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Technical Paper

Weldability Improvement Using Coated Electrodes for RSW of HDG Steel

2006-04-03
2006-01-0092
The increased use of zinc coatings on steels has led to a decrease in their weldability. Weld current and time need to be increased in order to achieve sound welds on these materials compared to uncoated steels, and electrode tip life suffers greatly due to rapid alloying and degradation. In this work, typical uncoated Class II electrodes were tested along with a TiC metal matrix composite (MMC) coated electrode. Tests were conducted to study the weldability and process of nugget formation for both electrodes on HDG (hot dipped galvanized) HSLA (high strength low alloys) steels. Current and time ranges were constructed for both types of electrodes by varying either the weld current or weld time while holding all other parameters constant. Analysis of weld microstructures was conducted on cross-sectioned welds using SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Using the coated electrodes reduced weld current and times needed to form MWS (minimum weld size) on the coated steels.
Technical Paper

Weld Failure in Formability Testing of Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks

2001-03-05
2001-01-0090
The present work investigates weld failure modes during formability tests of multi-gauge aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs). The limiting dome height test is used to evaluate formability of TWBs. Three gauge combinations utilizing aluminum alloy 5754 sheets are considered (2 to 1 mm, 1.6 to 1 mm and 2 to 1.6 mm). Three weld orientations have been considered: transverse, longitudinal and 45°. Interaction of several factors determines the type of failure that occurs in a TWB specimen. These factors are weld orientation, morphology and distribution of weld defects, and the magnitude of constraint imposed by the thicker sheet to the thin sheet. The last factor depends on the difference in thickness of the sheet pair and is usually expressed in terms of gauge ratio. In general TWBs show two different types of fracture: weld failure and failure of the thin aluminum sheet. Only the former will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Volumetric Tire Models for Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-1565
Abstract Dynamic modelling of the contact between the tires of automobiles and the road surface is crucial for accurate and effective vehicle dynamic simulation and the development of various driving controllers. Furthermore, an accurate prediction of the rolling resistance is needed for powertrain controllers and controllers designed to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Existing models of tires include physics-based analytical models, finite element based models, black box models, and data driven empirical models. The main issue with these approaches is that none of these models offer the balance between accuracy of simulation and computational cost that is required for the model-based development cycle. To address this issue, we present a volumetric approach to model the forces/moments between the tire and the road for vehicle dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability through Integrated Active Steering and Differential Braking

2006-04-03
2006-01-1022
This paper proposes a vehicle performance/safety method using combined active steering and differential braking to achieve yaw stability and rollover avoidance. The advantages and disadvantages of active steering and differential braking control methods are identified under a variety of input signals, such as J-turn, sinusoidal, and fishhook inputs by using the implemented linear 4 DOF model. Also, the nonlinear model of the vehicle is evaluated and verified through individual and integrated controller. Each controller gives the correction steering angle and correction moment to the simplified steering and braking actuators. The integrated active steering and differential braking control are shown to be most efficient in achieving yaw stability and rollover avoidance, while active steering and differential braking control has been shown to improve the vehicle performance and safety only in yaw stability and rollover avoidance, respectively.
Technical Paper

Tribological Factors Affecting the LDH Test

1992-02-01
920434
The present work is aimed at investigating the tribological factors influencing the LDH test. The material used was AKDQ cold-rolled bare steel, 0.82mm thick. The investigated factors included: test speed (0.833, 4.167, 6.667, and 8.333 mm/s), lubricant viscosity (4.5, 7.0, and 12.5 mm2/s), punch roughness (0.033 and 0.144 μm Ra), and test temperature (25 and 50 °C). Test speed and lubricant viscosity form a variation of the numerator of the Stribeck curve's x-axis (ηV). With ηV increasing from 4 to 120 mm3/s2 friction decreased, resulting in a 0.5 mm higher LDH. Increasing the punch roughness decreased friction producing an increase of 0.25 mm in the LDH. There appears to be an optimum roughness -- at which the roughness features act as lubricant reservoirs but the asperities do not break through the lubricant film -- resulting in minimum friction, therefore, maximum LDH.
Technical Paper

