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Technical Paper

Using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Eliminate Turbo-Lag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1452
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
Technical Paper

Two-Way Flow Coupling in Ice Crystal Icing Simulation

2019-06-10
2019-01-1966
Numerous turbofan power-loss events have occurred in high altitude locations in the presence of ice crystals. It is theorized that ice crystals enter the engine core, partially melt in the compressor and then accrete onto stator blade surfaces. This may lead to engine rollback, or shed induced blade damage, surge and/or flameout. The first generation of ice crystal icing predictive models use a single flow field where there is no accretion to calculate particle trajectories and accretion growth rates. Recent work completed at the University of Oxford has created an algorithm to automatically detect the edge of accretion from experimental video data. Using these accretion profiles, numerical simulations were carried out at discrete points in time using a manual meshing process.
Technical Paper

Towards In-Cylinder Flow Informed Engine Control Strategies Using Linear Stochastic Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0717
Many modern I.C. engines rely on some form of active control of injection, timing and/or ignition timing to help combat tailpipe out emissions, increase the fuel economy and improve engine drivability. However, development of these strategies is often optimised to suit the average cycle at each condition; an assumption that can lead to sub-optimal performance, especially an increase in particulate (PN) emissions as I.C. engine operation, and in-particular its charge motion is subject to cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV). Literature shows that the locations of otherwise repeatable large-scale flow structures may vary by as much 25% of the bore dimension; this could have an impact on fuel break-up and distribution and therefore subsequent combustion performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of Steel and Aluminium Pistons for an HSDI Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0546
Chromium-molybdenum alloy steel pistons, which have been used in commercial vehicle applications for some time, have more recently been proposed as a means of improving thermal efficiency in light-duty applications. This work reports a comparison of the effects of geometrically similar aluminium and steel pistons on the combustion characteristics and energy flows on a single cylinder high-speed direct injection diesel research engine tested at two speed / load conditions (1500 rpm / 6.9 bar nIMEP and 2000 rpm/25.8 bar nIMEP) both with and without EGR. The results indicate that changing to an alloy steel piston can provide a significant benefit in brake thermal efficiency at part-load and a reduced (but non-negligible) benefit at the high-load condition and also a reduction in fuel consumption. These benefits were attributed primarily to a reduction in friction losses.
Technical Paper

The Volumetric Efficiency of Direct and Port Injection Gasoline Engines with Different Fuels

2002-03-04
2002-01-0839
A study has been undertaken with a single-cylinder engine, based on the Mitsubishi GDi combustion system, that has the option of either port injection or direct injection. Tests have been undertaken with pure fuel components (methane, iso-octane, toluene and methanol), and a representative gasoline that has also been tested with the addition of 10% methanol and 10% ethanol. The volumetric efficiency depends both on the fuel and its time and place of injection. For stoichiometric operation with unleaded gasoline, changing from port injection to direct injection led to a 9% increase in volumetric efficiency, which was improved by a further 3% when 10% methanol was blended with the gasoline. The improvements in volumetric efficiency will be used to quantify the extent of charge cooling by fuel evaporation, and these will be compared with predictions assuming the maximum possible level of fuel evaporation.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Fuel Metering Control for Optimising Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0894
Low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines offers attractive benefits through simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides and soot. However, it is known that the in-cylinder conditions typical of LTC operation tend to produce high emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO), reducing combustion efficiency. The present study develops from the hypothesis that this characteristic poor combustion efficiency is due to in-cylinder mixture preparation strategies that are non-optimally matched to the requirements of the LTC combustion mode. In this work, the effects of three key fuel path parameters - injection fuel quantity ratio, dwell and injection timing - on CO and HC emissions were examined using a Central Composite Design (CCD) Design of Experiments (DOE) method.
Technical Paper

The Measurement of Liner - Piston Skirt Oil Film Thickness by an Ultrasonic Means

