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Journal Article

Wheel Bearing Brinelling and a Vehicle Curb Impact DOE to Understand Factors Affecting Bearing Loads

As material cleanliness and bearing lubrication have improved, wheel bearings are experiencing less raceway spalling failures from rotating fatigue. Warranty part reviews have shown that two of the larger failure modes for wheel bearings are contaminant ingress and Brinell damage from curb and pothole impacts. Warranty has also shown that larger wheels have higher rates of Brinell warranty. This paper discusses the Brinell failure mode for bearings. It reviews a vehicle test used to evaluate Brinell performance for wheel bearings. The paper also discusses a design of experiments to study the effects of factors such as wheel size, vehicle loading and vehicle position versus the bearing load from a vehicle side impact to the wheel. As the trend in vehicle styling is moving to larger wheels and low profile tires, understanding the impact load can help properly size wheel bearings.
Technical Paper

Virtual Powertrain Calibration at GM Becomes a Reality

GM's R oad-to- L ab-to- M ath (RLM) initiative is a fundamental engineering strategy leading to higher quality design, reduced structural cost, and improved product development time. GM started the RLM initiative several years ago and the RLM initiative has already provided successful results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the specific RLM efforts at GM related to powertrain controls development and calibration. This paper will focus on the current state of the art but will also examine the history and the future of these related activities. This paper will present a controls development environment and methodology for providing powertrain controls developers with virtual (in the absence of ECU and vehicle hardware) calibration capabilities within their current desktop controls development environment.
Journal Article

Vehicle Integration Factors Affecting Brake Caliper Drag

Disc brakes operate with very close proximity of the brake pads and the brake rotor, with as little as a tenth of a millimeter of movement of the pads required to bring them into full contact with the rotor to generate braking torque. It is usual for a disc brake to operate with some amount of residual drag in the fully released state, signifying constant contact between the pads and the rotor. With this contact, every miniscule movement of the rotor pushes against the brake pads and changes the forces between them. Sustained loads on the brake corner, and maneuvers such as cornering, can both produce rotor movement relative to the caliper, which can push it steadily against one or both of the brake pads. This can greatly increase the residual force in the caliper, and increase drag. This dependence of drag behavior on the movement of the brake rotor creates some vehicle-dependent behavior.
Journal Article

The Effect of Outer Ring Distortion on Wheel Bearing Friction Torque

Wheel bearing friction torque (“drag”) directly contributes to vehicle fuel economy and CO2 emissions. At the same time, one of the most important factors for long-term durability of wheel bearings is effective seal performance. Since these two factors are often in conflict, it is important to balance the desire for low friction with the need for optimal sealing. One factor that affects wheel bearing sealing performance is the distortion of the outer ring that occurs when the bearing is mounted to the steering knuckle with fasteners. Minimizing this distortion is not just important for sealing, however. This paper explores the relationship between the outer ring distortion and the resulting friction torque. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used in order to study the effects of the fastening bolt torque, constant velocity joint (CVJ) fastening torque, and outer ring distortion on component-level drag.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Experimental Validation of Path-Dependent Forming Limit Diagrams of VDIF Steel

Strains in most stamped parts are produced under non-proportional loading. Limit strains induced during forming are, therefore, path dependent. Experimental Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) are usually determined under proportional loading and are not applicable to most forming operations. Experimental results have shown that path dependent FLDs are different from those determined under proportional loading. A number of analytical methods have been used to predict FLDs under proportional loading. The authors have recently introduced a new method for predicting FLDs based on the theory of damage mechanics. The damage model was used successfully to predict proportional FLDs for VDIF steel and Al6111-T4. In this paper, the anisotropic damage model was used to predict non-proportional FLDs for VDIF steel. Experiments were conducted to validate model predictions by applying pre-stretch in plane strain followed by uniaxial and balanced biaxial tension.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Systems Engineering and Control System Development via Virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

Model-based control system design improves quality, shortens development time, lowers engineering cost, and reduces rework. Evaluating a control system's performance, functionality, and robustness in a simulation environment avoids the time and expense of developing hardware and software for each design iteration. Simulating the performance of a design can be straightforward (though sometimes tedious, depending on the complexity of the system being developed) with mathematical models for the hardware components of the system (plant models) and control algorithms for embedded controllers. This paper describes a software tool and a methodology that not only allows a complete system simulation to be performed early in the product design cycle, but also greatly facilitates the construction of the model by automatically connecting the components and subsystems that comprise it.
Journal Article

Measurement and Modeling of Perceived Gear Shift Quality for Automatic Transmission Vehicles