Transient Tribological Phenomena in Drawbead Simulation

1992-02-01
920634
Details of the development of metal transfer and friction were studied by drawing cold-rolled bare, galvannealed, electrogalvanized, and hot-dip galvanized strips with a mineral-oil lubricant of 30 cSt viscosity at 40 C, over a total distance of 2500 mm by three methods. An initial high friction peak was associated with metal transfer to the beads and was largest with pure zinc and smallest with Fe-Zn coatings. Insertion of a new strip disturbed the coating and led to the development of secondary peaks. Long-term trends were governed by the stability of the coating. Stearic acid added to mineral oil delayed stabilization of the coating and increased contact area and thus friction with pure zinc surfaces. The usual practice of reporting average friction values can hide valuable information on lubrication mechanisms and metal transfer.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Electrochemical Analysis of a Graphite/LiFePO4 Li-Ion Cell to Improve Its Durability

2015-04-14
2015-01-1182
Abstract Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are one of the best candidates as energy storage systems for automobile applications due to their high power and energy densities. However, durability in comparison to other battery chemistries continues to be a key factor in prevention of wide scale adoption by the automotive industry. In order to design more-durable, longer-life, batteries, reliable and predictive battery models are required. In this paper, an effective model for simulating full-size LIBs is employed that can predict the operating voltage of the cell and the distribution of variables such as electrochemical current generation and battery state of charge (SOC). This predictive ability is used to examine the effect of parameters such as current collector thickness and tab location for the purpose of reducing non-uniform voltage and current distribution in the cell.
Journal Article

Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell with Indirect Liquid Cooling using Dual Cold Plates Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-1184
Abstract The performance, life cycle cost, and safety of electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) depend strongly on their energy storage system. Advanced batteries such as lithium-ion (Li-ion) polymer batteries are quite viable options for storing energy in EVs and HEVs. In addition, thermal management is essential for achieving the desired performance and life cycle from a particular battery. Therefore, to design a thermal management system, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. The thermal characteristics that are needed include the surface temperature distribution, heat flux, and the heat generation from batteries under various charge/discharge profiles. Therefore, in the first part of the research, surface temperature distribution from a lithium-ion pouch cell (20Ah capacity) is studied under different discharge rates of 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior of Two Commercial Li-Ion Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1840
Abstract In electrified vehicle applications, the heat generated of lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells may significantly affect the vehicle range and state of health (SOH) of the pack. Therefore, a major design task is creation of a battery thermal management system with suitable control and cooling strategies. To this end, the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells at various temperatures and operating conditions should be quantified. In this paper, two different commercial pouch cells for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are studied through comprehensive thermal performance tests. This study employs a fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of tests required to characterize the behavior of fresh cells while minimizing the effects of ageing. At each test point, the effects of ambient temperature and charge/discharge rate on several types of cell efficiencies and surface heat generation are evaluated.
Technical Paper

The University of Waterloo Alternative Fuels Team's Approach to EcoCAR 2

2012-09-10
2012-01-1761
A series plug-in hybrid electric powertrain with all-wheel drive is designed using real-world drive cycles as part of the EcoCAR 2 competition. A stock 2013 Chevrolet Malibu Eco is being re-engineered to reduce fuel consumption and emissions while improving consumer acceptability. Waterloo utilizes a 18.9 kWh A123 energy storage system (ESS), which powers two 105 kW TM4 traction motors. A 2.4 L LE9 General Motors coupled to a 105 kW TM4 motor provides range extending performance. Each step of the design process is discussed, including a novel approach to powertrain selection and controls requirement selection that uses real-world drive cycles. The mechanical integration and unique ESS design is also discussed.
Technical Paper

