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Technical Paper

Two-Way Flow Coupling in Ice Crystal Icing Simulation

2019-06-10
2019-01-1966
Numerous turbofan power-loss events have occurred in high altitude locations in the presence of ice crystals. It is theorized that ice crystals enter the engine core, partially melt in the compressor and then accrete onto stator blade surfaces. This may lead to engine rollback, or shed induced blade damage, surge and/or flameout. The first generation of ice crystal icing predictive models use a single flow field where there is no accretion to calculate particle trajectories and accretion growth rates. Recent work completed at the University of Oxford has created an algorithm to automatically detect the edge of accretion from experimental video data. Using these accretion profiles, numerical simulations were carried out at discrete points in time using a manual meshing process.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Ethanol Blends on Particulate Matter Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0793
Particulate Matter (PM) legislation for gasoline engines and the introduction of gasoline/ethanol blends, make it important to know the effect of fuel composition on PM emissions. Tests have been conducted with fuels of known composition in both a single-cylinder engine and V8 engine with a three-way catalyst. The V8 engine used an unleaded gasoline (PURA) with known composition and distillation characteristics as a base fuel and with 10% by volume ethanol. The single-cylinder engine used a 65% iso-octane - 35% toluene mixture as its base fuel. The engines had essentially the same combustion system, with a centrally mounted 6-hole spray-guided direct injection system. Particle size distributions were recorded and these have also been converted to mass distributions. Filter samples were taken for thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to give composition information. Both engines were operated at 1500 rpm under part load.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Hot Air Dilution and an Evaporation Tube (ET) on the Particulate Matter Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0436
The emission of nanoparticles from combustion engines has been shown to have a poorly understood impact on the atmospheric environment and human health, and legislation tends to err on the side of caution. Researchers have shown that Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines tend to emit large amounts of small-sized particles compared to diesel engines fitted with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). As a result, the particulate number emission level of GDI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the likely EU6 emissions requirement. This paper presents size-resolved particle number emissions measurements from a spray-guided GDI engine and evaluates the performance of an Evaporation Tube (ET). The performance of an Evaporation Tube and hot air dilution system with a 7:1 dilution ratio has been studied, as the EU legislation uses these to exclude volatile particles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Non-Ideal Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium and Non-Ideal Liquid Diffusion on Multi-Component Droplet Evaporation for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0924
A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method. Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered. Well-mixed droplet evaporation may be applicable with slow evaporation, for example early gasoline direct injection; diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation must be considered when faster evaporation is encountered, for example when injection is later, or when the fuel mixture is non-ideal.
Technical Paper

Sub-23 nm Particulate Emissions from a Highly Boosted GDI Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0153
The European Particle Measurement Program (PMP) defines the current standard for measurement of Particle Number (PN) emissions from vehicles in Europe. This specifies a 50% count efficiency (D50) at 23 nm and a 90% count efficiency (D90) at 41 nm. Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely studied, but usually only in the context of PMP or similar sampling procedures. There is increasing interest in the smallest particles - i.e. smaller than 23 nm - which can be emitted from vehicles. The literature suggest that by moving D50 to 10 nm, PN emissions from GDI engines might increase by between 35 and 50% but there remains a lot of uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Spray Behaviour and Particulate Matter Emissions with M15 Methanol/Gasoline Blends in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0991
Model M15 gasoline fuels have been created from pure fuel components, to give independent control of volatility, the heavy end content and the aromatic content, in order to understand the effect of the fuel properties on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel spray behaviour and the subsequent particulate number emissions. Each fuel was imaged at a range of fuel temperatures in a spray rig and in a motored optical engine, to cover the full range from non-flashing sprays through to flare flashing sprays. The spray axial penetration (and potential piston and liner impingement), and spray evaporation rate were extracted from the images. Firing engine tests with the fuels with the same fuel temperatures were performed and exhaust particulate number spectra captured using a DMS500 Mark II Particle Spectrometer.
Technical Paper

Particulate and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with Oxygenate Fuel Blends