This study was conducted to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of shift quality as perceived by drivers during kick-down shift events for automatic transmission vehicles. As part of the first study, a survey was conducted among common drivers to identify primary factors used to describe subjective gear-shifting qualities. A factor analysis on the survey data revealed four semantic subdimensions. These subdimensions include responsiveness, smoothness, unperceivable, and strength. Based on the four descriptive terms, a measure with semantic scales on each subdimension was developed and used in an experiment as the second study. Twelve participants drove and evaluated five vehicles with different gear shifting patterns. Participants were asked to make kick-down events with two different driving intentions (mild vs. sporty) across three different speeds on actual roadway (local streets and highway).
Journal Article

Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Upgrade

The Lockheed Martin Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) is a closed-return wind tunnel with two solid-wall test sections. This facility originally entered into service in 1967 for aerodynamic research of aircraft in low-speed and vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) flight. Since this time, the client base has evolved to include a significant level of automotive aerodynamic testing, and the needs of the automotive clientele have progressed to include acoustic testing capability. The LSWT was therefore acoustically upgraded in 2016 to reduce background noise levels and to minimize acoustic reflections within the low-speed test section (LSTS). The acoustic upgrade involved detailed analysis, design, specification, and installation of acoustically treated wall surfaces and turning vanes in the circuit as well as low self-noise acoustic wall and ceiling treatment in the solid-wall LSTS.
Technical Paper

Learning Gasoline Direct Injector Dynamics Using Artificial Neural Networks

In today’s race for improved fuel economy and lower emissions from gasoline engines, precise metering of delivered fuel is essential. Gasoline Direct Injection fuel systems provide the means for improved combustion efficiency through mixture preparation and better atomization. These improvements can be achieved from both increasing fuel pressure and using multiple injection events, which significantly reduce the required energizing time per injection, and in a number of cases, force the injector to operate at less than full stroke. When the injector operates in this condition, the influence of variation in injector dynamics account for a large percentage of the delivered fuel and require compensation to ensure accurate fuel delivery. Injector dynamics such as opening delay and closing time are influenced by operating conditions such as fuel pressure, energizing time, and temperature.
Journal Article

Iterative Learning Algorithm Design for Variable Admittance Control Tuning of A Robotic Lift Assistant System

The human-robot interaction (HRI) is involved in a lift assistant system of manufacturing assembly line. The admittance model is applied to control the end effector motion by sensing intention from force of applied by a human operator. The variable admittance including virtual damping and virtual mass can improve the performance of the systems. But the tuning process of variable admittance is un-convenient and challenging part during the real test for designers, while the offline simulation is lack of learning process and interaction with human operator. In this paper, the Iterative learning algorithm is proposed to emulate the human learning process and facilitate the variable admittance control design. The relationship between manipulate force and object moving speed is demonstrated from simulation data. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by comparing the simulation results between two admittance control strategies.
Technical Paper

Interfacial Fracture in Environmentally Friendly Thermoplastic Composite-Metal Laminates

This paper investigates the interfacial fracture properties of composite-metal laminates by using the single-cantilever beam testing technique. The hybrid systems consisted of a layer of aluminum alloy (6061 or 2024-T3) bonded to polypropylene based composites. In this study, two non-chromate surface treatments were applied to the aluminum substrates: SafeGard CC-300 Chrome free seal (from Sanchem Inc.) and TCP-HF (from Metalast International Inc.). These are environmentally friendly surface treatments that enhance the adhesion and corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys. Flat hybrid panels were manufactured using a one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Single cantilever bend specimens were cut from the panels and tested at 1mm/min. Results have shown that the CC-300 treated Al 2024-T3 alloy and Twintex exhibited higher interfacial fracture energy values.
Technical Paper

Initial Comparisons of Friction Stir Spot Welding and Self Piercing Riveting of Ultra-Thin Steel Sheet

Due to the limitations on resistance spot welding of ultra-thin steel sheet (thicknesses below 0.5 mm) in high-volume automotive manufacturing, a comparison of friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting was performed to determine which process may be more amenable to enabling assembly of ultra-thin steel sheet. Statistical comparisons between mechanical properties of lap-shear tensile and T-peel were made in sheet thickness below 0.5 mm and for dissimilar thickness combinations. An evaluation of energy to fracture, fracture mechanisms, and joint consistency is presented.
Technical Paper

Identification of Organic Acids in Used Engine Oil Residues by Pyrolysis-Comprehensive 2D Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