2006-04-03
2006-01-0648
The paper presents a novel method for the measurement of lubricant film thickness in the piston-liner contact. Direct measurement of the film in this conjunction has always posed a problem, particularly under fired conditions. The principle is based on capturing and analysing the reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at the oil film. The proportion of the wave amplitude reflected can be related to the thickness of the oil film. A single cylinder 4-stroke engine on a dyno test platform was used for evaluation of the method. A piezo-electric transducer was bonded to the outside of the cylinder liner and used to emit high frequency short duration ultrasonic pulses. These pulses were used to determine the oil film thickness as the piston skirt passed over the sensor location. Oil films in the range 2 to 21 μm were recorded varying with engine speeds. The results have been shown to be in agreement with detailed numerical predictions.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Ethanol Blends on Particulate Matter Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0793
Particulate Matter (PM) legislation for gasoline engines and the introduction of gasoline/ethanol blends, make it important to know the effect of fuel composition on PM emissions. Tests have been conducted with fuels of known composition in both a single-cylinder engine and V8 engine with a three-way catalyst. The V8 engine used an unleaded gasoline (PURA) with known composition and distillation characteristics as a base fuel and with 10% by volume ethanol. The single-cylinder engine used a 65% iso-octane - 35% toluene mixture as its base fuel. The engines had essentially the same combustion system, with a centrally mounted 6-hole spray-guided direct injection system. Particle size distributions were recorded and these have also been converted to mass distributions. Filter samples were taken for thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to give composition information. Both engines were operated at 1500 rpm under part load.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Hot Air Dilution and an Evaporation Tube (ET) on the Particulate Matter Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0436
The emission of nanoparticles from combustion engines has been shown to have a poorly understood impact on the atmospheric environment and human health, and legislation tends to err on the side of caution. Researchers have shown that Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines tend to emit large amounts of small-sized particles compared to diesel engines fitted with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). As a result, the particulate number emission level of GDI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the likely EU6 emissions requirement. This paper presents size-resolved particle number emissions measurements from a spray-guided GDI engine and evaluates the performance of an Evaporation Tube (ET). The performance of an Evaporation Tube and hot air dilution system with a 7:1 dilution ratio has been studied, as the EU legislation uses these to exclude volatile particles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Non-Ideal Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium and Non-Ideal Liquid Diffusion on Multi-Component Droplet Evaporation for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0924
A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method. Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered. Well-mixed droplet evaporation may be applicable with slow evaporation, for example early gasoline direct injection; diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation must be considered when faster evaporation is encountered, for example when injection is later, or when the fuel mixture is non-ideal.
Technical Paper

The Effect of EGR on Diesel Engine Wear

1999-03-01
1999-01-0839
As part of an ongoing programme of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) wear investigations, this paper reports a study into the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation, and a variety of interacting factors, on the wear rate of the top piston ring and the liner top ring reversal point on a 1.0 litre/cylinder medium duty four cylinder diesel engine. Thin Layer Activation (TLA - also known as Surface Layer Activation in the US) has been used to provide individual wear rates for these components when engine operating conditions have been varied. The effects of oil condition, EGR level, fuel sulphur content and engine coolant temperature have been investigated at one engine speed at full load. The effects of engine load and uncooled EGR have also been assessed. The effects of these parameters on engine wear are presented and discussed. When EGR was applied a significant increase in wear was observed at EGR levels of between 10% and 15%.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Cylinder De-Activation on Thermo-Friction Characteristics of the Connecting Rod Bearing in the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC)

2014-06-30
2014-01-2089
This paper presents an investigation of Cylinder De-Activation (CDA) technology on the performance of big end bearings. A multi-physics approach is used in order to take into account more realistic dynamic loading effects on the tribological behavior. The power loss, minimum film thickness and maximum temperature of big end bearings have been calculated during maneuver pertaining to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Results show that bearing efficiency runs contrary to efficiency gained through combustion and pumping losses. Under CDA mode, the power loss of big end bearings is more than the power loss under engine normal mode. The problem is predominant at higher engine speeds and higher Brake mean Effective Pressures (BMEP) in active cylinders. It is also observed that the minimum film thickness is reduced under the CDA mode. This can affect wear performance. In addition, same behavior is noted for the maximum temperature rise which is higher under CDA.
Technical Paper

Sub-23 nm Particulate Emissions from a Highly Boosted GDI Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0153
The European Particle Measurement Program (PMP) defines the current standard for measurement of Particle Number (PN) emissions from vehicles in Europe. This specifies a 50% count efficiency (D50) at 23 nm and a 90% count efficiency (D90) at 41 nm. Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely studied, but usually only in the context of PMP or similar sampling procedures. There is increasing interest in the smallest particles - i.e. smaller than 23 nm - which can be emitted from vehicles. The literature suggest that by moving D50 to 10 nm, PN emissions from GDI engines might increase by between 35 and 50% but there remains a lot of uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Spray Behaviour and Particulate Matter Emissions with M15 Methanol/Gasoline Blends in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0991
Model M15 gasoline fuels have been created from pure fuel components, to give independent control of volatility, the heavy end content and the aromatic content, in order to understand the effect of the fuel properties on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel spray behaviour and the subsequent particulate number emissions. Each fuel was imaged at a range of fuel temperatures in a spray rig and in a motored optical engine, to cover the full range from non-flashing sprays through to flare flashing sprays. The spray axial penetration (and potential piston and liner impingement), and spray evaporation rate were extracted from the images. Firing engine tests with the fuels with the same fuel temperatures were performed and exhaust particulate number spectra captured using a DMS500 Mark II Particle Spectrometer.
Technical Paper

