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Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Pistons for an HSDI Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0546
Chromium-molybdenum alloy steel pistons, which have been used in commercial vehicle applications for some time, have more recently been proposed as a means of improving thermal efficiency in light-duty applications. This work reports a comparison of the effects of geometrically similar aluminium and steel pistons on the combustion characteristics and energy flows on a single cylinder high-speed direct injection diesel research engine tested at two speed / load conditions (1500 rpm / 6.9 bar nIMEP and 2000 rpm/25.8 bar nIMEP) both with and without EGR. The results indicate that changing to an alloy steel piston can provide a significant benefit in brake thermal efficiency at part-load and a reduced (but non-negligible) benefit at the high-load condition and also a reduction in fuel consumption. These benefits were attributed primarily to a reduction in friction losses.
Technical Paper

The Oxford Cold Driven Shock Tube (CDST) for Fuel Spray and Chemical Kinetics Research

2018-04-03
2018-01-0222
A new reflected shock tube facility, the Cold Driven Shock Tube (CDST), has been designed, built and commissioned at the University of Oxford for investigating IC engine fuel spray physics and chemistry. Fuel spray and chemical kinetics research requires its test gas to be at engine representative pressures and temperatures. A reflected shock tube generates these extreme conditions in the test gas for short durations (order milliseconds) by transiently compressing it through a reflected shock process. The CDST has been designed for a nominal test condition of 6 MPa, 900 K slug of air (300 mm long) for a steady test duration of 3 ms. The facility is capable of studying reacting mixtures at higher pressures (up to 150 bar) than other current facilities, whilst still having comparable size (100 mm diameter) and optical access to interrogate the fuel spray with high speed imaging and laser diagnostics.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Hot Air Dilution and an Evaporation Tube (ET) on the Particulate Matter Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0436
The emission of nanoparticles from combustion engines has been shown to have a poorly understood impact on the atmospheric environment and human health, and legislation tends to err on the side of caution. Researchers have shown that Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines tend to emit large amounts of small-sized particles compared to diesel engines fitted with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). As a result, the particulate number emission level of GDI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the likely EU6 emissions requirement. This paper presents size-resolved particle number emissions measurements from a spray-guided GDI engine and evaluates the performance of an Evaporation Tube (ET). The performance of an Evaporation Tube and hot air dilution system with a 7:1 dilution ratio has been studied, as the EU legislation uses these to exclude volatile particles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Combustion Knock on the Instantaneous Heat Flux in Spark Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0700
Knocking combustion places a major limit on the performance and efficiency of spark ignition engines. Spontaneous ignition of the unburned air-fuel mixture ahead of the flame front leads to a rapid release of energy, which produces pressure waves that cause the engine structure to vibrate at its natural frequencies and produce an audible ‘pinging’ sound. In extreme cases of knock, increased temperatures and pressures in the cylinder can cause severe engine damage. Damage is thought to be caused by thermal strain effects that are directly related to the heat flux. Since it will be the maximum values that are potentially the most damaging, then the heat flux needs to be measured on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Previous work has correlated heat flux with the pressure fluctuations on an average basis, but the work here shows a correlation on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The in-cylinder pressure and surface temperature were measured using a pressure transducer and eroding-type thermocouple.
Technical Paper

Temperature and Heat Flux Measurements in a Spark Ignition Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1214
This paper has two parts. The first compares the measured burned gas temperature using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) with the predictions of a multiple zone computer simulation of combustion. The second part describes a system that is capable of determining the heat flux into the combustion chamber by means of measuring the chamber surface temperature. It is shown that the multi-zone computer simulation can accurately predict the burned gas temperature once the fuel burn rate has been analyzed and the model tuned correctly. The effect of different fuels (methane and iso-octane) on the burned gas temperature is reported. A high burn rate or more advanced ignition timing gave a lower burned gas temperature towards the end of the engine cycle. The surface heat flux was deduced from measurements of the surface temperature by using a finite difference method.
Technical Paper

