer reduces the heat transfer efficiency and causes pressure drop to increase across the cooler. A number of experimental studies have demonstrated that the fouling layer tends to asymptotically approach a critical height, after which the layer growth ceases. One potential explanation for this behavior is the removal mechanism derived by the shear force applied on the soot and hydrocarbon deposit surface. As the deposit layer thickens, shear force applied on the fouling surface increases due to the flow velocity growth. When a critical shear force is applied, deposit particles start to get removed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of CO, H2, and C3H6 on the SCR Reactions of an Fe Zeolite SCR Catalyst

2013-04-08
2013-01-1062
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts used in Lean NOx Trap (LNT) - SCR exhaust aftertreatment systems typically encounter alternating oxidizing and reducing environments. Reducing conditions occur when diesel fuel is injected upstream of a reformer catalyst, generating high concentrations of hydrogen (H₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons to deNOx the LNT. In this study, the functionality of an iron (Fe) zeolite SCR catalyst is explored with a bench top reactor during steady-state and cyclic transient SCR operation. Experiments to characterize the effect of an LNT deNOx event on SCR operation show that adding H₂ or CO only slightly changes SCR behavior with the primary contribution being an enhancement of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) decomposition into nitric oxide (NO). Exposure of the catalyst to C₃H₆ (a surrogate for an actual exhaust HC mixture) leads to a significant decrease in NOx reduction capabilities of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Location of Knock Initiation on Heat Flux Into an SI Combustion Chamber

1997-10-01
972935
A study has been conducted in order to investigate the effect of the location of knock initiation on heat flux in a Spark-Ignition (SI) combustion chamber. Heat flux measurements were taken on the piston and cylinder head under different knock intensity levels, induced by advancing the spark timing. Tests were performed with two engine configurations, the first with the spark-plug located on the rear side of the chamber and the other having a second non-firing spark-plug placed at the front side of the chamber. The presence of the non-firing spark-plug consistently shifted the location of autoignition initiation from the surface of the piston to its vicinity, without causing a noticeable increase in knock intensity. By localizing the initiation of knock, changes induced in the secondary flame propagation pattern affected both the magnitude and the rate of change of peak heat flux under heavy knock.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Turbulence on the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Combustion in a Constant Volume Reactor

1984-02-01
840366
A cylindrical combustion bomb with dynamic charging system and electro-hydraulic sampling valve is used to study the effects of turbulence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a quench layer and from artificial crevices. The turbulence level is varied by changing the delay time between induction of combustible charge and ignition. Propane-air mixtures were studied over an initial pressure range of 150 to 500 kPa and equivalence ratios of 0.7 to 1.4. Sampling valve experiments show that quench-layer fuel hydrocarbons are extensively oxidized within 5 ms of flame arrival under laminar conditions and that turbulence further reduces the already low level. Upper limit estimates of the residual wall layer HC concentration show that residual quench layer hydrocarbons are only a small fraction of the exhaust HC emission.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Secondary Fuel Injection on the Performance and Exhaust Emissions of An Open-Chamber Diesel Engine

1978-02-01
780786
Secondary injection in a diesel engine is defined as the introduction of additional fuel into the combustion chamber after the end of the main injection. It is usually caused by residual pressure waves in the high-pressure pipe line connecting the pump and injector. When these waves exceed the injector opening pressure, secondary injection occurs. Tests revealed that the U.S. Army TACOM single-cylinder engine used in this investigation, fitted with an American Bosch injection system, had secondary injection within the normal engine operating region. The pump spill ports and delivery valve were redesigned to eliminate secondary injection, in accordance with previously reported work. Comparative tests of both the conventional and modified injection systems were run on the same engine, and the effects of secondary injection on engine power, economy, and exhaust emissions were determined.
Technical Paper

The Development of Throttled and Unthrottled PCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0202
Present-day implementations of premixed compression ignition low temperature (PCI) combustion in diesel engines use higher levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) than conventional diesel combustion. Two common devices that can be used to achieve high levels of EGR are an intake throttle and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). Because the two techniques affect the engine air system in different ways, local combustion conditions differ between the two in spite of, in some cases, having similar burn patterns in the form of heat release. The following study has developed from this and other observations; observations which necessitate a deeper understanding of emissions formation within the PCI combustion regime. This paper explains, through the use of fundamental phenomenological observations, differences in ignition delay and emission indices of particulate matter (EI-PM) and nitric oxides (EI-NOx) from PCI combustion attained via the two different techniques to flow EGR.
Technical Paper

Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2493
It is widely recognized that future NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion and aftertreatment technologies will be required. In this study, advanced combustion modes operating with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst were evaluated on a 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and one PCCI-type (premixed charge combustion ignition) combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). Five steady-state operating conditions were evaluated. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable.
Technical Paper

Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Engine and DOC Utilizing Conventional and PCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0201
Premixed compression ignition low-temperature diesel combustion (PCI) can simultaneously reduce particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions increase relative to conventional diesel combustion, however, which may necessitate the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). For a better understanding of conventional and PCI combustion, and the operation of a platinum-based production DOC, engine-out and DOC-out exhaust hydrocarbons are speciated using gas chromatography. As combustion mode is changed from lean conventional to lean PCI to rich PCI, engine-out CO and THC emissions increase significantly. The relative contributions of individual species also change; increasing methane/THC, acetylene/THC and CO/THC ratios indicate a richer combustion zone and a reduction in engine-out hydrocarbon incremental reactivity.
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