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Technical Paper

Weldability Improvement Using Coated Electrodes for RSW of HDG Steel

2006-04-03
2006-01-0092
The increased use of zinc coatings on steels has led to a decrease in their weldability. Weld current and time need to be increased in order to achieve sound welds on these materials compared to uncoated steels, and electrode tip life suffers greatly due to rapid alloying and degradation. In this work, typical uncoated Class II electrodes were tested along with a TiC metal matrix composite (MMC) coated electrode. Tests were conducted to study the weldability and process of nugget formation for both electrodes on HDG (hot dipped galvanized) HSLA (high strength low alloys) steels. Current and time ranges were constructed for both types of electrodes by varying either the weld current or weld time while holding all other parameters constant. Analysis of weld microstructures was conducted on cross-sectioned welds using SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Using the coated electrodes reduced weld current and times needed to form MWS (minimum weld size) on the coated steels.
Technical Paper

Weld Failure in Formability Testing of Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks

2001-03-05
2001-01-0090
The present work investigates weld failure modes during formability tests of multi-gauge aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks (TWBs). The limiting dome height test is used to evaluate formability of TWBs. Three gauge combinations utilizing aluminum alloy 5754 sheets are considered (2 to 1 mm, 1.6 to 1 mm and 2 to 1.6 mm). Three weld orientations have been considered: transverse, longitudinal and 45°. Interaction of several factors determines the type of failure that occurs in a TWB specimen. These factors are weld orientation, morphology and distribution of weld defects, and the magnitude of constraint imposed by the thicker sheet to the thin sheet. The last factor depends on the difference in thickness of the sheet pair and is usually expressed in terms of gauge ratio. In general TWBs show two different types of fracture: weld failure and failure of the thin aluminum sheet. Only the former will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Tribological Factors Affecting the LDH Test

1992-02-01
920434
The present work is aimed at investigating the tribological factors influencing the LDH test. The material used was AKDQ cold-rolled bare steel, 0.82mm thick. The investigated factors included: test speed (0.833, 4.167, 6.667, and 8.333 mm/s), lubricant viscosity (4.5, 7.0, and 12.5 mm2/s), punch roughness (0.033 and 0.144 μm Ra), and test temperature (25 and 50 °C). Test speed and lubricant viscosity form a variation of the numerator of the Stribeck curve's x-axis (ηV). With ηV increasing from 4 to 120 mm3/s2 friction decreased, resulting in a 0.5 mm higher LDH. Increasing the punch roughness decreased friction producing an increase of 0.25 mm in the LDH. There appears to be an optimum roughness -- at which the roughness features act as lubricant reservoirs but the asperities do not break through the lubricant film -- resulting in minimum friction, therefore, maximum LDH.
Technical Paper

Transient Tribological Phenomena in Drawbead Simulation

1992-02-01
920634
Details of the development of metal transfer and friction were studied by drawing cold-rolled bare, galvannealed, electrogalvanized, and hot-dip galvanized strips with a mineral-oil lubricant of 30 cSt viscosity at 40 C, over a total distance of 2500 mm by three methods. An initial high friction peak was associated with metal transfer to the beads and was largest with pure zinc and smallest with Fe-Zn coatings. Insertion of a new strip disturbed the coating and led to the development of secondary peaks. Long-term trends were governed by the stability of the coating. Stearic acid added to mineral oil delayed stabilization of the coating and increased contact area and thus friction with pure zinc surfaces. The usual practice of reporting average friction values can hide valuable information on lubrication mechanisms and metal transfer.
Journal Article

The Influence of the Through-Thickness Strain Gradients on the Fracture Characterization of Advanced High-Strength Steels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0627
The development and calibration of stress state-dependent failure criteria for advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) and aluminum alloys requires characterization under proportional loading conditions. Traditional tests to construct a forming limit diagram (FLD), such as Marciniak or Nakazima tests, are based upon identifying the onset of strain localization or a tensile instability (neck). However, the onset of localization is strongly dependent on the through-thickness strain gradient that can delay or suppress the formation of a tensile instability so that cracking may occur before localization. As a result, the material fracture limit becomes the effective forming limit in deformation modes with severe through-thickness strain gradients, and this is not considered in the traditional FLD. In this study, a novel bending test apparatus was developed based upon the VDA 238-100 specification to characterize fracture in plane strain bending using digital image correlation (DIC).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Thermal Degradation on the Performance of a NOX Storage/Reduction Catalyst

2009-04-20
2009-01-0631
The performance characteristics of a commercial lean-NOX trap catalyst were evaluated between 200 and 500°C, using H2, CO, and a mixture of both H2 and CO as reductants before and after different high-temperature aging steps, from 600 to 750°C. Tests included NOX reduction efficiency during cycling, NOX storage capacity (NSC), oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and water-gas-shift (WGS) and NO oxidation reaction extents. The WGS reaction extent at 200 and 300°C was negatively affected by thermal degradation, but at 400 and 500°C no significant change was observed. Changes in the extent of NO oxidation did not show a consistent trend as a function of thermal degradation. The total NSC was tested at 200, 350 and 500°C. Little change was observed at 500°C with thermal degradation but a steady decrease was observed at 350°C as the thermal degradation temperature was increased.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Nitrogen on the Mechanical Properties of an SAE 1045 Steel