Studying the Effect of the Flame Passage on the Convective Heat Transfer in a S.I. Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0515
Engine optimization requires a good understanding of the in-cylinder heat transfer since it affects the power output, engine efficiency and emissions of the engine. However little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to its complexity. To aid the understanding of the heat transfer phenomena in a Spark Ignition (SI) engine, accurate measurements of the local instantaneous heat flux are wanted. An improved understanding will lead to better heat transfer modelling, which will improve the accuracy of current simulation software. In this research, prototype thin film gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors are used to capture the transient in-cylinder heat flux within a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. A two-zone temperature model is linked with the heat flux data. This allows the distinction between the convection coefficient in the unburned and burned zone.
Technical Paper

Spray Behaviour and Particulate Matter Emissions with M15 Methanol/Gasoline Blends in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0991
Model M15 gasoline fuels have been created from pure fuel components, to give independent control of volatility, the heavy end content and the aromatic content, in order to understand the effect of the fuel properties on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel spray behaviour and the subsequent particulate number emissions. Each fuel was imaged at a range of fuel temperatures in a spray rig and in a motored optical engine, to cover the full range from non-flashing sprays through to flare flashing sprays. The spray axial penetration (and potential piston and liner impingement), and spray evaporation rate were extracted from the images. Firing engine tests with the fuels with the same fuel temperatures were performed and exhaust particulate number spectra captured using a DMS500 Mark II Particle Spectrometer.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0209
Particulate Emissions from Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion are routinely assumed to be negligible. It is shown here that this is not the case when HCCI combustion is implemented in a direct injection gasoline engine. The conditions needed to sustain HCCI operation were realized using the negative valve overlap method for trapping high levels of residual exhaust gases in the cylinder. Measurements of emitted particle number concentration and electrical mobility diameter were made with a Cambustion DMS500 over the HCCI operating range possible with this hardware. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were also measured. These data are presented and compared with similar measurements made under conventional spark ignition (SI) operation in the same engine. Under both SI and HCCI operation, a significant accumulation mode was detected with particle equivalent diameters between 80 and 100 nm.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Common Rail Fuel Injection Diesel Engine with RME-based Biodiesel Blended Fuelling Using Thermo-gravimetric Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-0074
Increasing biodiesel content in mineral diesel is being promoted considerably for road transportation in Europe. With positive benefits in terms of net CO2 emissions, biofuels with compatible properties to those of conventional diesel are increasingly being used in combustion engines. In comparison to standard diesel fuel, the near zero sulphur content and low levels of aromatic compounds in biodiesel fuel can have a profound effect not only on combustion characteristics but on engine-out emissions as well. This paper presents analysis of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a turbo-charged, common rail direct injection (DI) V6 Jaguar engine operating with an RME (rapeseed methyl ester) biodiesel blended with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel (B30 - 30% of RME by volume). Three different engine load and speed conditions were selected for the test and no modifications were made to the engine hardware or engine management system (EMS) calibration.
Technical Paper

Novel Metrics for Validation of PIV and CFD in IC Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0716
In-cylinder flow motion has a significant effect on mixture preparation and combustion. Therefore, it is vital that CFD engine simulations are capable of accurately predicting the in-cylinder velocity fields. High-speed planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments have been performed on a single-cylinder GDI optical engine in order to validate CFD simulations for a range of engine conditions. Novel metrics have been developed to quantify the differences between experimental and simulated velocity fields in both alignment and magnitude. The Weighted Relevance Index (WRI) is a variation of the standard Relevance Index that accounts for the local velocity magnitudes to provide a robust comparison of the alignment between two vector fields. Similarly, the Weighted Magnitude Index (WMI) quantifies the differences in the local magnitudes of the two velocity fields.
Technical Paper