2007-04-16
2007-01-0472
The blending of oxygenated compounds with gasoline is projected to increase because oxygenate fuels can be produced renewably, and because their high octane rating allows them to be used in substitution of the aromatic fraction in gasoline. Blending oxygenates with gasoline changes the fuels' properties and can have a profound affect on the distillation curve, both of which are known to affect engine-out emissions. In this work, the effect of blending methanol and ethanol with gasoline on unburned hydrocarbon and particulate emissions is experimentally determined in a spray guided direct injection engine. Particulate number concentration and size distribution were measured using a Cambustion DMS500. These data are presented for different air fuel ratios, loads, ignition timings and injection timings. In addition, the ASTM D86 distillation curve was modeled using the binary activity coefficients method for the fuel blends used in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Hydrocarbon Emissions Measurements: Comparing First and Second Generation DISI with PFI in Single Cylinder Optical Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-1263
A Spray Guided Direct Injection (SGDI) engine has been shown to emit less Particulate Matter (PM) than a first generation (wall guided) Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. The reduction is attributed to the reduced incidence of fuel-wall impingement and higher fuel injection pressure. The extent to which this is true was investigated by comparison between single cylinder SGDI and DISI engines. Both engines were also operated with conventional port injection to provide a baseline. Feedgas PM number concentration and size spectra were measured using a Cambustion differential mobility spectrometer for the fuels iso-octane and toluene with a range of Air-Fuel Ratios (AFRs), ignition and injection timings.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0209
Particulate Emissions from Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion are routinely assumed to be negligible. It is shown here that this is not the case when HCCI combustion is implemented in a direct injection gasoline engine. The conditions needed to sustain HCCI operation were realized using the negative valve overlap method for trapping high levels of residual exhaust gases in the cylinder. Measurements of emitted particle number concentration and electrical mobility diameter were made with a Cambustion DMS500 over the HCCI operating range possible with this hardware. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were also measured. These data are presented and compared with similar measurements made under conventional spark ignition (SI) operation in the same engine. Under both SI and HCCI operation, a significant accumulation mode was detected with particle equivalent diameters between 80 and 100 nm.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Common Rail Fuel Injection Diesel Engine with RME-based Biodiesel Blended Fuelling Using Thermo-gravimetric Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-0074
Increasing biodiesel content in mineral diesel is being promoted considerably for road transportation in Europe. With positive benefits in terms of net CO2 emissions, biofuels with compatible properties to those of conventional diesel are increasingly being used in combustion engines. In comparison to standard diesel fuel, the near zero sulphur content and low levels of aromatic compounds in biodiesel fuel can have a profound effect not only on combustion characteristics but on engine-out emissions as well. This paper presents analysis of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a turbo-charged, common rail direct injection (DI) V6 Jaguar engine operating with an RME (rapeseed methyl ester) biodiesel blended with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel (B30 - 30% of RME by volume). Three different engine load and speed conditions were selected for the test and no modifications were made to the engine hardware or engine management system (EMS) calibration.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emissions from a Range of European Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0786
In light of forthcoming particle number legislation for light-duty passenger vehicles, time-resolved Particle Mass (PM) and Particle Number (PN) emissions over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) are reported for four current vehicle technologies; modern diesel, with and without a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) gasoline and multi-point Port Fuel Injection (PFI) gasoline. The PN and PM emissions were ordered (highest to lowest) according to: Non-DPF diesel ≻ DISI ≻ PFI ~ DPF diesel. Both the non-DPF diesel and DISI vehicles emitted PN and PM continuously over the NEDC. This is in contrast with both the DPF diesel and PFI vehicles which emitted nearly all their PN and PM during the first 200 seconds. The PFI result is thought to be a consequence of cold-start mixture preparation whilst several possible explanations are offered for the DPF diesel trend.
Technical Paper

Optical Techniques that can be Applied to Investigate GDI Engine Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0046
The increased efficiency and specific output with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines are well known, but so too are the higher levels of Particulate Matter emissions compared with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. To minimise Particulate Matter emissions, then it is necessary to understand and control the mixture preparation process, and important insights into GDI engine mixture preparation and combustion can be obtained from optical access engines. Such data is also crucial for validating models that predict flows, sprays and air fuel ratio distributions. The purpose of this paper is to review a number of optical techniques; the interpretation of the results is engine specific so will not be covered here. Mie scattering can be used for semi-quantitative measurements of the fuel spray and this can be followed with Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) for determining the air fuel ratio and temperature distributions.
Technical Paper

Novel Metrics for Validation of PIV and CFD in IC Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0716
In-cylinder flow motion has a significant effect on mixture preparation and combustion. Therefore, it is vital that CFD engine simulations are capable of accurately predicting the in-cylinder velocity fields. High-speed planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments have been performed on a single-cylinder GDI optical engine in order to validate CFD simulations for a range of engine conditions. Novel metrics have been developed to quantify the differences between experimental and simulated velocity fields in both alignment and magnitude. The Weighted Relevance Index (WRI) is a variation of the standard Relevance Index that accounts for the local velocity magnitudes to provide a robust comparison of the alignment between two vector fields. Similarly, the Weighted Magnitude Index (WMI) quantifies the differences in the local magnitudes of the two velocity fields.
Journal Article

Model Predictive Combustion Control Implementation Using Parallel Computation on an FPGA

2016-04-05
2016-01-0817
The introduction of transient test cycles and the focus on real world driving emissions has increased the importance of ensuring the NOx and soot emissions are controlled during transient manoeuvres. At the same time, there is a drive to reduce the number of calibration variables used by engine control strategies to reduce development effort and costs. In this paper, a control orientated combustion model, [1], and model predictive control strategy, [2], that were developed in simulation and reported in earlier papers, are applied to a Diesel engine and demonstrated in a test vehicle. The paper describes how the control approach developed in simulation was implemented in embedded hardware, using an FPGA to accelerate the emissions calculations. The development of the predictive controller includes the application of a simplified optimisation algorithm to enable a real-time calculation in the test vehicle.
Journal Article