Particulate and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with Oxygenate Fuel Blends

2007-04-16
2007-01-0472
The blending of oxygenated compounds with gasoline is projected to increase because oxygenate fuels can be produced renewably, and because their high octane rating allows them to be used in substitution of the aromatic fraction in gasoline. Blending oxygenates with gasoline changes the fuels' properties and can have a profound affect on the distillation curve, both of which are known to affect engine-out emissions. In this work, the effect of blending methanol and ethanol with gasoline on unburned hydrocarbon and particulate emissions is experimentally determined in a spray guided direct injection engine. Particulate number concentration and size distribution were measured using a Cambustion DMS500. These data are presented for different air fuel ratios, loads, ignition timings and injection timings. In addition, the ASTM D86 distillation curve was modeled using the binary activity coefficients method for the fuel blends used in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Hydrocarbon Emissions Measurements: Comparing First and Second Generation DISI with PFI in Single Cylinder Optical Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-1263
A Spray Guided Direct Injection (SGDI) engine has been shown to emit less Particulate Matter (PM) than a first generation (wall guided) Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. The reduction is attributed to the reduced incidence of fuel-wall impingement and higher fuel injection pressure. The extent to which this is true was investigated by comparison between single cylinder SGDI and DISI engines. Both engines were also operated with conventional port injection to provide a baseline. Feedgas PM number concentration and size spectra were measured using a Cambustion differential mobility spectrometer for the fuels iso-octane and toluene with a range of Air-Fuel Ratios (AFRs), ignition and injection timings.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0209
Particulate Emissions from Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion are routinely assumed to be negligible. It is shown here that this is not the case when HCCI combustion is implemented in a direct injection gasoline engine. The conditions needed to sustain HCCI operation were realized using the negative valve overlap method for trapping high levels of residual exhaust gases in the cylinder. Measurements of emitted particle number concentration and electrical mobility diameter were made with a Cambustion DMS500 over the HCCI operating range possible with this hardware. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were also measured. These data are presented and compared with similar measurements made under conventional spark ignition (SI) operation in the same engine. Under both SI and HCCI operation, a significant accumulation mode was detected with particle equivalent diameters between 80 and 100 nm.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Common Rail Fuel Injection Diesel Engine with RME-based Biodiesel Blended Fuelling Using Thermo-gravimetric Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-0074
Increasing biodiesel content in mineral diesel is being promoted considerably for road transportation in Europe. With positive benefits in terms of net CO2 emissions, biofuels with compatible properties to those of conventional diesel are increasingly being used in combustion engines. In comparison to standard diesel fuel, the near zero sulphur content and low levels of aromatic compounds in biodiesel fuel can have a profound effect not only on combustion characteristics but on engine-out emissions as well. This paper presents analysis of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a turbo-charged, common rail direct injection (DI) V6 Jaguar engine operating with an RME (rapeseed methyl ester) biodiesel blended with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel (B30 - 30% of RME by volume). Three different engine load and speed conditions were selected for the test and no modifications were made to the engine hardware or engine management system (EMS) calibration.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emissions from a Range of European Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0786
In light of forthcoming particle number legislation for light-duty passenger vehicles, time-resolved Particle Mass (PM) and Particle Number (PN) emissions over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) are reported for four current vehicle technologies; modern diesel, with and without a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) gasoline and multi-point Port Fuel Injection (PFI) gasoline. The PN and PM emissions were ordered (highest to lowest) according to: Non-DPF diesel ≻ DISI ≻ PFI ~ DPF diesel. Both the non-DPF diesel and DISI vehicles emitted PN and PM continuously over the NEDC. This is in contrast with both the DPF diesel and PFI vehicles which emitted nearly all their PN and PM during the first 200 seconds. The PFI result is thought to be a consequence of cold-start mixture preparation whilst several possible explanations are offered for the DPF diesel trend.
Technical Paper

Optical Techniques that can be Applied to Investigate GDI Engine Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0046
The increased efficiency and specific output with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines are well known, but so too are the higher levels of Particulate Matter emissions compared with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. To minimise Particulate Matter emissions, then it is necessary to understand and control the mixture preparation process, and important insights into GDI engine mixture preparation and combustion can be obtained from optical access engines. Such data is also crucial for validating models that predict flows, sprays and air fuel ratio distributions. The purpose of this paper is to review a number of optical techniques; the interpretation of the results is engine specific so will not be covered here. Mie scattering can be used for semi-quantitative measurements of the fuel spray and this can be followed with Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) for determining the air fuel ratio and temperature distributions.
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