Multi-Component Quantitative PLIF: Robust Engineering Measurements of Cyclic Variation in a Firing Spray-Guided Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1073
Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence has been widely accepted and applied to measurements of fuel concentration distributions in IC engines. The need for such measurements has increased with the introduction of Direct Injection (DI) gasoline engines, where it is critical to understand the influence of mixture inhomogeneity on ignition and subsequent combustion, and in particular the implications for cyclic variability. The apparent simplicity of PLIF has led to misunderstanding of the technique when applied to quantitative measurements of fuel distributions. This paper presents a series of engineering methods for optimizing, calibrating and referencing, which together demonstrate a quantitative measure of fuel concentration with an absolute accuracy of 10%. PLIF is widely used with single component fuels as carriers for the fluorescent tracers.
Journal Article

Model Predictive Combustion Control Implementation Using Parallel Computation on an FPGA

2016-04-05
2016-01-0817
The introduction of transient test cycles and the focus on real world driving emissions has increased the importance of ensuring the NOx and soot emissions are controlled during transient manoeuvres. At the same time, there is a drive to reduce the number of calibration variables used by engine control strategies to reduce development effort and costs. In this paper, a control orientated combustion model, [1], and model predictive control strategy, [2], that were developed in simulation and reported in earlier papers, are applied to a Diesel engine and demonstrated in a test vehicle. The paper describes how the control approach developed in simulation was implemented in embedded hardware, using an FPGA to accelerate the emissions calculations. The development of the predictive controller includes the application of a simplified optimisation algorithm to enable a real-time calculation in the test vehicle.
Journal Article

Investigation of Combustion Robustness in Catalyst Heating Operation on a Spray Guided DISI Engine, Part II - Measurements of Spray Development, Combustion Imaging and Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0603
In-cylinder spray imaging by Mie scattering has been taken with frame rates up to 27,000 fps, along with high speed video photography of chemiluminescence and soot thermal radiation. Spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the presence of OH*, CH* and C2* emissions lines, and their magnitude relative compared to soot radiation. Filtering for CH* has been used with both the high speed video and a Photo-Multiplier Tube (PMT). The PMT signals have been found to correlate with the rate of heat release derived from in-cylinder pressure measurements. A high power photographic strobe has been used to illuminate the fuel spray. Images show that the fuel spray can strike the ground strap of the spark plug, break up, and a fuel cloud then drifts over and under the strap through the spark plug gap. Tests have conducted at two different spark plug orientations using a single spark strategy.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder Temperature Measurements Using Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy and Two-Colour PLIF

2017-09-04
2017-24-0045
In-cylinder temperature measurements are vital for the validation of gasoline engine modelling and useful in their own right for explaining differences in engine performance. The underlying chemical reactions in combustion are highly sensitive to temperature and affect emissions of both NOx and particulate matter. The two techniques described here are complementary, and can be used for insights into the quality of mixture preparation by measurement of the in-cylinder temperature distribution during the compression stroke. The influence of fuel composition on in-cylinder mixture temperatures can also be resolved. Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) provides point temperature measurements with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1 to 1.0 % when the gas composition is well characterized and homogeneous; as the pressure increases the precision improves.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Temperature Estimation from an Optical Spray-Guided DISI Engine with Color-Ratio Pyrometry (CRP)

2006-04-03
2006-01-1198
Color-ratio pyrometry (CRP) is a technique for estimating the temperature and loading of soot, based on its thermal emission spectrum. This technique is contrasted with conventional two-color pyrometry which requires absolute measurements of the radiation intensity, either at two specific wavelengths or ranges of wavelengths. CRP uses two ratios, obtained by measuring the radiation intensity for three wavelengths or wavelength bands. CRP has been implemented here by using a digital CCD camera, and full details of the calibration are reported. Because of uncertainties in the emissivity of reference sources (such as tungsten ribbon lamps, in which the emissivity depends on temperature and wavelength), then a spectroscopic calibration of the CCD camera has been used. Use of a CCD camera is not straightforward because of internal digital signal processing (DSP), so full details are given of the calibration and technique implementation.
Journal Article

Improved Analytical Model of an Outer Rotor Surface Permanent Magnet Machine for Efficiency Calculation with Thermal Effect