1992-02-01
920667
A cold worked and induction hardened SAE1045 steel component exhibited excessive distortion after cold working and straightening, as well as cracking during straightening after induction hardening. Since the problems occurred only in certain heats of electric furnace (EF) steel, in which nitrogen content can vary widely and in some cases be quite high, and never occurred for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel for which nitrogen contents are uniformly low it was suspected that the source of the problem was low temperature nitrogen strain aging in heats of EF steel with a high nitrogen content. The measured distortion and mechanical properties at various stages in the fabrication process showed that while nitrogen content had no significant effect on the hot rolled steel the component distortion and strength after cold working and after induction hardening increased with increasing nitrogen content.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Denting of Paint Baked AA6111 Panels: Comparison of Finite Element Predictions and Experiments

2001-10-16
2001-01-3047
This work presents comparisons of finite element model predictions of static and dynamic denting with experimental results. Panels were stamped from 0.81, 0.93 and 1.00mm AA6111-T4 and then paint-baked to produce representative automotive outer body panels. Each type of panel was statically and dynamically dented at three locations using a 25.4mm steel ball. Static denting was accomplished with incremental loading of 22.24N loads up to a maximum of 244.48N. Dynamic denting was accomplished by dropping the steel ball from heights ranging from 200mm to 1200mm. Multi-stage finite element analysis was performed using LS-DYNA1 and ABAQUS2 to predict the entire process of forming, spring-back, denting and final spring-back of the dented panels. The predicted results show good correlation with the experiments, but also highlight the sensitivity of the predictions to formulation of the finite element problem.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Electromagnetic Forming of Aluminum Alloy Sheet

2001-03-05
2001-01-0824
Electromagnetic forming of aluminum alloys provides improved forming limits, minimal springback and rapid implementation. The ability to predict the minimum energy required in electromagnetic forming is essential in developing an efficient process. Understanding the development of the strain distribution over time in the blank is also highly desired. A numerical model is needed that offers insight into these areas and the electromagnetic forming process in general that cannot easily be extracted from experiments. To address these concerns, ANSYS/EMAG is used to model the time varying currents that are discharged through the coil in order to obtain the transient magnetic forces acting on the blank. The body forces caused by electromagnetic induction are then used as the boundary condition to model the high velocity deformation of the blank with LS-DYNA, an explicit dynamic finite element code.
Journal Article

Predicting Failure during Sheared Edge Stretching Using a Damage-Based Model for the Shear-Affected Zone

2013-04-08
2013-01-1166
Hole expansion of a dual phase steel, DP600, was numerically investigated using a damage-based constitutive law to predict failure. The parameters governing void nucleation and coalescence were identified from an extensive review of the x-ray micro-tomography data available in the literature to ensure physically-sound predictions of damage evolution. A recently proposed technique to experimentally quantify work-hardening and damage in the shear-affected zone is incorporated into the damage model to enable fracture predictions of holes with sheared edges. Finite-element simulations of a hole expansion test with a conical punch were performed for both a punched and milled hole edge condition and the predicted hole expansion ratios are in very good agreement with the experiment values reported by several researchers.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of 5xxx Aluminum Alloy Stretch Flange Forming

2004-03-08
2004-01-1051
Stretch flange features are commonly found in the corner regions of commercial parts, such as window cutouts, where large strains can induce localization and necking. In this study, laboratory-scale stretch flange forming experiments on AA5182 and AA5754 were conducted to address the formability of these aluminum alloys under undergoing this specific deformation process. Two distinct cracking modes were found in the stretch flange samples. One is radial cracking at the inner edge of flange (cutout edge) while the other is circumferential cracking away from the inner edge at the punch profile radius. Numerical simulation of the stretch flange forming operations was conducted with an explicit finite element code-LS-DYNA. A coalescence-suppressed Gurson-based material model is used in the finite element model. Void coalescence and final failure in stretch flange is simulated through measured second-phase particle fields with a so-called damage percolation model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of the Autoignition Delay in a Diesel-Like Environment by the Conditional Moment Closure Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0200
The autoignition delay of a turbulent methane jet in a Diesel-like environment is calculated by the conditional moment closure(CMC) model. Methane is injected into hot air in a constant volume chamber under various temperatures and pressures. Detailed chemical reaction mechanisms are implemented with turbulence-chemistry interaction treated by the first order CMC. The CMC model solves the conditional mean species mass fraction and temperature equations with the source term given in terms of the conditional mean quantities. The flow and mixing field are calculated by the transient SIMPLE algorithm with the k -ε model and the assumed beta function pdf. The CMC equations are solved by the fractional step method which sequentially treats the transport and chemical reaction terms in each time step. The predictions in quiescent homogeneous mixture are presented to evaluate the effects of turbulence in jet ignition.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Rear Subframe Under Different Loading Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0571
In this paper, finite element methods are used to analyze the rear subframe for Chevrolet Malibu. Plasticity based material model along with dynamic and static analysis is used. Commercial software LS-DYNA is used to model the subframe. Half model for the subframe is used with the corresponding boundary conditions for our simulations. A material model based on power law is used to account for the material behavior in all simulations. Different loading conditions are used to analyze the subframe under normal driving conditions while the crash results are used to analyze the subframe under vehicle crash. This data is used to compare the performance and safety of the original stock car. A parametric study is also conducted to analyze the effect of material response by changing the material hardening properties. Results show that 1018 mild steel is the most suitable material under crash and normal loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