Investigation of Combustion Robustness in Catalyst Heating Operation on a Spray Guided DISI Engine, Part II - Measurements of Spray Development, Combustion Imaging and Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0603
In-cylinder spray imaging by Mie scattering has been taken with frame rates up to 27,000 fps, along with high speed video photography of chemiluminescence and soot thermal radiation. Spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the presence of OH*, CH* and C2* emissions lines, and their magnitude relative compared to soot radiation. Filtering for CH* has been used with both the high speed video and a Photo-Multiplier Tube (PMT). The PMT signals have been found to correlate with the rate of heat release derived from in-cylinder pressure measurements. A high power photographic strobe has been used to illuminate the fuel spray. Images show that the fuel spray can strike the ground strap of the spark plug, break up, and a fuel cloud then drifts over and under the strap through the spark plug gap. Tests have conducted at two different spark plug orientations using a single spark strategy.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder Temperature Measurements Using Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy and Two-Colour PLIF

2017-09-04
2017-24-0045
In-cylinder temperature measurements are vital for the validation of gasoline engine modelling and useful in their own right for explaining differences in engine performance. The underlying chemical reactions in combustion are highly sensitive to temperature and affect emissions of both NOx and particulate matter. The two techniques described here are complementary, and can be used for insights into the quality of mixture preparation by measurement of the in-cylinder temperature distribution during the compression stroke. The influence of fuel composition on in-cylinder mixture temperatures can also be resolved. Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) provides point temperature measurements with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1 to 1.0 % when the gas composition is well characterized and homogeneous; as the pressure increases the precision improves.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Temperature Estimation from an Optical Spray-Guided DISI Engine with Color-Ratio Pyrometry (CRP)

2006-04-03
2006-01-1198
Color-ratio pyrometry (CRP) is a technique for estimating the temperature and loading of soot, based on its thermal emission spectrum. This technique is contrasted with conventional two-color pyrometry which requires absolute measurements of the radiation intensity, either at two specific wavelengths or ranges of wavelengths. CRP uses two ratios, obtained by measuring the radiation intensity for three wavelengths or wavelength bands. CRP has been implemented here by using a digital CCD camera, and full details of the calibration are reported. Because of uncertainties in the emissivity of reference sources (such as tungsten ribbon lamps, in which the emissivity depends on temperature and wavelength), then a spectroscopic calibration of the CCD camera has been used. Use of a CCD camera is not straightforward because of internal digital signal processing (DSP), so full details are given of the calibration and technique implementation.
Technical Paper

ICICLE: A Model for Glaciated & Mixed Phase Icing for Application to Aircraft Engines

2019-06-10
2019-01-1969
High altitude ice crystals can pose a threat to aircraft engine compression and combustion systems. Cases of engine damage, surge and rollback have been recorded in recent years, believed due to ice crystals partially melting and accreting on static surfaces (stators, endwalls and ducting). The increased awareness and understanding of this phenomenon has resulted in the extension of icing certification requirements to include glaciated and mixed phase conditions. Developing semi-empirical models is a cost effective way of enabling certification, and providing simple design rules for next generation engines. A comprehensive ice crystal icing model is presented in this paper, the Ice Crystal Icing ComputationaL Environment (ICICLE). It is modular in design, comprising a baseline code consisting of an axisymmetric or 2D planar flowfield solution, Lagrangian particle tracking, air-particle heat transfer and phase change, and surface interactions (bouncing, fragmentation, sticking).
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Analysis of Ice Crystal Accretion on a Gas Turbine Compressor Stator Vane

2019-06-10
2019-01-1927
A significant number of historical engine powerloss events have recently been attributed to ingestion of high altitude ice crystals, prompting regulators to expand engine certification envelopes to incorporate ‘ice crystal icing’ conditions. There has been a resulting effort by OEMs and academia to develop analytical and semi-empirical models for the phenomenon, partly through use of rig testing. The current study presents results and analysis of experiments conducted in the National Research Council’s Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac). The experiments used a simplified compressor stator vane test article, designed to produce data to build semi-empirical models and validate an existing ice crystal icing code. Accretion growth rates, extracted from backlit shadowgraphy, are presented as a function of test condition, and the algorithm of a new image processing technique using Canny filtering is discussed.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Particulate Measurements from a DISI Vehicle: A Comparison of DMS500, ELPI, CPC and PASS

2006-04-03
2006-01-1077
A Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS500), Dekati Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), TSI Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and AVL Photo-Acoustic Soot Sensor (PASS) were compared for measurements of emitted Particulate Matter (PM) from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) vehicle on the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and at steady speed operating points. The exhaust was diluted in a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) before being measured. Transient size spectral data from the DMS500 and ELPI is presented. PM Number rate and total PM number emissions are presented for the DMS500, ELPI and CPC. The DMS500 and ELPI data are post-processed for PM mass, and presented with data from the PASS. The instrument responses were correlated against each other. Qualitative agreement was generally found between all instruments. The agreement was closer for PM mass measurements than for measurements of PM number.
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