The amount of acidic material in used engine oil is considered an indicator of the remaining useful life of the oil. Total acid number, determined by titration, is the most widely accepted method for determining acidic content but the method is not capable of speciation of individual acids. In this work, high molecular weight residue was isolated from used engine oil by dialysis in heptane. This residue was then analyzed using pyrolysis-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carboxylic acids from C2-C18 were identified in the samples with acetic acid found to be the most abundant. This identification provides new information that may be used to improve the current acid detection methodologies for used engine oils.
Technical Paper

Hydraulically Damped Rubber Body Mounts with High Lateral Rate for Improved Vehicle Noise, Vibration and Ride Qualities

In today's competitive market, noise and vibration are among the most important parameters that impact the success of a vehicle. In body-on-frame construction vehicles, elastomeric body mounts play a major role in isolating the passenger compartment from road noise, harshness, shake, and other vibrations in the chassis as well as improving ride quality across a wide frequency range. This paper describes the work carried out to design a fluid filled mount with high lateral stiffness that can alter the perceived Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of current production body-on-frame trucks. It was found that the quietness and ride qualities can be significantly improved by positioning the glycol-filled mounts at the anti-node of the frame first vertical bending mode; under the C-pillar intersection with the frame. The performance of mounts in this area is known to be critical to ride quality.
Journal Article

General Motors’ New Reduced Scale Wind Tunnel Center

The General Motors Reduced Scale Wind Tunnel Facility, which came into operation in the fall of 2015, is a new state-of-the-art scale model aerodynamic test facility that expands GM’s test capabilities. The new facility also increases GM’s aerodynamic testing through-put and provides the resources needed to achieve the growing demand for higher fuel economy requirements for next generation of vehicles. The wind tunnel was designed for a nominal model scale of 40%. The nozzle and test section were sized to keep wind tunnel interference effects to a minimum. Flow quality and other wind tunnel performance parameters are on par with or better than the latest industry standards. A 5-belt system with a long center belt and boundary layer suction and blowing system are used to model underbody flow conditions. An overhead probe traverse system is installed in the test section along with a model positioning robot used to move the model in an out of the test section.
Technical Paper

General Motors Hydra-Matic 9T50 Automatic Transaxle

General Motors Global Propulsion Systems’ first nine-speed automatic transmission makes its debut in the 2017 Chevrolet Malibu, advancing a legacy of multispeed transmissions designed to optimize efficiency, performance and refinement. The Hydra-Matic 9T50 nine-speed is paired with a Ecotech 2.0L Turbo engine in the Malibu, contributing to an EPA estimated 33 mpg highway, a three-percent increase over the 2016 Malibu with an eight-speed automatic paired to the same engine. The 9T50 has a wider 7.6:1 overall ratio, which is the ratio between the first gear ratio and the top gear ratio, - compared to the six-speed’s 6.0:1 ratio. The 9T50 is fitted with a “deep” 4.69 first gear ratio for excellent off-the-line acceleration and a “tall” 0.62 top gear ratio for low-rpm highway cruising. That balance optimizes acceleration and fuel economy while reducing engine noise during cruising.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Two-Stage Turbocharger Configurations on the Perceived Vehicle Acceleration Using Numerical Simulation

Charge boosting strategy plays an essential role in improving the power density of diesel engines while meeting stringent emissions regulations. In downsized two-stage turbocharged engines, turbocharger matching is critical to achieve desired boost pressure while maintaining sufficiently fast transient response. A numerical simulation model is developed to evaluate the effect of two-stage turbocharger configurations on the perceived vehicle acceleration. The simulation model developed in GT-SUITE consists of engine, drivetrain, and vehicle dynamics sub-models. A model-based turbocharger control logic is developed in MATLAB using an analytical compressor model and a mean-value engine model. The components of the two-stage turbocharging system evaluated in this study include a variable geometry turbine in the high-pressure stage, a compressor bypass valve in the low-pressure stage and an electrically assisted turbocharger in the low-pressure stage.
Technical Paper

Effect of Surface Pretreatments on Adhesive Bonding and Corrosion Resistance of AM60B, AZ31-H24, and AM30 Magnesium

This study reports the performance of three different automotive magnesium substrate materials (AM60B diecastings, AZ31-H24 sheet, and AM30 extrusions), each bonded to a common aluminum reference material with two different toughened adhesives. The magnesium substrates were pretreated with six different commercial pretreatments both with and without a final fused-powder polymeric topcoat. These samples were then evaluated by comparing initial lap-shear strength to the lap-shear strength after cyclic-corrosion testing. Additionally, use of a scribe through the polymer primer permitted assessment of: 1) distance of corrosion undercutting from the scribe (filiform), and 2) percent corrosion over the area of the coupon. The results showed that the performance of each magnesium pretreatment varied on cast AM60B, sheet AZ31-H24, and extruded AM30 substrates.