2017-03-28
2017-01-0185
In this paper, an improved analytical model accounting for thermal effects in the electromagnetic field solution as well as efficiency map calculation of an outer rotor surface permanent magnet (SPM) machine is described. The study refers in particular to an in-wheel motor designed for automotive electric powertrain. This high torque and low speed application pushes the electric machine close to its thermal boundary, which necessitates estimates of winding and magnet temperatures to update the winding resistance and magnet remanence in the efficiency calculation. An electromagnetic model based on conformal mapping is used to compute the field solution in the air gap. The slotted air-gap geometry is mapped to a simpler slotless shape, where the field solution can be obtained by solving Laplace's equation for scalar potential. The canonical slottless domain solution is mapped back to the original domain and verified with finite element model (FEM) results.
Technical Paper

Ignition System Measurement Techniques and Correlations for Breakdown and Arc Voltages and Currents

2000-03-06
2000-01-0245
The first part of the paper is a brief review of the techniques needed for measuring the voltage and current during the ignition process. These techniques have been used in test rigs and an engine to gain insights into the breakdown and subsequent discharge development. New correlations are presented for breakdown voltage as functions of spark plug gap, gas composition, temperature and pressure. The discharge voltage is affected by the flow, so an elevated pressure flow rig was used to look at the effect of flow and pressure on the discharge voltage history, with different stored energies in the ignition coil. This study led to a model for the discharge voltage history, from which it was possible to deduce the flow velocity through the spark plug gap. Finally, these techniques were applied to a single cylinder, 4-valve, pent-roof combustion chamber SI engine, for determining the cycle-by-cycle variations in velocity through the spark plug at the time of ignition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermocouple Size on the Measurement of Exhaust Gas Temperature in Internal Combustion Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1765
Accurate measurement of exhaust gas temperature in internal combustion engines is essential for a wide variety of monitoring and design purposes. Typically these measurements are made with thermocouples, which may vary in size from 0.05 mm (for fast response applications) to a few millimetres. In this work, the exhaust of a single cylinder diesel engine has been instrumented both with a fast-response probe (comprising of a 50.8 μm, 127 μm and a 254 μm thermocouple) and a standard 3 mm sheathed thermocouple in order to assess the performance of these sensors at two speed/load conditions. The experimental results show that the measured time-average exhaust temperature is dependent on the sensor size, with the smaller thermocouples indicating a lower average temperature for both speed/load conditions. Subject to operating conditions, measurement discrepancies of up to ~80 K have been observed between the different thermocouples used.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Use of Thin Film Gauges for Heat Flux Measurements in ICEs: Measurements on an Inlet Valve in Motored Operation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0641
To optimize internal combustion engines (ICEs), a good understanding of engine operation is essential. The heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls plays an important role, not only for the performance, but also for the emissions of the engine. Besides, thermal management of ICEs is becoming more and more important as an additional tool for optimizing efficiency and emission aftertreatment. In contrast little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to the complexity of the working processes. Heat transfer measurements inside the combustion chamber pose a challenge in instrumentation due to the harsh environment. Additionally, the heat loss in a spark ignition (SI) engine shows a high temporal and spatial variation. This poses certain requirements on the heat flux sensor. In this paper we examine the heat transfer in a production SI ICE through the use of Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Transient Diesel Spray Break-Up between Two Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0307
Accurate modeling of the initial transient period of spray development is critical within diesel engines, as it impacts on the amount of vapor penetration and hence the combustion characteristics of the spray. In addition, in multiple injection schemes shorter injections will be mostly, if not totally, within the initial transient period. This paper investigates how two different commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes (hereafter noted as Code 1 and Code 2) simulate transient diesel spray atomization, in a non-combusting environment. The case considered for comparison is a single-hole injection of n-dodecane representing the Engine Combustion Network’s ‘Spray A’ condition. It was identified that the different spray break-up models used by the codes (Reitz-Diwakar for Code 1, Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) for Code 2) had a significant impact on the transient liquid penetration.
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