The Influence of the Through-Thickness Strain Gradients on the Fracture Characterization of Advanced High Strength Steels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0627
Abstract The development and calibration of stress-state dependent failure criteria for advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and aluminum alloys requires characterization under proportional loading conditions. Traditional tests to construct a forming limit diagram (FLD), such as Marciniak or Nakazima tests, are based upon identifying the onset of strain localization or a tensile instability (neck). However, the onset of localization is strongly dependent on the through-thickness strain gradient that can delay or suppress the formation of a tensile instability so that cracking may occur before localization. As a result, the material fracture limit becomes the effective forming limit in deformation modes with severe through-thickness strain gradients and this is not considered in the traditional FLD. In this study, a novel bending test apparatus was developed based upon the VDA 238-100 specification to characterize fracture in plane strain bending using digital image correlation (DIC).
Technical Paper

The Importance of Nanotechnology in Developing Better Energy Storage Materials for Automotive Transport

2008-04-14
2008-01-0689
Traditional electrode materials for lithium-ion storage cells are typically crystalline layered structures such as metal oxides, and graphitic carbons. These materials power billions of portable electronic devices in today's society. However, large-scale, high-capacity storage devices capable of powering hybrid electric vehicles (HEV″s) or their plug-in versions (PHEV's) have much more demanding requirements with respect to safety, cost, and the power they must deliver. Recently, nanostructured solid state materials, which are comprised of two more compositional or structural phases, have been found to show exciting possibilities to meet these criteria.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Thermal Degradation on the Performance of a NOX Storage/Reduction Catalyst

2009-04-20
2009-01-0631
The performance characteristics of a commercial lean-NOX trap catalyst were evaluated between 200 and 500°C, using H2, CO, and a mixture of both H2 and CO as reductants before and after different high-temperature aging steps, from 600 to 750°C. Tests included NOX reduction efficiency during cycling, NOX storage capacity (NSC), oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and water-gas-shift (WGS) and NO oxidation reaction extents. The WGS reaction extent at 200 and 300°C was negatively affected by thermal degradation, but at 400 and 500°C no significant change was observed. Changes in the extent of NO oxidation did not show a consistent trend as a function of thermal degradation. The total NSC was tested at 200, 350 and 500°C. Little change was observed at 500°C with thermal degradation but a steady decrease was observed at 350°C as the thermal degradation temperature was increased.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Nitrogen on the Mechanical Properties of an SAE 1045 Steel

1992-02-01
920667
A cold worked and induction hardened SAE1045 steel component exhibited excessive distortion after cold working and straightening, as well as cracking during straightening after induction hardening. Since the problems occurred only in certain heats of electric furnace (EF) steel, in which nitrogen content can vary widely and in some cases be quite high, and never occurred for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel for which nitrogen contents are uniformly low it was suspected that the source of the problem was low temperature nitrogen strain aging in heats of EF steel with a high nitrogen content. The measured distortion and mechanical properties at various stages in the fabrication process showed that while nitrogen content had no significant effect on the hot rolled steel the component distortion and strength after cold working and after induction hardening increased with increasing nitrogen content.
Technical Paper

The Application of Model-Based Design Techniques in Academic Design Projects

2006-04-03
2006-01-1312
The objective of this paper is to help students optimize project component selection or design by detailing, through two specific examples, the University of Waterloo's Alternative Fuels Team's (UWAFT's) successful design process. UWAFT successfully designed a fuel cell powered vehicle for the ChallengeX student engineering competition. The use of a formal, structured design process enabled this team to achieve great confidence in both the feasibility of their design and their ability to manifest the design. This design process is model-based whereby a parameterized software model is created. This paper hopefully assists students to overcome a common reluctance to implementing a model-based design process. After a component is constructed and tested, students can update their software model, which can help them assess the strength of their design.
Journal Article

Symbolic Formulation of Multibody Dynamic Equations for Wheeled Vehicle Systems on Three-Dimensional Roads