2019-04-02
2019-01-0530
Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Multi-Scale FE/Damage Percolation Modeling of Ductile Damage Evolution in Aluminum Sheet Forming

2004-03-08
2004-01-0742
A so-called damage percolation model is coupled with Gurson-based finite element (FE) approach in order to accommodate the high strain gradients and localized ductile damage. In doing so, void coalescence and final failure are suppressed in Gurson-based FE modeling while a measured second phase particle field is mapped onto the most damaged mesh area so that percolation modeling can be performed to capture ductile fracture in real sheet forming operations. It is revealed that void nucleation within particle clusters dominates ductile fracture in aluminum alloy sheet forming. Coalescence among several particle clusters triggered final failure of materials. A stretch flange forming is simulated with the coupled modeling.
Technical Paper

Monitoring the Effect of RSW Pulsing on AHSS using FEA (SORPAS) Software

2007-04-16
2007-01-1370
In this study, a finite element software application (SORPAS®) is used to simulate the effect of pulsing on the expected weld thermal cycle during resistance spot welding (RSW). The predicted local cooling rates are used in combination with experimental observation to study the effect pulsing has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Zn-coated DP600 AHSS (1.2mm thick) spot welds. Experimental observation of the weld microstructure was obtained by metallographic procedures and mechanical properties were determined by tensile shear testing. Microstructural changes in the weld metal and heat affect zone (HAZ) were characterized with respect to process parameters.
Journal Article

Impact Testing of a Hot-Formed B-Pillar with Tailored Properties - Experiments and Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-0608
This paper presents the numerical validation of the impact response of a hot formed B-pillar component with tailored properties. A laboratory-scale B-pillar tool is considered with integral heating and cooling sections in an effort to locally control the cooling rate of an austenitized blank, thereby producing a part with tailored microstructures to potentially improve the impact response of these components. An instrumented falling-weight drop tower was used to impact the lab-scale B-pillars in a modified 3-point bend configuration to assess the difference between a component in the fully hardened (martensitic) state and a component with a tailored region (consisting of bainite and ferrite). Numerical models were developed using LS-DYNA to simulate the forming and thermal history of the part to estimate the final thickness and strain distributions as well as the predicted microstructures.
Technical Paper

Humidity Sensing Based on Ordered Porous Silicon for the Application on Fuel Cell

2008-04-14
2008-01-0687
Porous silicon as gas/chemical sensing material has been widely investigated in recent years. In this paper, the humidity sensing property of n-type porous silicon with ordered structure is studied for the first time. The ordered porous silicon used in this experiment has uniform pore size, pore shape and distribution. Both the membrane and closed bottom samples were studied. The resistance change of the porous silicon was measured. A 22-28% decrease of resistance was observed when relative humidity was changed from 1% to 100%. Both the response time and the recovery time were within 10 minutes, and 90% of the response can be reached in 6 minutes for the PS membrane sample. The possible sensing mechanism and future work are also discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Testing of Sheet Metals Subject to Uniaxial Tension-Compression

2001-03-05
2001-01-1321
The paper describes the fabrication and testing of thin sheet metal uniaxial fatigue specimens that have been laminated to prevent buckling. When hot or cold rolled metal thicknesses are below 5 mm, the usual fatigue specimens, having a uniform gauge length of 7.5 mm or more, buckle in the short life region (∼10000 cycles) of strain-life testing. For thinner materials, non-standard specimen designs or anti-buckling guides have been used, but each of these solutions requires additional instrumentation. The results presented in this paper show that laminating multiple sheets of material together to increase the specimen's effective thickness raises the strain level for the onset of buckling of the standard uniaxial specimen. Constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests extending into the high-strain short-life region were performed. Fatigue life data for multiple layer specimens were in good agreement with those obtained for single layer specimens.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of an Automotive Chassis System with Combined Hardening Material Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0378
The choice of an appropriate material model with parameters derived from testing and proper modeling of stress-strain response during cyclic loading are the critical steps for accurate fatigue-life prediction of complex automotive subsystems. Most materials used in an automotive substructure, like a chassis system, exhibit combined hardening behavior and it is essential to capture this behavior in the CAE model in order to accurately predict the fatigue life. This study illustrates, with examples, the strain-controlled testing of material coupons, and the calculations of material parameters from test data for the combined hardening material model used in the Abaqus solver. Stress-strain response curves and fatigue results from other simpler material models like the isotropic hardening model and the linear material model with Neuber correction are also discussed in light of the respective fatigue theories.
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