2010-04-12
2010-01-0719
A method to improve the computational efficiency of analyzing wheeled vehicle systems on three-dimensional (3-D) roads has been developed. This was accomplished by creating a technique to incorporate the tire on a 3-D road in a multibody dynamics model of the vehicle with an approach that formulates the governing equations using symbolic formulation. For general handling analysis performed on the vehicle, the tire forces and moments are determined using a tire model that represents the tire as a set of mathematical expressions. Since these expressions need numerical values to determine the forces and moments, a symbolic solution does not exist. Therefore, the evaluation of the tire forces and moments needs to be done during simulation. However, symbolic operations can be used when the governing equations are formulated to develop an efficient method to evaluate these forces.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Denting of Paint Baked AA6111 Panels: Comparison of Finite Element Predictions and Experiments

2001-10-16
2001-01-3047
This work presents comparisons of finite element model predictions of static and dynamic denting with experimental results. Panels were stamped from 0.81, 0.93 and 1.00mm AA6111-T4 and then paint-baked to produce representative automotive outer body panels. Each type of panel was statically and dynamically dented at three locations using a 25.4mm steel ball. Static denting was accomplished with incremental loading of 22.24N loads up to a maximum of 244.48N. Dynamic denting was accomplished by dropping the steel ball from heights ranging from 200mm to 1200mm. Multi-stage finite element analysis was performed using LS-DYNA1 and ABAQUS2 to predict the entire process of forming, spring-back, denting and final spring-back of the dented panels. The predicted results show good correlation with the experiments, but also highlight the sensitivity of the predictions to formulation of the finite element problem.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Electromagnetic Forming of Aluminum Alloy Sheet

2001-03-05
2001-01-0824
Electromagnetic forming of aluminum alloys provides improved forming limits, minimal springback and rapid implementation. The ability to predict the minimum energy required in electromagnetic forming is essential in developing an efficient process. Understanding the development of the strain distribution over time in the blank is also highly desired. A numerical model is needed that offers insight into these areas and the electromagnetic forming process in general that cannot easily be extracted from experiments. To address these concerns, ANSYS/EMAG is used to model the time varying currents that are discharged through the coil in order to obtain the transient magnetic forces acting on the blank. The body forces caused by electromagnetic induction are then used as the boundary condition to model the high velocity deformation of the blank with LS-DYNA, an explicit dynamic finite element code.
Technical Paper

Road Classification Based on System Response with Consideration of Tire Enveloping

2018-04-03
2018-01-0550
Abstract This paper presents a road classifier based on the system response with consideration of the tire enveloping. The aim is to provide an easily applicable yet accurate road classification approach for automotive engineers. For this purpose, tire enveloping effect is firstly modeled based on the flexible roller contact (FRC) theory, then transfer functions between road input and commonly used suspension responses i.e. the sprung mass acceleration, unsprung mass acceleration, and rattle space, are calculated for a quarter vehicle model. The influence of parameter variations, vehicle velocity, and measurement noise on transfer functions are comprehensively analyzed to derive the most suitable system response thereafter. In addition, this paper proposes a vehicle speed correction mechanism to further improve the classification accuracy under complex driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Report of NADDRG Friction Committee on Reproducibility of Friction Tests within and Between Laboratories

1993-03-01
930811
The present paper offers a status report on round-robin tests conducted with the participation of ten laboratories, with drawbead simulation (DBS) as the test method. The results showed that, in most laboratories, the coefficient of friction (COF) derived from the test is repeatable within an acceptable range of ±0.01. Repeatability between laboratories was less satisfactory. Five laboratories reported results within the desirable band, while some laboratories found consistently higher values. In one instance this could be traced to incomplete transfer of clamp forces to the load cell, in other instances inaccurate test geometry is suspected. Therefore, numerical values of COF from different laboratories are not necessarily comparable. Irrespective of these inter-laboratory variations, the relative ranking of lubricants was not affected, and data generated within one laboratory can be used for relative evaluations and for a resolution of production problems.
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